Kaiser & Company
- W. KAISER, BERN
In 1881, merchant Wilhelm Kaiser, who had returned from Lima, bought the Antenen school bookshop on Christoffelgasse which had been founded in 1864. His two sons then moved the business to 31 Spitalgasse for a short time where, in addition to teaching materials, they sold stationery items. Kaiser was one of the publishers of the official festival album of the fair celebrating the 700 years of the city of Bern held between 14 and 17 August 1891.
In 1903/04 they had a grand new building erected for their business at 39–41 Marktgasse / 24 Amthausgasse, the work of local architect Eduard Joos (1869 to 1917) in his Bernese New Baroque style. Rejecting the term department store, the United Special Shops Kaiser & Company had furniture imported from England for the luxurious presentation of the range of goods, which included metal, leather, toys and household items in addition to stationery items. In the sales catalogue for 1908 it was noted that Kaiser’s sales rooms were the first in Switzerland to be built entirely according to the American model, spacious system, cupboards and frames made entirely of crystal glass, with only a narrow mahogany frame. Kaiser expanded his range of goods more and more; there were perfumery, toilet and travel items, office equipment and handicrafts. There were many other features of a department store culminating in 1927 in a gramophone concert in the220 seat lecture hall of their music department.
The store’s central checkout system was the first on the continent to operate on the principle of pneumatic tubes for internal communication. There were also rooms available to employees where they could spend their free time, and they were also offered a snack of bread and milk in the mornings and afternoons.
Kaiser’s Christmas 1900 stationery catalogue was published jointly with that of Kaiser & Co., Lausanne, presumably a branch. Their postcards were artist-drawn pictures of Switzerland and women in traditional costume. Karl Mossdorf was one of their artists.
Jacobo Kalb, Mexico City
- J.K.[number] México
Jacobo Kalb a Jew of Austrian origin, arrived in Mexico at the beginning of the 20th century. He traded the Iturbide Curio Store (qv) which was located in the basement of Hotel Iturbide, 12 San Francisco, Mexico City owned by his family1. As well as selling other tourist wares, Kalb published several series of postcards under the signatures Iturbide Curio Store, JCS and J.K. The JK series is about three hundred images, at least 177 of which were published with undivided backs under the Universal Postal Union. The earliest card that Arturo Guevara Escobar has found dates from 10 May 19062. Kalb was one of eleven brothers3 and his brother Henry and his nephew Jacob Granat also published postcards in Mexico City, the latter arriving there in the same year as Kalb4.
Heiwadô Kamigataya, Kanda, Tokyo
- PRINTED BY KAMIGATAYA KANDA, TOKYO
Heiwadô Kamigataya, printer and publisher, Kanda, Tokyo. In 1910 Kamigataya published a Commemoration of the Tenth Anniversary of the Prefectural Industrial Exhibition5. He published stylish collotypes into the early Showa era that began on 25 December 1926.
- Rob Kämmerer. Signature in the bottom corner of picture with R and K sharing the same extended upright.
Robert Kämmerer (1870 to 1950), German artist, a self-taught painter. In 1897, Kämmerer moved his family from Wahlershausen, a village near Kassel, to Berlin in the hope of better earnings. Here he copied pictures of famous French impressionists for wealthy clients. Soon the family was able to move into a larger apartment with a studio in the artists’ village Zehlendorf6. Kämmerer’s works were included in the Great Berlin Art Exhibition 1916, 1919 and 1920. His paintings of Norway and the German coast served as undivided view-cards. Kammerer’s son Robert Kämmerer-Rohrig inherited his father’s artistic talents.
- HERMANN KAULBACH-SERIE, 12 Nrn. Gustav Weise, Stuttgart.
Hermann von Kaulbach (26 July 1846 to 9 December 1909) was German painter famed for his academic genre and history paintings. He painted historic figures with a high level of realistic detail, including Mozart and Bach, but also dabbled in subjects from German folklore, such as in Hansel and Gretel with the Witch (1872). Kaulbach studied under Karl Theodor von Piloty at the Munich Academy. Though his paintings were generally well-received during his lifetime, he was sometimes criticized for his painstaking use of detail—a practice he continued to employ, undaunted by shifting tastes. Today, Kaulbach’s works can be found in the collections of the Museum at Wiesbaden, the Neue Pinakothek in Munich, and the Municipal Gallery in Riga, among others. His work was extensively published as postcards by Gustav Weise and others into the divided back era.
