Directory B

L. Bachmann, Lucern, Switzerland

  • ILLUSTRATO LUZERN
  • EDITION ILLUSTRATO LUZERN.

L. Bachmann, photographer, Lucern. In early 1901 Bachmann edited and published albums of autotype views of Egypt and the Nile, Lake Lugano and the Bernese Oberland. In 1904 they were taken over by the Wehrli brothers who continued to use the ILLUSTRATO branding.

Frank S. Backus,

Everett, Washington, USA

  • F. S. BACKUS

Frank S Backus, 3116 McDougall Ave, Everett. His colourful cartoon series bear copyright dates in the first decade of the 20th century. His son Frank N. Backus, entered the 166th Depot Brigade at Camp Lewis, a training base for United States soldiers during World War I on 3 Nov 1917, and was honourably discharged on mental health grounds six days later1.

Bagshaw and Son

Doncaster, England

  • Printed and Published by R. H. Hepworth. Photo by Bagshaw & Son.

Bagshaw and Son was established in Doncaster in 1897 by John Thomas Bagshaw (1847 to 1930) and his son Luke Bagshaw (1875 to 1944). Luke began taking portrait photographs for customers from the family home at 42 Union Street, Hexthorpe, in 1894. By 1896 he operated from a wooden lock- up unit, known as St. James’ Studio, at the foot of Hexthorpe Bridge. Around 1898 the business moved to a large, purpose-built studio with an adjoining shop at 150-152 St. Sepulchre Gate. The shop supplied equipment and materials to members of the public and the wider photographic industry, fulfilling local, national and overseas orders. This side of the business was administered by John Bagshaw until his retirement in 1924, at which point Luke took over. After Luke’s death in 1944, his widow Blanche (née Genders) continued the trade business for ten years before leasing it to Alice Harrison, Luke’s former assistant. Alice traded under the Bagshaw name but gave up the premises in 1965 and opened another shop across the road which ceased to trade in 1978.

Most of Lukes’s work was portraits of individuals and groups taken in his studio but others were taken outdoors at events such as weddings in location across Doncaster. However, he also worked for advertising purposes such as manufactured goods, shop fronts, vehicles and railway wagons. Some were commissioned by Doncaster Corporation and give us an insight into the stages of major construction and engineering projects around the Borough. Luke’s work has captured the period of Doncaster’s history which saw the region transformed from a country town into an industrialised urban area. His photographs were extensively used by Doncaster postcard publisher RH Hepworth.

Baldwin & Company,

Georgetown, Guyana

  • Baldwin & Co., Stationers and Booksellers, Georgetown, British Guiana

Baldwin & Co., Stationers and Booksellers, Water Street, Georgetown. In the 1880 British Guiana Directory A E Baker is listed as foreman printer, Herman Kesting as clerk and J Y Baldwin as stationer, all at Water Street. In the 1904 edition they were still at Water Street with J. D’Abreu listed as Manager and Mrs. Maria J. De Freitas as Part Proprietress. The provisional stamps of 1882, made necessary because of a shortage of 1 cent and 2 cents stamps, were typeset, printed locally by Baldwins. Two-masted and three-masted ship were used as the main feature of the design2. Baldwins is listed in the 1892 Commercial Directory of Latin America3 as printers, bookbinders, booksellers, stationers, publishers and music store. In 1894 they printed Note on emigration from India to British Guiana by Surgeon-Major D.W.D. Comins. In 1907 they printed early issues ofThe British Guiana Philatelic Journal of the British Guiana Philatelic Society. Their post card output lasted into WWI.

Baltimore Art Publishing Company

  • Balto. Art Publ. Co.

Baltimore Art Publishing Company published a numbered series of topographical photocards. These included a subset of 12 cards by local photographer Henry Rinn Junior4.

Bamforth & Company,

Holmfirth, England

  • Bamforth & Co., Publishers, Holmfirth (England) and New York
  • BAMFORTH & CO. PUBLISHERS HOLMFIRTH (ENGLAND) AND NEW YORK. With BCo. monogram between POST and CARD in art nouveau lettering
  • BAMFORTH’S LIFE MODEL SERIES, (ENGLAND) N.Y.C.

James Bamforth, a Mid-Victorian with a portrait appearance of handsome bearded Victorian dignitary, was the son of a Holmfirth painter and decorator. His background, coupled with a certain artistic flair and an interest in photography, let him leave the family business. His first major enterprise was the production of illustrated lantern slides, a form of entertainment held all over the country. He later introduced photography which proved to be highly successful, replacing the painted slide. The Bamforth postcard evolved from the slide and became increasingly popular in the early 1900s. In 1908 Bamforth sued the Douglass Post Card & Machine Co of Philadelphia (qv) for selling copies of their cards, narrating that their business was established in 1900 and engaged in the publication of illustrated post cards in England, and their sale in England and in the United States. They were the first business to illustrate post cards by pictures taken from life models. However, statements on the cards that they had been copyrighted were untrue and Bamforths lost. My undivided-backs are largely topographical and far from the famous comic cards still popular today. The earliest postmark on one of their cards, a topographical, is dated 3 March 19035. By 1905 Bamforth had branches in New York and London, although the head office remained in Holmfirth6.

T E Barker,

Hobart, Tasmania, Australia

  • T.E. BARKER, FURRIER, HOBART

Thomas Edward Barker was a furrier in Hobart for over 60 years. Born in 1854, he took over his father’s fur business which had been established in 1842. He also offered shell necklaces to the trade; these would have been made from the iridescent kelp shells found commonly in Tasmania. He seems to have been involved in a number of aspects of the wildlife products trade, as in 1903 he advertised wanting all types of parrots. Barker joined the postcard bandwagon in about 1904, with a small series of b&w cards. By 1906 the postcard craze had reached Hobart, with large and small retailers offering a wide range of attractive coloured cards, mainly printed in the UK and Germany. He advertised Large variety of Beautiful Postcards, which included cards imported by J. Walch & Sons featuring the popular topics of the time – actresses, angelic children, sentimental lovers, royalty, British scenery and such like. Added to this would have been his own small series, probably no more than a dozen, of fairly drab views of Tasmania scenery7.

George Barrowclough,

Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada

  • Barrowclough Photo Cards Winnipeg

George Alfred Barrowclough (1 May 1872 to 1950) photographer and postcard publisher, Manitoba. Born at Birkenhead, England, younger brother of well-known musician S. L. Barrowclough, he emigrated to Canada and arrived in Winnipeg around 1882. By the time he was 25, he was working as a photographer and he established his own firm, Winnipeg Pictorial Post Cards, in 1904 and sold postcards of choice views of Winnipeg and Suburbs, Canadian Buffaloes, Indians, Farm Scenes, Breaking, Plowing match, harvesting, and threshing, etc.; also scenes of Canadian Prairie Fire. In total, it is estimated that he produced some 600-700 postcards during his time in Winnipeg, many of the early cards being ethnographic lithographs. In early 1906, Barrowclough spent time in Deadwood (and Lead), South Dakota where his camera was reportedly destroyed in an altercation with a grizzly bear. While working in Colorado, he heard about the San Francisco earthquake and quickly went there, capturing a series of images of the devastation. Later in 1906, he moved to Burnaby, British Columbia where he continued to produce postcards for 4 or 5 more years. He remained there for most of the rest of his life, working at various jobs. During the First World War, he served in the Canadian Expeditionary Force and attained the rank of Sergeant8.

