Source: The Stamp Atlas by Stuart Rossiter & John Flower, 1986, Macdonald & Co
Bavaria was established in 1804. Its stamps ceased to be valid on 30 June 1920.
The card issued by the 1896 Bavarian State Exhibition may be an official card.
The Kingdom of Bohemia was a medieval and early modern monarchy in Central Europe, the predecessor of the modern Czech Republic. Bohemia came under the control of Charlemagne (Charles the Great) towards the end of the 8th century. Otto the Great (912 to 973) firmly integrated the Duchy of Bohemia into the Holy Roman Empire which was created on 2 February 962 when Otto became its first Holy Roman Emperor. In the 12th century Bohemia became the Kingdom of Bohemia carved out from the previous Duchy of Bohemia. In 1526 the Austrian Habsburgs obtained control of the Kingdom of Bohemia and it became part of the Austrian Duchy which was the Austrian Empire from 1804. When the Holy Roman Empire was dissolved on 6 August 1806, Bohemia remained part of what was now the Empire of Austria. With Napoleon Bonaparte’s final defeat, the German Confederation was established in 1815 by the Congress of Vienna, Bohemia remaining part of the Empire of Austria, now part of the Prussian-led German Confederation. With Austria’s defeat by Prussia in the Seven Weeks War of 1866, the Confederation was abolished. The Austrian Empire retained Bohemia until the Treaty of Neuilly in 1919 when an independent Czechoslovakia was created. In March 1939 Germany once again annexed Bohemia and Moravia as a Protectorate which lasted until May 1945.
This card was written on 3 August 1877 when Bohemia was part of the Austrian Empire.
First founded in 1795 as Murray, Draper, Fairham & Company, the American Bank Note Company developed into the United States’ foremost high security engraving and printing firm in the years prior to the Civil War. It produced paper money, postage stamps, stock and bond certificates. After the Civil War, it produced paper money and stamps for foreign governments, including Canada and Haiti. In 1879, it merged with the National Bank Note and Continental Bank Note companies.
Between 1535 and 1541 the Spanish gained a foothold in northern Chile and founded Santiago. Bernard O’Higgins led Chile to independence in 1818. A regular postal service between Buenos Aires and Santiago was established in 1748 – taking 15 days.
This card from Netherlands arrived in the German post office in Istanbul which existed between 1870 and 1914.
New South Wales
New South Wales was the first state of Australia settled by Europeans. A postal service operated between between Sydney and Parramatta from 1803 at a cost of 2d per letter. The first stamps were issued on 1 January 1850. NSW became a member of the Universal Postal Union in 1891. In 1901 it was federated into the Commonwealth of Australia but continued to use its own stamps until 1913.
Modern Romania was formed in 1859 through a personal union of the Danubian Principalities of Moldavia and Wallachia. The new state, officially named Romania since 1866, gained independence from the Ottoman Empire in 1877. Following the outbreak of World War I, after declaring its neutrality in 1914, Romania fought on the side of the Allied Powers beginning in 1916.
This card: This seems to be an order in 1887 by a firm called Christovich freres of Brăila, Romania, to E. A. Naether in Zeitz, a city in what is now Saxony-Anhalt in Germany. The order is for children’s high chairs, the first being 1 St. hohen Kinderstuhl .
Ernst Albert Naether (1825 to 1894) was a German entrepreneur considered the founder of the German pram industry. About 1850 Naether started to produce wooden miniature children’s trolleys in Zeitz In 1852 he exhibited his children’s pram at the Leipzig Trade Fair. In 1876 his sons Ablin and Richard took over the management of the company. In 1910 the company was transformed into an stock corporation. In 1946 like most companies in East Germany, the company was expropriated and transferred to the VEB Zekiwa.
On 10 September 1892 the Romanian Official Monitor journal published a court order against Christovich who had left no forwarding address, requiring him to carry out specified repairs at his his former tenancy. This must be urgent by now.