Ernst August Kaulfuss,
- A. Kaulfuss, Penang
Ernst August Kaulfuss (1861 to 1908) Penang’s pre-eminent photographer and postcard publisher in the early twentieth century. German-born Kaulfuss worked from the age of 15 in the Frankfurt-am-Main studio of Otto von Bosch, southern Germany’s leading photographer until he joined the Germany navy and arrived in Penang in 1883. His photographic art studio at Farquhar Street kept German business hours. In 1899 Kaulfuss published the first postcards in Penang and established the postcard industry which prospered in the seaport milieu. Kaulfuss’s cards were his own photographs which he had printed in Germany7.
Richard Keene Ltd., Derby, England.
- RD. KEENE LTD., DERBY.
Richard Keene (15 May 1825 to December 1894) was an early Derbyshire photographer. He was a founding member of The Derby Photographic Society in 1884 and the Photographic Convention of the United Kingdom in 1886 as well as being an early member of The Linked Ring a photographic society created to propose and defend that photography was just as much an art as it was a science. In 1857 his Photogaphic Gallery was in Irongate. At that time he was publishing the Derby Telegraph every Saturday. His family was to include Alfred John Keene who was a local painter who now has works in Derby Art Gallery8. In February 1900 the British Journal of Photography recorded:
The Derby Photographic Society sends us a calendar for 1900 — the first production of the kind we remember to have received from a photographic society. It consists of a brown- toned card, with a list of the Society’s officers and summer and winter meetings. Monthly date leaflets are attached, and the principal embellishment consists of a capital sepia platinum view of Tickhill Castle gateway by Mr. H. Burkinsbaw. The card, which bears the honoured name of Richard Keene, Ltd, as the producer, is a most tasteful production, and we congratulate our Derby friends upon it. We note that Sir W, de W. Abney is Patron of the Society, and Mr. C. B. Keene, President.
J. J. Keliher & Company, London
- TYPOGRAVURE J. J. KELIHER & Co
J. J. Keliher & Company, printers, of King William Street and Victoria Street, London with works at Marshalsea Road, London SE. The business was established in 1886 by J. J. Keliher. In January 1903 they advertised as Contractors to HM Stationery Office, War Office and Admiralty. They specialised in high grade printing for catalogues, price lists and every form of advertising matter requiring fine art reproduction and printing with attractive display and modern design9. By 1914 J. J. Keliher had been Chairman of the London Master Printers, Member of the Board of Trade Advisory Committee for the Labour Exchange, and Member of the London County Council Advisory Committee for Book Production10. They seem to have merged in 1919 with Hudson and Kearns to make Keliher, Hudson and Kearns. My photocard of Trafalgar Square credits the London Stereoscopic Co (qv) for the photograph.
- Kerry (Copyright) Sydney
Charles Henry Kerry (1857 to 1928), photographer, born in Bombala, New South Wales. In 1874 he joined A. Lemartinière’s photographic studio, becoming a partner around 1883. Soon after, Lemartinière absconded with the capital, leaving Kerry to carry on the business alone. In the mid-1880s Kerry set up a new partnership with C.D Jones, until around 1890, when Jones departed, and Kerry set up his own studio as Kerry and Co. The studio became one of the largest in Sydney, operating from 1890 until 1917. In 1898 he opened one of largest commercial studio buildings at 310 George Street, Sydney. Kerry pioneered snow sports at Kiandra and led a party to the summit of Mt Kosciusko in the winter of 1896. He retired from the company in 1913 to follow his business and mining interests. Kerry and Co was one of the largest producers of postcards from 1903 until the studio closed. These were mainly views of Sydney and country NSW towns. Sydney University Museums have over 3,000 glass plate negatives from Kerry’s photographic studio. The negatives are mainly part of a library of postcard images, portraits of soldiers, and personal photographs attributed to Kerry11.
Kirk and Sons,
Cowes, Isle of Wight, Hampshire, England.
- Kirk and Sons, Photographers, Cowes, I.W.
Kirk and Sons, Photographers, Bath Road, Cowes. William Umpleby Kirk (1843 to 1928) was a pioneer photographer of the late Victorian period. He was born in Hull and grew up in nearby Market Weighton where, in the early 1870s, he set up his first photographic studio. Examples of his work from that period have survived and are collected. In 1881 Kirk moved his family and his business to Cowes which at that time was the international centre of yachting, the sport of royalty, the rich and the privileged. At Cowes yachts were raced, bought, sold and shown off. The rich and the titled came to Cowes to meet each other, to play and to be seen. Kirk photographed the boats and their owners afloat and ashore. He specialised in marine photographs, in portraiture. He photographed groups at house parties, tutor groups and sports teams of Naval Cadets at Osborne Naval College. His photographs of the sumptuous interiors of large yachts remain to record that era. Kirk’s reputation grew when he photographed Queen Victoria’s yacht HMY Alberta entering Cowes Harbour at a speed of 10 knots. This early photographs of a vessel in motion earned him the Royal Warrant his business still held in 1946. An extensive, but as yet uncatalogued collection of Kirk’s original 8″ x 10″ glass plates is held by the Gallery of the Classic Boat Museum, East Cowes12. By 1935 his son Edgar had succeeded to the business. He published photographs of Osborne House as postcards in the undivided-and divided-back eras. His portraits of Royals were published as cards by Rotary Photographic Co Ltd and J. Beagles & Company.