G. Barsanti & Sons, Pisa, Italy

  • G. BARSANTI & FIGLI. GRANDI GALLERI DI SCULTURA

G. Barsanti & Sons’ company was founded in 1835 in Pisa and sold statues and columns in white Carrara marble and alabaster, the typical stones of the area.

Their location in Piazza del Duomo, in front of the famous Leaning Tower, no doubt gave them a steady stream of tourists and their diversification extended to an elegant range of postcards featuring the famous buildings of the square.

They are still in business and the Barsanti family continues to be involved. Along with tourist wares, they continue to stock marble and alabaster sculpture.

Harvey Barton and Son Limited, Bristol, England

  • HARVEY BARTON AND SON LTD BRISTOL beneath a sketch of the Clifton Suspension Bridge

Harvey Barton & Son Limited, Church Lane, St Michaels Hill, Bristol was founded in 1885 and lasted until 1960. In 1890 Harvey Barton was President of the Bristol Camera Society and a landscape photographer of repute. He had been awarded many prizes for his work but at the time of writing was on his annual photographic tour, so our Notes are of necessity very brief9. By 1907 copyright registrations also ran in the name of Harvey Barton Junior of 8 Myrtle Road, St Michael’s, Bristol10. The company printed and published postcards including moonlight sepia views similar to those by Elmer Keene later published by Worcester & Co also of Bristol11. The company also published postcards under the Vistasound label – a novel idea which was a set of picture postcards that could be played as 45 rpm records which were manufactured by the Hardy Record Manufacturing Company of London12. In September 1939, aged nearly 15, Fred Beacham left Clifton National School and went to work at Harvey Barton and Co, by then on Park Row. He earned seven shillings and sixpence a week fixing developed photographs to make postcards. He did not enjoy the work and left about a year later to go and pack biscuits13.

Ludovic Baschet, Paris

  • Baschet, edit

Ludovic Baschet, (18 September 1834 to 13 June 1909), Parisian artist and publisher of French art. Baschet trained as a decorative painter and became an industrial painter specializing in particular in wallpaper. He started publishing art in 1876 in association with the prestigious art house Goupil & Company with a weekly periodical album called the Contemporary Literary and Artistic Gallery. By the time they stopped in 1884, 410 portraits of personalities and 242 accompanying biographies had been published. Baschet publications addressed commercial topics such as The Louvre, the female nude, Paris at night pretty actresses and the French Army. In the early 1890s, Baschet moved his bookstore to 12 rue de l’Abbaye. He published postcards featuring the Paris Exposition Universelle of 1900, some of which were printed by Berthaud (qv). He co-published a book about the panorama of that festival with Neurdein Freres (qv). That year he was made Chevalier of the Legion of Honour by the Ministry of Commerce14.

Basel Mission Book Depot,

West Africa and India

  • Basel Mission Book Depot Accra W. -Africa
  • Basel Mission Book Depot Accra. Gold Coast W.A.

Basel Mission Book Depot Accra West Africa. The Basel Mission was a Christian missionary society active from 1815 to 2001. It owed its founding to concerns about what would happen if Napoleon managed to seize the city of Basel. In 1816 the society built a school to train Dutch and British missionaries and the Mission worked in the Gold Coast (Ghana) from 182815. In 1896 the Mission opened a separate book and bible depot in Accra selling books in English, Ga and Twi16. This part of the Mission was wound up in 1957.

  • Mercantile Mission Branch, Calicut

Mercantile Mission Branch, Calicut, Kerala, India. The Basel Mission came to India with evangalical ambition but later it partly diverted its attention towards the establishment of various industries and mercantile establishments. One of the secular establishments was the ‘Mercantile Establishment’ which was under the supervision of a joint-stock company of Friends of the Mission, but under the general supervision of the Mission. These included tile factories at Jeppu, Calicut, Ferok, Codacal, and Palghat. The Mercantile Branch was established to meet the requirement of the Mission stations and of the industrial establishments. The chief object was to teach the native converts the virtues of honest labour and trade, and thereby provide them with the means to earn a livelihood without asking for alms17. They published numbered series of local topographicals in the court format.

Carlo Bassani, Milan, Italy

  • FOTOCROMO C. BASSANI – MILANO
  • FOTOCROMO C. BASSANI – MILANO FM monogram in C below elaborate art nouveau multilingual POST CARD wording.

Carlo Bassani, printer and postcard publisher, Corso Porta Nuova, Milan. Bassani, who had for many years worked as a lithographer and designer at other companies in Milan set up on his own in 1895, involving his sons as designers and photographers. The business of the company was modern reproduction techniques and this included a large assortment of illustrated postcards of its own manufacture under the “Fotocromo” badge18. My card also has FM monogram in a C below elaborate art nouveau multilingual POST CARD wording that takes up half the address side of the card and the stamp box on the bottom left corner there.

Menotti Bassani & Company, Milan, Italy

  • Ediz. Menotti Bassani & C., Milano – Privativa19 P. Becchini. Roma.
  • MTB Logo in bottom right corner of photograph

Publishers and printers in business 1893 to 1907. Based at 7 – 9 via Castelfidardo, this was one of the bigger Milanese printing houses, founded by Count Vittorio Turati, Menotti Bassani and a large group of other members20. Cards included the King and the Pope. My card of a charming tinted image of the Via Appia in Rome was produced for P. Becchini (qv) of Rome who asserts his sole rights to distribution. Another credits renowned photographer Alinari (qv).

Frederick Bauermeister,

Glasgow, Scotland

  • FB above G
  • FB above Gl

Frederick Bauermeister set up as a foreign bookseller in West Nile Street, Glasgow, around 1893. He soon moved to 49 Gordon Street and added publishing to his activities. The earliest postmark on one of his cards is dated 22 January 189821 and Byatt22 records that he was issuing coloured cards in the smaller size as early as 1899. My standard-size images of Loch Lomond and Glasgow are black and white and of the Stronachlachar Hotel on Loch Katrine is in bluish monochrome. In an exhibition in Summer 2014 to mark the centenary of WWI, the National Library of Scotland featured a letter from Bauermeister, protesting at his internment. He had settled in Scotland a quarter of a century earlier. In the letter he professed his loyalty to his adopted country and said he was in danger of seeing my whole existence gone, my young family ruined forever, simply because I was born in Hanover23.