Kirsinger & Company, Chile
- C. Kirsinger & Cia., Valparaiso – Santiago – Concepción
In 1859 German citizens Carlos Kirsinger and Reinaldo Weinreich started business at 85 Calle del Cabo13 Valpariso. Roberto Schmid was in charge of the Valparaiso HQ, while Osher Zäfferen was in charge of the branches at 21 Huérfanos Street and 393 Ahumada Street, Santiago. By 1889, Kirsinger established a branch in Concepción and a representative office in Paris. Kirsinger published his first postcard in 1901 and he and his rival Carlos Brandt (qv), who was also German, became the largest producers of postcards in Chile, making Valparaíso the postcard capital14. Kirsinger also published music and imported literature, printed music, musical instruments, books and desk items. After 1914 Kirsinger moved Berlin and publication continued under Weinreich.
Kiser Brothers, Portland, Ohio
- Kiser Bros Copyright 1903 E C KROPP, PUBL. MILWAUKEE
Fred H. Kiser, who had originally studied business law, was an avid hiker and photographer. He set up a studio with his brother Oscar in 1902 that was formalized into Kiser Bros., Scenic Photographers in 1904, producing photos, stereo-cards, and hand coloured lantern slides. They also published souvenir books of Crater Lake and the Lewis and Clark Exposition after Fred became their official photographer. With his career rising Fred broke the partnership with his brother in 1905 and established the Kiser Photo Company15.
- C Klein
Catharina Klein (1861 to 1929) German Catharina Klein is also known as Catherine Klein. Her signature “C. Klein” usually accompanies her work, especially in those postcards and prints closest to the original paintings which were in oil or gouache. If the signature is underlined, it’s an indication of an earlier work. She rode the crest of chromolithography at the end of the 19th and into the 20th Century16. Klein had a long relationship with Meissner & Buch of Leipzig (qv) for whom she produced many sets of floral cards.
Kleiner Verlag, Berlin
- K.V.i B.
Kleiner Verlag17 Berlin SW6818, German postcard publisher published a very stylish series of caricatures in their Dandy series of undivided backs as well as sentimental and glamorous photocards posed by models, some of which were clearly made for the British market. They published a series of cards featuring German Generals during WWI19.
In the 1921 Berlin address book, the business is listed opposite the name Arthur Schässer and they were listed at 3/4 Wallstrasse, Berlin C2 in the 1940 telephone directory for Berlin. In the 1941 directory, they are in the business of Promotional items of all kinds. In each case, they are at the same address with the same phone numbers as Hugo Göhring.
Max Kleinsorg, Copenhagen
- Dansk Billedforlag, Eneret*
Max Peter Johan Kleinsorg (10 February 1866 to 24 August 1914) Danish Picture Publisher, 32B Forhaabningsholms Alle, Copenhagen.
Kleinsorg studied commerce and became an accountant with his uncle – however, it was art that drew, and he went to the Academy of Fine Arts in Copenhagen from 1888 to 1892. He trained in etching and made his own press, where he could print both his own and others’ works. He also made watercolours, drawings and paintings; but all his life he regarded himself first and foremost as a copper printer. His workshop became so popular that many of the etchings of the time were printed in his workshop. Even today, his workshop exists. After the year 1900 he became a teacher at the Technical School in Copenhagen.
In 1890 Kleinsorg was the aproved agent for reproductions of artworks forming part of an exhibition in the City Hall. He advertised lithography and copper plate printing.
By way of postcard, he published numbered Copenhagen topographicals and fine watercolour cards made in connection with the Artist and Student Carnival on 10 March 1904,
By 1907 he was at number 47 of the newly-built Forchhammersvej.
Frankfurt on Main, Germany.
- L20. Klement, Frankfurt a. M.
- L. Klement, Frankfurt a. M. Kupferdruck-Imitation. three leaf clover logo with the letters L, K and F in the leaves
Ludwig Klement, art publisher, Frankfurt published local topographical photocards, notably Jewish locations and the 1909 International Aircraft Exposition in Frankfurt, the world’s first major aero-exhibition. His coloured topographicals included a numbered Hexachrom series.
Paul Klemann, Hannover, Germany
- Paul Klemann, Kunstverlag, Hannover
Paul Klemann produced a numbered series of composers – vertical cloud monochrome lithographs. These were sold in postcard and larger sizes.