1896 Bavarian State Exhibition

Nuremberg, Germany

  • Bayerische Landes-Ausstellung Nurnberg 1896

Bavarian State Exhibition held in Nuremberg in 1896.

The Bavarian State Trade, Industry and Art Exhibition was held three times in Nuremberg which had developed into the industrial heart of Bavaria. In 1882 products from agriculture, industry and arts and crafts were on display on 120,000 square meters of exhibition space. In order to enable small businesses to take part, a support fund of 25,000 marks was set up. The area was electrically illuminated by electrical pioneer Sigmund Schuckert. The event was a huge success for the city, with 2 million visitors.

The second exhibition in the Noris took place from 14 May to 15 October 1896. The exhibition area had to be expanded to 200,000 square meters in order to be able to offer the 3,300 exhibitors enough space. This show was served by electric tram but, interest remained below expectations; Only 1.8 million visitors. It was a success for the exhibiting companies with over 9,000 deals were made with a total value of two million marks. Another 9,000 follow-up deals with a volume of 1.5 million marks were added. The horticultural facilities of this state exhibition were preserved for the citizens of Nuremberg as a city park.

The 1896 Exhibition was the occasion of an international chess tournament from which emerged Tarrasch’s Luck Table showing that the champion won his games by luck while Tarrasch himself was the more deserved winner.

On the occasion of Nuremberg’s 100-year membership in Bavaria, the state exhibition of 1906 was again held in the Franconian metropolis. This time the exhibition took place on the specially-created Luitpoldhain Park, later the scene of Nazi rallies. Not everyone agreed about the reason for the exhibition:

We want to leave unexamined whether it was at all a blessing that large parts of Franconia and the free imperial city of Nuremberg were annexed to the backward Old Bavaria. … “

Nürnberger Anzeiger 1902

Source: Bayerische Landes-Gewerbe-, Industrie- und Kunstausstellung in Nürnberg – 1882, 1896, 1906

This appears to be an official card. The stamp is printed on which suggests that it was published by the State rather than the event though the distinction may be fine.

Bazar Aleman,

Las Palmas, Grand Canary

  • Bazar alaman, Las Palmas.

The German Bazaar, 50 Triana, on the corner of Clavel, Las Palmas, published collections of postcards entitled Views of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria”, exclusively sold in the German Bazaar24. The German Bazaar was an agency for the Woermann Line and currency exchange.

Adolf Jessen, a prominant photographer of German origin commercialized his images of the island through the German Bazaar. In 1910 the Gran Bazar Aleman was advertising gents’ outfits from 42 Alfonso XIII.

Bazar Ingles, Tenerife

  • English Bazar
  • Bazar ingles
  • Nobrega’s English Bazar

See under Nobrega’s English Bazar

John E. Beale – Fancy Fair, Bournemouth, England

  • J.E. BEALE – FANCY FAIR, BOURNEMOUTH

Beales was founded in 1881 by John Elmes Beale, born in Weymouth in 1849. Beale’s father was a sea captain who was lost at sea when the boy was young, and his mother arranged for him to be apprenticed to a draper in the town. After other jobs in Dorset and Manchester, Beale worked for the draper’s John Russell in St Mary’s Street, Weymouth, where he became shop manager. After eight years, he asked for a junior partnership and was rebuffed, prompting him to set up in business on his own.

Having agreed not to compete with John Russell in Weymouth, Beale looked at towns including Dorchester, Shaftesbury, Poole, Swanage and Southampton. But he decided on Bournemouth, which was expanding rapidly. Its population had trebled in three years and one of its most noted residents, Sir Merton Russell Cotes, was campaigning to improve its rail service. Beale rented space in St Peter’s Terrace, a new building put up on the site of two large houses. John Russell would not release him until after Christmas, so Beale had to open his shop without being there to manage it. In the run-up to the store opening, he would work for Russell until midnight on Saturday, then catch the mail train from Weymouth to Bournemouth West. He would work all day in his shop on Sunday – initially as his own carpenter and shop fitter, later in marking and setting out stock – and then take the newspaper train back to Weymouth in the early hours of Monday morning. His shop, called Fancy Fair, opened in November, with his wife Sarah in charge, although Beale himself managed a few days off from his Weymouth job to start the business. Trading was difficult at first, but the opening of the Bournemouth West railway station in 1874 had fuelled a growth in excursion trips to the resort. Come spring 1882, Fancy Fair was stocked with buckets, spades and model boats, with prices starting at a penny. In 1884, the shop produced the first of its special resort souvenirs, including an album of views of the town. Beale knew how to add a touch of theatre to the shopping experience. In 1885 he came up with the idea of having a live Father Christmas parading in the shop and showrooms. It was possibly the first instance of this being done in England. Beale was also becoming an influential figure in town. A member of Richmond Hill Congregational Church, he became a deacon in 1896 and treasurer the next year. He became a magistrate in 1900 and then joined the town council, starting a three-year tenure as mayor in 1900. The business was growing, undergoing a name change from Fancy Fair and Oriental House to JE Beale’s as the building expanded. A shopwalker in tailcoat and striped trousers would welcome customers, recognising the well-known ones and conducting them from their carriages to the appropriate counter25. My tinted photocards were published under the Peacock (qv) logo. Chief Executive Tony Brown led a management buyout of the firm in 2018. In January 2020, its 22 stores and 1,000 jobs were at stake as it looked for a buyer.

Pietro Becchini, Rome

  • Ediz. Menotti Bassani & C., Milano – Privativa26 P. Becchini. Roma.
  • Ing27. P. Becchini – Roma

Pietro (also Piero) Becchini, philatelist, Rome. Opened the First Roman Philatelic Agency at the end of the nineteenth century in Via Due Macelli not far from Piazza di Spagna. Becchini served as editor of Rivista dei Francobolli28 from January 1898 to 1908, the year of his death29.

Luigi Bechi

  • Luigi Bechi

Luigi Bechi (March 1830 to 19 November 1919) Italian painter born in Florence. As a young Italian patriot, he joined in the war for independence. In the campaign of 1859 against Austria, he joined the artillery as an ordinary soldier and, in 1866, fought with Garibaldi in the Trentino, was wounded and taken prisoner. In 1870 he was appointed as professor of the Royal Academy of Fine Arts in Florence. While he cultivated historical paintings, he also painted landscapes and pastoral scenes30. His postcards were often sentimental pictures of children.

Becker Siblings

Konigswinter, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany.

  • 1901. Stahlstich-Imitat. von Geschw. Becker, Königswinter.
This card has two numbers, indicating that it was made for the publisher by another postcard company.

Becker Siblings, photographic studio, Konigswinter were already in business in 1880 and, in 1893, under the ownership of Helene Becker. They published local topographicals as cartes de cabinets in the era before postcards. Most of their work was dated. Their postcards were local topographicals reproduced by steel engraving.

This card is addressed to the English Colony, Nonnenwerth, Rolandseck. In the 19th century, there were numerous English settlements in Germany. In the 1850s the English population peaked at 500 to 1,000 permanent residents. Nonnenwerth was a tourist attraction on the Rhein about 15 kilometres from Bonn.

This card is addressed to the English Colony, Nonnenwerth, Rolandseck. This would have been one of numerous English colonies. This was a tourist attraction on the Rhein about 15 kilometres from Bonn. In the 1850s the English population peaked at 500 to 1,000 permanent residents.

Alois Beer, Klagenfurt, Austria

  • Alois Beer, Klagenfurt.

Alois Beer, (4 June 1840 to 19 December 1916) photographer, Klagenfurt.

Alois Beer, born in Budapest but his family was from Klagenfurt where he served in the military from 1859 to 1 May 1862. At the age of 23, Beer opened his own photography studio in Vienna, and shortly afterwards a branch in Klagenfurt to which he then moved, leaving the Viennese studio to his business partner Ferdinand Mayer, with whom he also opened a further branch in Graz. His studios did portraits and stereocards but his commitments in other fields increased rapidly. He received commissions for documentary photographic campaigns including the new railway lines of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. He won medals in exhibitions in Vienna and London in the 1870s. In 1879 Beer published a photo reportage on the damage caused by a landslide to the Carinthian towns of Bleiberg and Hüttendorf and a few months later, he was endowed with the gold medal for art and science, giving him a national profile. Beer was made Photographer of the Imperial Royal Navy and, in 1882, he Photographer of the Imperial Royal Court.

From 1892 to 1896 his nephew, the future  member of the artist group “Der Blaue Reiter” Alfred Kubin (1877 to 1959) worked for Beer but his apprenticeship ended without a qualification when he was dismissed. The photographer Nicola Perscheid (1865 to 1939) was employed as a retoucher at the Klagenfurt studio.

In 1885 Beer set out on his first important voyage, to Greece, to be followed over the years by those to Palestine and Egypt, North Africa, Turkey, Syria, France, Belgium, Spain and Italy, as well as shorter trips to various parts of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. The images he took of Lake Garda in the first decade of the 20th century are an important record of the area. The catalogue of images produced in his Studio came to some 20,000 landscape images, a huge number for the day. The Alois Beer photo archive at the Kriegsarchiv in Vienna, has over 30,000 plates.

Sources: Museo Alto Garda

Madame Bégault

Montargis, Loiret, France

  • Librairie Vve. Bégault, à Montargis
Caserne Gudin, Montargis, Loiret, région Center, France. This was a school for “gendarmes adjoints” (lower gendarmerie); it was shut around 2010 and the building was recently the subject of an architectural competition to decide its future.. This card was republished with the rue Doree address and the number 10.

In 1888 Vincent Bégault had a bookshop at 33 rue Doree, Montargis. In 1884 he sold a 100,000 franc-winning lottery ticket to a local cook. Her husband wrote to the organisers asking if he could claim it with his wife’s authority or if she had to accompany him. Bégault’s widow continued his business after his death and published local topographical photocards.

This might be Marie Louise Truffot (1883 to 1969)

Beger & Roeckel, Munich, Germany

  • B & R in M

Beger & Roeckel [or Röckel], Munich. In a list of Jewish tradesmen registered in Munich as at 15 February 193831 Beger & Roeckl are listed as a Graphic arts institute and printing house under the ownership of Sigmund and Wilhelm Marx, Ida Lauchheimer and Dr. Josef Cramer. Sigmund Marx (born 1875) and one of his brothers bought the business after the family moved to Munich in 189032.

Isaac Behar, Port Said, Egypt

  • L. & B. – Isaac Behar, Port Said

Isaac Behar, Port Said, published postcards of Egypt in books of twelve, twenty and Le Tour du Monde, a booklet of 86 great sites of Europe and the Americas and a panorama of Jerusalem. Behar took to the sea and fled to Cuba to escape serving in the Turkish army establishing his Sephardic heritage there33. L. & B. could relate to Landeker & Brown of London but Littauer & Boysen of Berlin were printers who very likely also worked as contract printers for other postcard publishers34.

Richard Behrendt,

San Francisco, CA, USA

  • Richard Behrendt, Publisher, San Francisco

Richard Behrendt 711 Mission Street, San Francisco. An importer and wholesaler of toys, novelties, stereo-views, greetings and postcards. Behrendt published a wide variety of postcard types under his own name including view-cards of the West Coast and the San Francisco Earthquake35.

Herbert Bell

  • H.BELL

Herbert Bell36 was a native of Ambleside. His father was the local chemist and mineral water manufacturer with a shop on Lake Road. He joined the family business, becoming an apprentice at his father‘s shop where it is likely that his first encounter with photography would have been using the materials then widely available in a chemist‘s shop. As his interest in the new art form grew, Bell decided to set up his own business, finally opening a studio in Market Square in 1894. Bell had immediate success as a tourist photographer during the arctic winter of 1894/1895. During the unusually cold spell, Lake Windermere was frozen with 18 inches of ice for seven weeks in February and March 1895. Vast numbers of tourists arrived from Manchester and Lancashire to view the seven foot snow drifts and icicles dangling more than ten feet. Bell spent the entire period outdoors photographing the tourists at the lakeside. The stunning snow scenes he produced established his reputation in the growing field of photography. His status was such that he was called upon to record the visit of Kaiser Wilhelm in August 1895. Bell photographed the private visit and the rapturous reception given to the Kaiser throughout the Lake District.

Bell also distinguished himself through his serious photographic work, compiling a record of all the farms and memorial halls of Cumberland and Westmorland. This work created an important collection of sensitively-produced photographs of immense value to architectural historians. Alongside this, Bell was also a perceptive social commentator, using his camera to record the real face of everyday life in Ambleside. He produced a collection of starkly-realistic photographs of ordinary people from washerwomen to sheep-shearers going about their daily tasks. The work provided a dramatic and telling contrast to the romantic image of Ambleside. He died at the age of ninety in 1946. I found the same image of Waterhead, Lake Windermere as that shown in my postcard, for sale as an 1890s collotype 29cm by 18.5cm37.

Rudolf Bellander,

Hamburg, Germany

  • Rud. Bellander, Hamburg

Karl Rudolf Georg Bellander (born 9 December 1871) photographer and38 Merchant in Hamburg, late in Stockholm. Bellander published cards of photos of Kiruna in northern Sweden and other postcards of Sweden39 many of them featuring ships. As well as his own work, he also published the work of Swedish photographer Borg Emil Ragnar Mesch.

Henry Bellieni, Nancy, France

  • Epreuve obtenue avec Jumelle Bellieni et Plaque de la Maison Lumiere J.R. P.D.