- Kley Karlsruhe
Heinrich Kley (15 April 1863 to 8 February 1945) a German illustrator, editorial illustrator and painter. Karlsruhe-born Kley studied at the Art School there and finished his studies in Munich. His early works were conventional portraits, landscapes, still-lifes, city scenes and historical paintings. From about 1892 he won a reputation as an industrial artist, painting manufacturing scenes in oils and watercolours. They proved his deep understanding of the world of modern machinery. Kley was better known for his sometimes darkly-humorous pen drawings, published in Jugend and Simplicissimus, the notorious satirical magazine that was temporarily suppressed in 1898 as a result of Kaiser Wilhelm’s objections to being ridiculed on the cover. A few weeks before the Nazis seized power, the Simplicissimus published a caricature of Kley’s which was unmistakably directed against the National Socialists. In order to avoid reprisals and not have to submit to the demands of the increasingly controlled press, Kley suddenly stopped working on all magazines21. Walt Disney built an extensive personal collection of Kley’s work and a number of early Disney productions, notably Fantasia, show Kley’s influence. Because of this and reprints there, Kley is still known in the USA, while he is nowadays little-regarded in Germany22. My card of a painting of Hamburg was published by Velten of Karlsruhe (qv) and printed by Nister of Nurnberg (qv).
Philip Klier, Yangon, Myanmar
- P. Klier, Rangoon. 3.
Philip Adolphe Klier (circa 1845 to 1911), a German-born photographer who worked in Burma in the late 19th and early 20th century23. Klier began working as a professional photographer in 1871 in Moulmein (now known as Mawlamyine), the first capital of British Burma and an area where traders from Germany congregated. While he built up his reputation, he supplemented his earnings with work as an optician, watchmaker and jeweller. In 1870, the business was listed in Moulmein as opticians, watchmakers, and photographers. In 1878 Klier married Emily Macrae, daughter of Robert Campbell Macrae. Around 1880 Klier moved to Rangoon (Yangon), by then the centre of British administrative and commercial life in Burma. For much of his career, he worked on his own, although between 1885 and 1890 he did have a five year partnership with J Jackson, an established British photographer based in Rangoon. Klier built a modest house and studio at 5 Signal Pagoda Road (today Alanpya Signal Pagoda Road)24. Klier took a wide range of pictures, from stylised studio portraits, to candid rural scenes, travelling widely round British Burma in the process.
- Eugen Klimsch
Eugen Johann Georg Klimsch (29 November 1839 to 9 July 1896) was a German painter and illustrator. He came from the Klimsch family of Frankfurt artists and entrepreneurs25 and his son Fritz reached prominence as a sculptor. Between 1858 and 1995, Klimsch & Co was a company in the image-processing and print-preparation industry – a mechanical engineering company. Eugen’s father Karl and he were retailers of printing machines and the supplies of the trade both on their own account in Frankfurt-am-Main and in partnership with Edgar Hunter of London. When Karl retired in 1899, Eugen continued with Hunter and two partners in Frankfurt26.
Verlag von Klotz, Berlin
- Verlag von Klotz, Berlin SW. 13
Published a numbered series of tinted photo-cards of Berlin.
Knackstedt & Näther
- Chromo-Lichtdruck von Knackstedt & Näther Hamburg
- Verlag & Lichtdruck v. Knackstedt & Näther, Hamburg.
- Verlag & Lichtdruck v. Knackstedt & Näther, Hamburg monogram KN
Knackstedt & Näther, photographers and printers, 106 Eppendorferlandstrasse, Hamburg. Founded 30 September 1889 by Wilhelm Georg Ludwig (Louis) Knackstedt (1865 to 10 June 1916) and Hermann Gustav Näther (1866 to after 1925)27. Naether left the business around 1893 leaving Knackstedt as the sole owner and he added collotype printing. Around 1904 Arthur Schwarz, head of Neue Photographische Gesellschaft (qv), the leading bromide photo manufacturer and Knackstedt formed The Rotograph Co., New York (qv). Schwarz was president, Knackstedt vice-president. Another joint-venture between NPG and K+N was the Austrian postcard company Photobrom. In 1906 some 60% of K+N’s production was exported (mostly to U.S.A.). Their 290 workers printed 100 million cards per year. In March 1909 K+N was converted into a limited company with business capital of 800,000 Marks. On 2 May 1910 K+N declared insolvency with debts equal to the business capital28. K&N printed cards for Carl van den Boogaart of Wiesbaden (qv). and Karl F Wunder of Hanover.