Henry Bellieni (3 October 1857 to 16 July 1938), optical and photographic engineer, 1 place Carnot, Nancy. In 1812 Henri Bellieni’s grandfather André-François Belliéni (1789 to 1843), arrived in Metz from Lombardy where he had trained as an optician. His son, Charles Gimel Bellieni (1820 to 1880), took over in 1850 and, early on, introduced young Bellieni to precision techniques in the family workshop. His family opted for French nationality the day after the Treaty of Frankfurt ended the Franco-Prussian War of 1870/71. They settled in Nancy in 1871. After studying optics in Paris, Bellieni took over the family business on the death of his father in 1880. He was twenty-four years old.

From 1889, Bellieni specialized in the manufacture of cameras. He invented dozens of cameras, including, in 1895, the Bellieni binoculars, a double-lens camera with simultaneous exposure which made it possible to take a hundred stereoscopic views. With local printer Albert Bergeret, Bellieni was instrumental in accelerating the development of the emerging photographic illustrated postcard. Eleven thousand universal binoculars were sold in fifteen years. His inventions received numerous awards including a gold medal at the Universal Exhibition in Paris in 1889.

Many postcards were issued with the slogan Printed from Bellieni binocular camera lens and plate from Maison Lumiere. Maison Lumiere is a reference to the Lumière brothers Auguste Marie Louis Nicolas (19 October 1862 to 10 April 1954) and Louis Jean (5 October 1864 to 7 June 1948). They were manufacturers of photography equipment, best known for their Cinématographe motion picture system and the short films they produced between 1895 and 1905. Their screening on 22 March 1895 for circa 200 members of the Society for the Development of the National Industry in Paris was probably the first presentation of films on a screen for a large audience. Their first commercial public screening on 28 December 1895 for circa 40 paying visitors and invited relations has traditionally been regarded as the birth of cinema.

Given that Paul Dupre, whose initials appear on the picture side, was a printer, it is difficult to see who JR is or what contribution s/he made to this card.

Hotel Belvedere

Agrigento, Sicily, Italy

  • PROPRIETA ESCLUSIVA DELL’ HOTEL BELVEDERE – GIRGENTI.

Hotel Belvedere, via Sileci, just below via Amendola, not far from the Empedocleus Circle, Girgenti. The hotel was was located at Agrakas, the Valley of the Temples, an archaeological site on a ridge outside the town of Agrigento. It is one of the most outstanding examples of Greater Greece art and architecture, and is one of the main attractions of Sicily.

Girgenti, now Agrigento, is a city on the southern coast of Sicily, and capital of the province of Agrigento. It was one of the leading cities of Magna Graecia during the golden age of Ancient Greece with population estimates in the range of 200,000 to 800,000 before 406 BC. By 1901, its population was 25,024.

Buses from the hotels lead to the station. The best hotel in the city is the Belvedere whose owner, Mr Oreste De Angelis, is highly thought of in the community and the best person for a stranger if you want assistance or information. The cuisine is first rate in this hotel and the view from its superb terrace.

Douglas Sladen visiting Agrigento at the end of the nineteenth century describes the services for tourists in the Girgenti of the time.

In April 1902 English writer EM Forster, the author of Passage to India, stayed for four days during a long Italian cultural tour he made with his mother. They were quite disappointed with the quality of the service and the hygiene. The visit inspired Albergo Empedocle his first published story. The story reveals that at the time there was in Girgenti a shuttle service run by the hoteliers, who sent their horseback omnibus to the station to welcome tourists. The fictional inn was filthy and its food indigestible. Empedocles was a Greek pre-Socratic philosopher and a native citizen of Akragas, alive when temples were being constructed there.

Composer Joannes Brahms and his editor friend J V Widmann filled two pages of the guestbook of the Belvedere to praise the hospitality received and the view from hotel windows that justifies its name which is Italian for a place commanding a fine view.

Oreste’s son Cesare De Angelis (born 1886) was sixteen in 1902 and took over the reins of the hotel later. It was then the favorite haunt of early twentieth-century archaeologists and still preserves some of those visitors’ drawings and sketches

Cesare De Angelis – Hotel Belvedere – Girgenti – Agents for all Villas to be sold in the valley of the city of Akragas. Information on archaeological, numismatic and botanical subjects. Collections of antique jewelry, lace and embroideries.

Advertisement in English in the 1925 Novissima Girgenti guide by Professor Antonino Cremona.

Bender & Company

Croydon, London

  • Publishers: Bender & Co., Croydon

Bender & Company, photographers, 126 George Street, Croydon issued cartes de cabinets as did Bender & Lewis, photographers of Croydon who photographed Queen Victoria’s funeral procession in February 1901.

The Bender family arrived in Croydon about 1895. At a meeting of Croydon Camera Club on 28 October 1896, Victor Bender, one of the partners of Bender & Company displayed a newly invented camera and moving film projection apparatus called the Grand Kinematograph which they had just acquired the sole sales rights. The machine’s novelty was the size of the film it could project. On June 15th, Mr Bender had given a talk: A New Print Out-Paper. By July 1898 Velograph Syndicate Ltd had been formed to take over the Kinematograph interests of Bender & Langfier of 242 London Road, Croydon. Thereafter the Kinematograph was adjusted and renamed the Velograph. Although they made films, including the Queen’s Diamond Jubilee procession in 1897, the moving film project was not a success and the assets were disposed of in 1899.

Over 40 retailers and wholesalers in Sussex sold cards that were manufactured by Bender & Company and its subsidiary Photo Printing & Publishing Co. (“P. P. & P. Co.”. )Benders sold postcards generated by the Velograph locally. By July 1915, PPP was in the hands of Sidney Smith though this may have been earlier given the difficulties the Benders as Germans would have in retaining control of a business after the outbreak of WWI.

further reading: The Beginnings Of The Cinema In England,1894-1901: Volume 1: 1894-1896 John Barnes, University of Exeter Press, 1 May 2015

Benghiat family, Aden, Yemen

  • Hotel De l’Europe Turkish Shop I. BENGHIAT Son ADEN
  • Hotel De l’Europe Turkish Shop I. BENGHIAT & Son ADEN

Samuel Benghiat emigrated from Izmir to Aden. He had at least two sons born in Aden, Jacob and Joseph. Joseph went to Port Said in Egypt but Jacob remained in Aden as did his son Samuel. Behor Benghiat and his younger brother Victor ran the posh Hotel de l’Europe on the Crescent in Steamer point (Tawahi) in Aden, frequented by maharajas and other wealthy travelers40. Photos of the time show the Turkish Shop in the ground floor of the Hotel. French photographer Charles Nedey marketed his work through this outlet and Jacob became the biggest publisher of postcards in Aden41.

Ezio Benigni,

Bordighera, Liguria, Italy

  • Fotgr. E. Benigni, Bordighera

Ezio Benigni (22 March 1863 to 3 February 1938) photographer, Bordighera where he lived in Villa Vaniglia. Benigni was born in Livorno, started in photography in Genoa and moved to Bordighera where he opened a studio in the last decade of the nineteenth century. This was a time when the city became a popular with British visitors following in the footsteps of Prime Minister Lord Russell in 1861. Benigni’s shop at 28 Via Victorio Emanuele sold film and photographic equipment. The council there has more than once published books of his photographs of daily life of Bordighera and its hinterland at the end of the nineteenth century. Benigni was an early street photographer and was the official photographer of Queen Margherita, the Queen of Italy after whom, it is said, the pizza Margherita was named. My cards of his photographs of Isolabona were published by Richard Scholtz (qv) also of Bordighera.

Bennett’s Tourist Bureau, Norway

  • Bennet’s Tourist-Bureau, Bergen, Norge.

Englishman Thomas Bennett (1814 to 1898) settled in Christiania in 1850. He established his Tourist Bureau in Oslo (then Christiania) and Bergen. Bennett’s Tourist Route Map of Norway was published by George Philip & Son, Liverpool in 1895. In the 1899 Reports from the Consuls of the United States on the Commerce, Manufactures, Etc., of Their Consular Districts Bennet’s Tourist-Bureau is listed as a supplier of artists’ materials as is their competitor Breyer’s (qv). By 1891 Bennett’s Norwegian phrase book was in its fifth edition. In 1911 their shop in Bergen was in the Square. The Maine Alumnus of September-October 1921 records that Carl Estabrooke, a graduate of 1912 sailed on 9 September from Christiana, en route to the States after putting in the Summer as Paris Manager of the Bennett Tourist Bureau. He reports that Paris experienced one of the hottest summers in years. Mr. Estabrooke is now vice president of the Bennett company with headquarters in New York City. In her 1941 memoir Mission To The North US diplomat Florence Jaffray Harriman, in Oslo at the outbreak of WWII, records how Bennett’s Tourist Bureau used to feel as if that organisation were the kindly Third Secretary of the American Legation, for in how many troubles did we not say “Ring Mr Bache.” Mr Bache was our right hand when friends or strangers came, wanting to see the sights of Norway; he was the ever patient and imaginative counsellor when the refugees came through; he was long-suffering, but in such a courteous way that we hardly knew ourselves when we put a burden on him whether we had asked a favour or granted one.

Benzo Brothers

Cassine42, Piedmont, Italy

  • F’lli Benzo, Edit – Cassine (Alessandria)
  • F’lll BENZO – GENOVA

Florentine Guglielmo Benzo (1866 – 1943) and his brother Giovanni owned a foundry in Cassine43 but Guglielmo graduated from the Academy of Fine Arts of Brera in 1893. Thereafter, he exhibited paintings from 1895 until his death44. No doubt this explains the unlikely leap from foundrymen to postcard publishers. My cards were printed for them by Armanino of Genoa (qv). In 1900 they published cards for the International Committee commissioning postcards for that Holy Year.

Ercole Bergami, Naples, Italy

  • Ercole Bergami editore Napoli

Ercole Bergami produced dozens of charming Italian view-cards with unusual canvas textured fronts signed by the artist Floppiola.

H. Berger & Company

Antibes, Alpes-Maritimes, France

  • BERGER & Cie, ANTIBES

H. Berger & Co, bookshop, Place Macé, Antibes published topographic photocards into the divided-back era. Undivided-backs were published for Berger by Neurdein (qv) of Paris.

René Berger,

Braine-l’Alleud, Belgium

  • Edit. René Berger, Braine-l’Alleud

René Berger, photographer and publisher. Berger was the son of a local printer and photographer and went to school in Braine-l’Alleud45 where he was one of the first pupils of the Saint-Jacques Institute primary school, when it opened on 1 May 1879 at the corner of Rue du Château and Rue des Marolles46. Berger was a member of the local amateur music society, the Royal Musical Circle and in 1921, was part of a band pictured in pierrot costumes47. The famous Lion of Waterloo where the eponymous battle took place is in the territory of Braine-l’Alleud. Berger published cards commemorating the battle. In 1927 Berger published Le droit privé a Ypres au XIIIme Siècle48by G Des Marez.

Albert Bergeret, Nancy, France

  • PHOTOTYPIE A. BERGERET & CIE., NANCY.
  • Phototypie A. Bergeret et Cie, Nancy.
  • PHOT A.B & Co. NANCY in a roundel
  • A. B à Versailles

Albert Bergeret was born on December 8, 1859 in Gray49 where his father, a bookseller, had a small printing press. He learned the new phototype printing process during five years in the army, from 1879 to 1884. An apprenticeship in Paris was followed by a job with the printer Royer (qv) in Nancy to create and direct a phototype workshop. In 1892, during an excursion in Germany, Bergeret discovered the development of the illustrated postcard. In 1898 he was ready to launch the postcard in France. Although it is said50 that he began on his own because Royer wasn’t interested, many undivided-backs were published in the Royer name. In 1904 postcard production in France is estimated at 750 million cards. Bergeret had immediate success on his own and at one point printed 300,000 illustrated postcards a day51. A typical Bergeret card is a bit of doggerel illustrated by B&W photo of soldiers or pierots dressed from the costume box. However, the La Marguerite series of two women deeply engaged with each other struck a different note. Bergeret printed cards published by Mme Moreau and C. Biehler and F. Biehler-Moreau of Versailles (qv). This connection makes me think that he also used the guise A. B à Versailles when publishing photographs of that great location.

Charles Bernheim

Nimes, Gard, France

  • Charles Bernheim, Photographie, Nimes

Charles Moïse Bernheim, photographer, 58 boulevard Gambetta, Nimes from 1886. Active from 1880, Blenheim established branches at Avignon and (in 1909) Vigan. He was joined and then succeeded by his daughters Alice (born 1889) and Andréa (born 1895)

Bernheim’s postcards went well beyond topographical photographs, often local schools and their staff; Around 1905, he produced a series of photo postcards featuring bullfighting in the arena in Nîmes. In the Summer of 1909, he produced cards of the opening of the CFD Lozère at Florac.

Charles Perrier’s seminal work Les Criminels is the outcome of a study Perrier did from 1896 to 1899 of the population of the Nîmes House of Correction. Perrier amassed a huge amount of anthropomorphic data—nationality, ethnic origin, profession, religion, distinguishing features. He analyzed, classified, studied and photographed inmates, taking a special interest in their tattoos, which were precisely rendered by drawings and, at least in one case, a photograph taken by Bernheim.