Louis Koch, Bremen, Germany
- Louis Koch, Photogr., Bremen
Louis Koch (1843 to 18 December 1900) photographer, 20 Auf der Brake, Bremen, was a photographer in Bremen whose importance is based on his extensive documentation of the Bremen area. Koch came to Bremen in 1865 and opened a photo studio. His reportage-like cabinet cards of the great flood of 1881/82 are among his earliest dateable works. As well as studio portraits and local topographicals, his work included interiors, ships and technical facilities. He had sole rights for the 1890 Northwest German Trade and Industry Exhibition in Bremen. From about 1895, Koch supplied the Kunsthistorische Kommission of the Bremen Senate with numerous photos of Bremen buildings, often made for documentation purposes shortly before they were demolished. A considerable number of his photographs are in colour. In the middle of the decade he also devoted himself to the publication of postcards. After the death of the founder in 1900, his son Georg Ludwig Koch (1866 to 1948) took over the studio, opening a branch at 86 Vor dem Steintor in 189129. This publishing house is not the same as that of Louis Koch in Halberstadt (qv).
Louis Koch, Halberstadt, Germany
- Plat-Chr-Man u Verlag v Louis Koch, Halberstadt
- LICHTDR. U. VERLAG V. LOUIS KOCH, HALBERSTADT LK above H in the central circle of a sun logo
Louis Koch started business in Halberstadt in 1869, making lithographic picture postcards from 1895 and collotypes. Around 1912, the family business was run by Louis, Walter and Willi Koch and employed about 160 employees30. In addition to 3 large-format book printing machines, the company now had 8 printing machines, 5 for lithography and an engraving press. In the 1930s they also produced intaglio prints31. They published chromolithographic picture postcards until WWII under the name Graphic Art Institute Louis Koch. They also printed Notgeld, local German currencies, between the wars32. The factory was destroyed in WWII. Willi Koch rebuilt the company under a new address in 1946 and produced until the 1950s. They also published books including Halberstadt in Words and Pictures33 in 1910.
Koch & Bitriol, Dresden, Germany
- K. & B., D.
Koch & Bitriol, printer and publisher, Dresden,34 active from 1900. K&B published photographs of the Dresden area, generally with the full name of the business, and artist-drawn floral and Alpine images, more often with their initials only. In an exhibition of postcard production methods held in Leipzig in 1906, engravings of Sirven-Toulouse and Obernetter-Munich by the firm were listed in the copper printing section of the gravure printing process35. In 1910 they published divided backs with cartoons in a comet series drawn by K Hesse36. During this time Adelbert Bitriol published cards in his own name. The Deutsches Historisches Museum attributes the WWI series Krieg in den Lüften to the business37.
Koch & Palm,
Elberfield, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany
- Kopal in flowing script
Koch & Palm, printers and publishers at 23 Neuenteicherstrasse Elberfeld38 in 1898 and 30/32 Hagenauerstrasse by 1907. The partners were Max Koch and Dr Johannes Palm whose widow continued the business after his death in 190739.
Reutlingen, Baden-Württemberg, Germany
- J. Kocher’s Kunstverlag, Reutlingen
J. Kocher, bookshop owner and artistic publisher, Reutlingen. Kocher was publishing from his bookshop as early as 1884. His undivided-backs were often drawings in a cloud with some poetry and the work of illustrator R De Witt. Kocher was publisher of the official picture postcards of the Lichtenstein plays – dramatisations of Lichtenstein, a historical novel by Wilhelm Hauff, staged on the square at the Olga Cave, Honau betweeen 1901 and 190340. In 1929 German graphic artist Karl Langenbacher had his first exhibition in Kocher’s bookstore in Reutlingen. Between 1927 and 1938, Kocher published Reutlingen-themed work of illustrator Paul Jauch.
Paul C. Koeber Company, New York
- Paul C. Koeber Co., 85 Franklin St., New York City and peacock logo with PCK on the bird and SERIES below it and Copyright 1905 by PCK in the corner of the picture.
This company was in business from 1900 to 1923 with offices in New York City and Kirchheim, Germany. Koeber was the President and Dietrich Kaufmann was the company’s Secretary. They published postcards of scenes across the United States, and as far afield as Japan41 and leap year and other romantic cards.
J. Koehler, New York
- Pub. J. Koehler, N.Y.
- J. KOHLER, N.Y.
- J. KOHLER, NEW YORK-BERLIN
Joseph Koehler, New York, founded as a printing firm in 1892, they later began publishing view-cards in both continuous tone and halftone lithography as well as real photo cards. They were well known for their early hold-to-light postcards, mechanicals, and exposition cards after publishing an unofficial postcard set of the 1893 World’s Columbian Exposition in Chicago. While most companies stopped using the expensive chromolithographic printing method in favor of the cheaper halftone printing process, Koehler (a pioneer in halftone technology) had returned to producing chromolithographs. All of their postcards were printed in Berlin42. Neil Jan Gale, Director of the Chicago Postcard Museum, says that Koehler postcards have a very distinct style to them. Their topographical photocards bear the eagle logo of the Illustrated Post Card Company (qv).-1911
Koelling & Klappenbach, Chicago
- ERICSON. PHOT. KOELLING & KLAPPENBACH, PUBS. CHICAGO
Koelling & Klappenbach, Importers, Booksellers and Stationers, 106 Randolph Street, Chicago published local topographicals into the divided-back era.