Andrea Blenheim was one of the correspondents of Alice Ferrières (1909 to 1988), a professor of mathematics at the college for young girls of Murat, in Cantal who, scandalized by the Second Statute of the Jews, helped victims of Vichy anti-Semitism.  Andrea was deported to Auschwitz in 1944.

further reading: Chère Mademoiselle…» – Alice Ferrières et les enfants de Murat, 1941-1944 Mona Ozouf, Patrick Cabanel 24 Feb 2010 Calmann-Lévy,

Tiburcio Berrotarán, Spain

  • Tiburcio Berrotarán

Tiburcio Berrotarán was a local man who, with his wife Marcela Urtizberea had a souvenir shop, La Española, at 4 Main Street, Hondarribia, a town situated on the west shore of the mouth of the River Bidasoa, in Gipuzkoa, in Basque Country. He sold a large collection of images of the area52. The shop was on the ground floor of the family home which had blue brick façade and the coat of arms of the Thief of Guevara on it53. Berrotarán’s career as a publisher extended into the divided back era. He is listed as bombardino54 in an 1896 photograph of the Hondarribia band55.

Berthaud Freres, Paris

  • B.F.,PARIS
  • B.F.,Paris
  • B.F.,PARIS followed by a small drawing (a recumbent heliotrope referencing Helios)
  • Imp. Berthaud – Baschet, edit.
postcard collecting was a very common topic on early postcards

Berthaud Brothers, printers and publishers in Paris, ran a photo studio called Maison Helios in Paris in the late 19th century. Michel Berthaud (1845-1912) was certainly one of them56. Their business was first located at 9 rue Cadet in the 9th arrondissement and later expanded to eight cites in France57. Active from 1889 to around 1908, they published cards of the Paris Exposition Universelle of 1900 and Michel Berthaud produced a brochure of Albert Robida’s model of Old Paris which was one of the hits of the event58. They also printed cards for Baschet (qv). In 1906 they published colorised versions which enjoyed some success59. They are presumably also responsible for cards with the label Ed Hélio B.F. ALGER often said to be Balconnier Freres60. A lecture on ancient monuments of Algeria given by Albert Ballu at the Trocadero Palace on December 11, 1893 had collotype illustration by Berthaud Brothers from the photographs of the Committee on Historical Monuments61.

This card was sent to Miss Edith Drummond Hay in December 1901. Miss Hay was born in 1872, one of four sisters and two brothers .The family lived in a house in Scroggieden, where the Friarton Bridge now stands.
Edith, who never married, lived thereafter in Glencarse, where she was a pillar of the church, until her death aged 88 in 1960.
Her album recording her voluntary work in WWI is on permanent loan to the Red Cross Museum in London

Widow Bertrand, Troyes62, France

  • Vve. Bertrand, édit, Troyes

The widow Bertrand, publisher, Troyes. Published a number of undivided backs of Eugène Guyot’s (qv) photographs of Troyes. ATEC, the only French Academy of cartophily was established in Troyes in 199063.

Bevan & Company, Málaga, Spain

  • BEVAN & Co – MÁLAGA

FC Bevan & Company of Malaga. By 1899 Bevan was Consular Agent for the USA in Malaga64. In the valley of Campanillas of Andalucia, raisin production peaked in the early years of the 20th century. FC Bevan sold raisins collected in Santa Matilde, El Conde, El Tarajal, Hacienda S. Ginés and Cortijo Victoria65. Bevan published tinted photographs as undivided-back postcards. Many of his postcards had scenes of the vineyards of Campanillas or other views of the industry66.

F. Beyer’s Tourist-Bureau,

Bergen and Oslo, Norway

  • F. Beyers Tourist-Bureau, Bergen, Christiana
  • F. Beyer’s Touristbureau, Bergen-Kristiana
  • F. Beyer’s Touristbureau, Bergen.

F. Beyer, tourist bureau and travel agent, 2 Strandgaden, Bergen and 33 Carl Johansgade, Oslo. Beyer’s offices gave information to tourists, sold hotel-coupons and steamboat-tickets, and supplied guides. In 1887 he published a guide to western Norway. He also published a tourist journal entitled Beyer’s Weekly News67. Beyer also published Norge i Billeder – Norway in Pictures and other commercial tourist albums of Norwegian photographic views.

F. Biehler-Moreau, Versailles, France

  • F. Biehler-Moreau, Edit., Versailles
  • F. Biehler-Moreau

F. Biehler-Moreau. Versailles postcard publisher. Published a series of cards of the palace there, some at least of which were printed by Bergeret & Co of Nancy (qv). Related to Mme Moreau (qv). Bergeret also printed cards of Versailles bearing the name C. Biehler.

Victor Billaud, Royan, France

  • Collection Victor Billaud, imp.-edit68. Royan

Pierre-Victor Billaud69, (19 June 1852 to 10 January 1936) printer, publisher, poet, Royan. Billaud moved to Royan in 1877, with his wife and their first son. He opened his own printing shop and, over the years, started more than one newspaper and published his own poetry and a local tourist guide. He also took and published 24 photographs of the three stays in Royan of Emile Zola between 1886 and 188870. WWI ruined his printing business and ended the publication of his current periodical. His son Pierre served and later died of the consequences of the war.

Marie M. Billing

  • M. Billing.

Marie Billing (12 February 1870 to 13 July 1944) German still-life artist. Billing produced many fine paintings of fruit for Ernest Nister.

William Arthur Bilton,

York, England

  • W. A. BILTON, The Picture Post Card Emporium, York.

William Arthur Bilton, King’s Square, York. WWI Appeal Tribunal papers71 for 4 May 1916 detail the appeal against conscription of Robert Cecil Bilton, aged 33 of Kings Square, York described as a stationery and postcard store. As a member of the Vegetarian Society since 1904, also a Quaker, Bilton offered to do work which was not linked to the war effort. The North Riding Appeal Tribunal gave Bilton exemption from combatant service conditional on his taking up before 20 May 1916 work of attendant upon the Insane at York City Asylum and continuing in same occupation.

The Biograph Studio, London

  • THE BIOGRAPH STUDIO 107 REGENT STREET W.

Longer article here.

John H. Bishop,

Bournemouth, England

  • Saxonian. Printed for J.H. Bishop. 18 & 19 The Arcade.

John H. Bishop, high class stationer, 18 & 19 The Arcade, Bournemouth. Listed as a fancy stationer in Kelly’s Hampshire Directory for 1898.

Black & Johnston

Brechin, Angus, Scotland

  • Black & Johnston, Printers, Brechin

Black & Johnston, Printers, Booksellers and Stationers, 40 High Street, Brechin. In 1889 the firm published Historical guide, Brechin and Neighbourhood by Walter Coutts. The firm also published the Brechin Almanac and Directory. The 19th – 1904 – edition72 also listed them as music-sellers, newsagents and licensed emigration agents, listing the White Star and other shipping lines to the USA and other popular emigration destinations. It also gave details of the Black Bequest, a charitable trust by the late Alex. Black of the firm under the trusteeship of the Kirk Session of Brechin. It had a capital sum of £1,000 and a yearly value of about £30 for the poor of Brechin not in receipt of Parochial relief. In 1904 William Johnston, publisher, was vice-president of the Brechin Savings Bank and also Sub-Distributor and Sub-Collector of Taxes, director of the Gas-Light Company and President of the local Ornithological Association. Meanwhile, W. Johnston junior was a committee member of the City Club at the Mechanics’ Institution Buildings and Brother W. Johnston junior was Secretary of St James Masonic Lodge.