John Koelling (died November 1927 aged 65) was born in Hamburg, Germany. In 1880 he emigrated to the United States and to Chicago where he worked in the bookstore of Flota and Meininger and other similar stores, until he founded the bookstore of Koelling and Klappenbach. There he made his living while promoting at the same time the cause of Germanism and furthering German culture. His spare time he devoted to gymnastics and to music. He was a member of the Chicago Turner Society for many years and also belonged to the Chicago Choral Society. Turner societies were called “Turnverein”(gymnastic societies) and their members were known as “Turners” (the German word for “gymnasts”). These societies served not only as centers for exercise but as gathering places for people who advocated democratic reforms in the governments of the German states. Wherever Germans assembled to pay homage to their native land, Koelling was present. In November 1927, the business was at 206 W. Randolph Street, when John Koelling, recently retired on account of poor health, died suddenly in Pensacola, Florida
In the telephone directory of 1892 Koelling & Klappenbach were listed as Stationers and Printers at 48 Dearborn. In 1895, when they were at 100 & 102 Randolph Street, they advertised A GOOD FOUNTAIN PEN FOR ONE DOLLAR! In October 1905 the company lost an appeal against a decision of the collector of customs at the port of Chicago that souvenir postal cards were dutiable as printed matter and not exempt as lithographs. In 1911 K&K were at 169 to 171 Adams Street and, as well as booksellers and stationers, they were trading in sporting goods and photographic material.
In 1902 a group of Chicago residents began a campaign for a new municipal charter which would both free the city from the domination of the state legislature and substantially alter the existing structure of the municipal government. For the next five years the new charter movement occupied a prominent place in municipal affairs. The people of the city debated the purposes and content of that charter, clashed on many occasions with the state legislature over the issue, and organized into groups favoring or opposing the charter until the voters finally rejected the proposed charter in a special referendum in 1907.
In March 1906 the Chicago City Council voted to stop issuing the special bar permits which allowed clubs and dance halls to serve liquor after 1:00 am. A few days later more than 30,000 people representing many of the city’s ethnic groups gathered in a mass meeting to protest this infringement of their social and leisure activities. Addressing the crowd in several languages speakers accused the City Council of constricting “personal liberty” and the right of everyone to choose his or her own form of recreation. They blamed the Council’s actions on a small but vocal group of prohibitionists who were conspiring with temperance groups throughout the state to force prohibition on Chicago. The cheering crowd resolved to organize a society to remove systematically all laws by which “bigots attempt to subjugate the majority,” by securing complete home rule for Chicago from the state legislature. The results of this meeting were dramatic: the City Council rescinded its order and agreed to continue issuing the special bar permits. The size, enthusiasm, and success of this meeting impressed the publishers of the German language press. They placed advertisments in the city’s ethnic newspapers inviting ethnic societies to send delegates to a convention for organizing a permanent group dedicated to protecting and promoting their common interests. On 27 May 1906 nearly 350 ethnic societies representing 60,000 people sent delegates to this meeting where they organized the United Societies for Local Self-Government. Thus using their well-established community organizations, newspapers and benevolent and fraternal societies, Chicago’s ethnic groups were able to launch the largest interethnic group of the Progressive Era with relative ease. The United Societies encompassed men from most ethnic and class groups in the city. Despite German predominance the organization attempted to represent directly all members by selecting a large governing body of nine officers and fifty-eight executive committee members from every ethnic group.
Several hundred of the city’s ethnic societies thus formed into a common organization for promoting and protecting their interests. Ethnic groups conducted their charter activities through the United Societies and the Germans were among the principal leaders of this organization. The German newspapers reported extensively on the debates within the ethnic communities, the speeches of various ethnic leaders and printed the pamphlets and bulletins issued by the United Societies on the questions of charter reform. John Koelling was a member of the United Societies’ German Executive Committee in 1906 and he was still active in 1915.
Source: CHARTER REFORM IN CHICAGO, 1890-1915: COMMUNITY AND GOVERNMENT IN THE PRCGRESSIVE ERA Dissertation December 1980 by Maureen Anne Flanagan
Hubert Köhler & Co., Munich
- Lith Anst43 v. Hubert Köhler München Blüthenstr 13
- H.K. & Co M [in artist palette and paintbrush logo in the stamp box]
Hubert Köhler & Company, 13 Blütenstrasse, Munich. In business by 187644, the company produced many fine cards of artistic works, generally very stylish, and often on a religious theme. These also included illustrations of German fairy tales and children’s rhymes. Published artists included Fritz Gärtners, Ferd Spiegel, Victor Thomas and Paul Hey. The business was renamed Dr. Köhler & Co in the early 1920s and were in business until at least the early 1970s.
Max Köhler, Dresden, Germany.
- Kunstverlag Max Kohler Dresden-N.
Max Kohler, Neustadt district of Dresden, published topographical photo-cards into the divided-back era.
Kohn Brothers, Vienna
Salomon Kohn (31 July 1873 to 1945) was an Austrian photographer and publisher. Together with his brothers Adolf and Alfred, Kohn founded the postcard publishing house Kohn Brothers in 1898 in the centre of Vienna. They produced art postcards with Viennese motifs, contemporary celebrities and caricatures of well-known graphic artists. Artists including Karl Freitag, Mela Köhler and Erwin Pendl worked on the design of this new kind of postcard. He also published the animal pictures of Carl Reichert (qv). Kohn mixed with artists, writers, actors and scholars – including Gustav Mahler, Peter Altenberg, Lotte Lehmann, Bruno Walter and Max Reinhardt. After the annexation of Austria to the Third Reich in 1938, the publishing house was Ayrianised; Until his deportation to Theresienstadt concentration camp on June 21, 1942, Kohn continued to work as an employee of his company. He was transported to Auschwitz concentration camp on 28 October 1944, where he was murdered46.
- Ed. Krause-Wichmann
Eduard Otto Albert Krause-Wichmann (1864 to 4 August 1927) was a German artist. He studied at the Dresden Academy of Arts and initially focused on maritime, and later on industry-related subjects. Around 1900 he created a triptych for the Ballowitz conference room in Szczecin, which featured the Krafft Ironworks. A 1905 oil painting featured Szczecin Vulcan Shipyard. Krause-Wichmann’s pictures featured on posters and postcards, some as WW1 propaganda47. Max Grauert (qv) published a series of his atmospheric brown monochrome maritime works as postcards.
Chris. N. Krogstad,
Menomonie, Wisconsin, USA
- CHRIS. N. KROGSTAD, MENOMONIE, WIS and Krogstad signature within the sketch
Christopher Nilsen Krogstad (1882 to 1928) Menomonie, published postcards of his own humorous coloured sketches. The Menomonie Badger newspaper of 22 March 1904 recorded that Chris Krogstad had returned from nearly a year’s travelling to his previous job in the post office. By May that year the paper was recommending renting a one of the steel boats he rented out for leisure use on Lake Menomin: 23 cents for as many hours as you care to spend on the lake. This may not have been as good an offer as it might seem: Algae blooms regularly afflict the lake by reason of high phosphate levels from runoff. These blooms culminate in late summer when mats of foul smelling algae often gather in sheltered areas48.Later in the same month his humour was again at work as he boasted of the pure ozone you would absorb and that The Krogstad Boat Livery can furnish you more pleasure for less money than any other business in the city.
E C Kropp, Milwaukee, USA
- E C KROPP, PUBL. MILWAUKEE49
- E C KROPP, MILWAUKEE
Emil C. Kropp was a publisher and printer who began producing chromolithographic souvenir cards and private mailing cards in 1896. Frederick M Wilmanns became president of the company after Kropp died in 1907. The company was sold to Johnson Printing of Minneapolis in 195750.
- GEORG KUGELMANN, HANNOVER
- Georg Kugelmann, Hannover.
Georg Kugelmann started business in 1840. He published monochrome and tinted photocards of Hannover. Divided back cards also bear the wording verlag von Fritz Otto, Hannover51. Otto retailed the cards from his shop in Grosse Barlinge. By 2010 the company was still in business – a specialist wholesaler in paper goods, office supplies and stationery near Hannover. PBS Holding’s German subsidiary PBS Deutschland acquired Georg Kugelmann in December 2013, then described as a leading regional wholesaler.
Prien am Chiemsee, Bavaria, Germany
- Verlag Franz Kugler. Photograph Prien
Franz Kugler, photographer, Prien a Chiemsee. Kugler had a studio near Hotel Kampenwand. He also published his local topographical photographs as postcards which he had produced by Purger & Co of Munich(qv).
Georg Kühnel, Berlin.
- Georg Kühnel, Berlin.
Georg Kühnel, Berlin SW 61 (Kreuzburg) published local topographical photocards of Berlin and as far as Potsdam in B&W and tinted. They were numbered modestly into three digits with a 5 preceding.
Franz Kullrich, Berlin
- Franz Kullrich, phot., Berlin.
Franz Kullrich (23 January 1864 to March 1917) photographer, 109 Königgrätzerstrasse, Berlin SW active from 1888 into the first decade of the 20th century52. His cartes de cabinet boast a silver Prussian state medal from 1900. Kullrich’s undivided-backs extended to topographicals of Italy for the Italian market. Kullrich’s photographs of the department store at Friedrichstraßen-Passage in Berlin when it opened in 1908 were widely-published53. About then, he published divided-backs for and of Weinhaus Rheingold, a restaurant in Potsdamer Platz. The Association for the History of Berlin archive has Kullrich postcards of restaurants and hotels postally used between 1908 and 191854.
Künzli Freres, Paris
- Künzli Freres editeurs Paris [KF in red palette with brushes surmounted by Paris with EDITEURS & ARTS below]
- KF in red palette with brushes surmounted by Paris with EDITEURS & ARTS below
Künzli Frères & Co., 11 and 13 rue du Sentier, Paris. One of the biggest publishing houses, pioneering in the production of postcards, its activity began around 1874. In 1896 or 1897, Carl Künzli moved to Zurich, while retaining a studio at 17 rue Richer in Paris. Künzli cards were distributed throughout Europe as early as 189855. To some extent they seem to have used Neurdein (qv) negatives56. Certainly, some of my cards also bear the mark and numbering of Stengel.
The Château de Saint-Germain-en-Laye is a former royal palace in the commune of Saint-Germain-en-Laye, in the département of Yvelines, about 19 km west of Paris, France. On September 10, 1919 the Treaty of Saint-Germain-en-Laye, ending hostilities between the Allies of World War I and Austria, was signed at the château.
During the German occupation (1940–44), the château served as the headquarters of the German Army in France.Today, it houses the musée d’Archéologie nationale (National Museum of Archaeology).
Kunzli Freres, Zurich, Switzerland
- PVK above Z on its own or in a shield
- Gebr. Künzli Zurich
- A-G POSTKARTEN VERLAG KÜNZLI [and PVK above Z in a shield]
- A-G POSTKARTEN VERLAG KÜNZLI, ZURICH [and PVK above Z in a shield]
- A-G POSTKARTENVERLAG KÜNZLI, ZURICH
- CARTES POSTALES KÜNZLI ZURICH
- Carlo Kunzli, Zurigo
Brothers Anton and Josef Künzli were active as art dealers in Zurich from the early 1880s. From 1892 they also referred to their company as an art publisher. In 1897 they bought the entire picture postcard business of the art publisher Müller & Trüb, Aarau including cards of Switzerland, Germany, Austria, Italy and the Orient. These lithographs had been produced from their own watercolors in Aarau since 1890, and continued under the name Gebr. Künzli/Künzli frères. In 1899, the brothers founded the A.-G. Postcard publisher Künzli. Between 1899 and 1903, their director was Carl Künzli-Tobler.
- Künzli-Tobler, Zürich
- Künzli-Tobler, Zürich and CTK monogram in scalloped shield
- CTK monogram in scalloped shield
Merchant Carl Künzli arrived in Zurich in 1889 and initially ran a stationery business. He soon recognized the opportunities of the still-young business of picture postcards. He started to publish cards himself with the designation Carl Künzli, Zurich (often CKZ), which he drew and printed at the Lithographic Art Institute Emil Pinkau in Leipzig. With success at home and abroad he registered his company in the commercial register in 1896 as an art publisher and luxury paper. In 1899 he gave up self-employment and became director of the A.-G. Postcard publisher Künzli above. In 1903 he gave up employment again. He and his wife Bertha Tobler (1865 to 1934) registered Künzli-Tobler & Cie. which he ran successfully under the name Carl Künzli-Tobler until his death in 192557.
- Kypriadis freres
Kypriadis brothers, cigarette manufacturers, published some but not all of their postcards as advertisements for their tobacco products.
5 Fuken sogo kyoshinkai
7More Than Merchants: A History of the German-speaking Community in Penang, 1800s-1940s Salma Nasution Khoo, 2006, Areca Books
13 now Esmeralda Street
20Looks like C in old German script
26The British Printer, Volume 12, 1899
38 A municipal subdivision of the German city of Wuppertal. It was an independent town until 1929.
39 at 23 Neuenteicherstrasse in 1898 and 30/32 Hagenauerstrasse by 1907.
43 Lithografische Anstalt – lithographic business
44TPA no 25 page 22
45 Brüder Kohn Wien I – Kohn Brothers of Vienna district 1
49My card also marked Copyright 1903 Kiser Bros
50Minnesota in the Mail: A Postcard History Bonnie Wilson Minnesota Historical Society Press, 2004 page 128