Blanchard Press, New York

  • BLANCHARD PRESS, NEW YORK
On 30 November 1894 the Directors of the National Shoe and Leather Bank held a meeting and authorized President of the Bank to offer a reward of $5,000 for the apprehension and safe delivery to the authorities of Samuel C. Seely, the fugitive bookkeeper who was charged with having embezzled $354,000 from the institution.

Publishers still in business in Boston. Published early postcards of New York buildings. Sold out to Commonwealth Press in 1913 and moved to 25 Foster Street, Worcester, MA73.

Blankwaardt & Schoonhoven

Rijswijk, South Holland, Netherlands

Blankwaardt & Schoonhoven, bookstore and publisher, Rijswijk.

Blankwaardt & Schoonhoven published the works of Arthur Conan Doyle, Alexander Dumas and many others in Dutch but not all such ventures went smoothly: In 1919, the Commission for the Regulation of Translation law granted JC Dalmeijer, publisher in Amsterdam, the right to publish the Dutch translation of five Tarzan books by Edgar Rice Burroughs prompting a public spat with B & S who announced that Methuen & Co., London, had granted them translation rights for a not insignificant amount. The impasse was resolved by a joint publication but co-operation was not long lasting.

B & S published a number of factual monographs such as The East India Company as a Naval Power in Asia by N MacLeod. They also published pictures for use in primary schools.

Many of their postcards were photographs of the Dutch Royal Family, often by court photographer Herman Deutmann. This one was another joint publication, this time with de Haan of Utrecht, printed by P A Geurts of Nijmegen.

card addressed to Engineering Sapper Victor Battaillard in Liestal, Switzerland

Louis Bleuler’s heirs

Laufen Castle at Rheinfall, Dachsen, Switzerland

  • Verlag von L. Bleuler’s Erben, Schloss Laufen am Rheinfall
This is presumably a painting by JL Bleuler of the viewing platform designed by Ferdinand Stadler

Laufen Castle is a Swiss heritage site of national significance overlooking the Rhine Waterfalls first documented in the year 858. After the Helvetic Republic (1798 to 1803) the castle was in private ownership, and in 1832 the landscape painter Johann Louis Bleuler leased it and then invested substantially in renovating the castle. This included a viewing stage designed by the famous Zurich architect, Ferdinand Stadler. The new north wing included an art dealership, a camera obscura, a painting collection and various parlours and bedrooms. In 1845 Bleuler bought the castle. This gave him the right to close off access to the Rhine and to demand admission from visitors. The Bleuler School of Painting was founded in the north wing. Louis Bleuler’s heirs also commissioned and sold postcards of the attraction.

The city of Zurich reacquired the castle in 1941. The castle now serves as a tourist attraction, and contains the Bleulersaal restaurant and a youth hostel. The Rheinfall railway line passes through a tunnel under the castle, halting at the Schloss Laufen am Rheinfall station to the south of the tunnel and beneath the castle walls. The station is linked to the castle by a walkway.

an example of the address side being more dramatic than the picture side

Anton Blomberg, Stockholm

  • Ferdinand Hey’l, Stockholm A. Blomberg, Photo-card

Anton Ambrosius Blomberg (1862 to 1936) photographer, Stockholm. Blomberg’s studio was at the corner of 40 Regeringsgatan74 and 32 Smålandsgatan between 1908 and 1920. His photographs of Stockholm were published by Ferdinand Hey’l (qv).

S. Blüh, Vienna

  • SBW in clover logo

S. Blüh, postcard publisher and wholesaler, Vienna, who appears to have been the sole agent in Austria for Rotophot (qv). Postcards were mostly artistic work in monochrome with and without greetings. In the divided-back era he published cards posed by female models.

Blum & Degen Ltd, London

  • B. & D.

Blum & Degen Ltd London, England75 justifiably described themselves as Pictorial Post Card Pioneers and may have published their first cards in 1894. A view of St Pauls was postmarked on 23 December 189576. They were founded by Carlo Degen and by 1899 established as one of the foremost British postcard publishers. The album issued in 1905 to celebrate a decade of postcard publishing listed some seven thousand different views of several hundred places in Scotland and England77. However, like others, they fell victim to the overcrowding in the market; receivers were appointed in 1908 and took charge of six million cards.

Although their cards were reliably numbered, they often didn’t include the B&D identification. Their address sides always had the wording of this card and the style of the cards is shown here and on the more cards page.

Blümlein & Company,

Frankfurt on Main, Germany

  • Druck u Verlag v G. Blümlein & Co Frankfurt a/M
  • G. BLÜMLEIN & CO., FRANCOFORTE S M.78, RAPP. C. IMPERIALE79 – NAPOLI
  • Printed by Blumlein & Co., Frankfort o. M.
not a great review of the Isle of Wight

In 1864 the lithographic business Rau and Blümlein was founded at 21 Lersnerstrasse, Frankfurt am Main by the merchant Gerhard Blümlein and the lithographer Friedrich Rau. From 1877 the business of Gerhard Blümlein & Co. traded there as printers and publishers. The owners were Gerhard Johann Blümlein and Friedrich Hölter. From about 1900 the company produced picture-postcards by different printing techniques, many for export80. A view of London was postmarked on 18 December 189481. Their numbering system is said not to have developed uniformly. Blümlein & Co also reproduced their collotypes, as books and brochures, for the photographer Karl Friedrich Wunder who was active in Hannover82.

This card was sent on 5 October 1901 from A F Fellows to his father H W J Fellows at a marvelously sparse address. Gunner A.F. Fellows, Royal Field Artillery, was awarded WWI General Service Medals including a 1914-15 Star War Medal and Victory Medal.

John W Bodger,

Peterborough and Hunstanton, England

  • J. W. Bodger, Peterborough and Hunstanton

John W Bodger (born 1856) chemist, photographer and postcard publisher, Peterborough and Hunstanton. John Bodger is recorded as a chemist at 5 Broadway Peterborough in the 1901 census. During the undivided era he had some of his photographs produced in postcards by Stengel of Dresden. He is also shown as a chemist at Royal Parade, Greevegate Road, Hunstanton in Kellys Directory of Norfolk 191283. On 9 March 1920 Bodger, writing from Peterborough Natural History, Scientific, and Archaeological Society, Queen Street, Peterborough to Dr. Woodward, asked for support for his application to join the Linnean Society84. Family records for 1854 to 1937 are in the Peterborough Archives.

Bölcke & Hilliger, Berlin

  • KUNSTANSTALT BOLCKE & HILLIGER, BERLIN S.O.

Bolcke & Hilliger, art printers, Berlin S.O. in existence by 1897. They published Gruss aus view cards of eastern Germany, mostly Berlin some of which advertised a local brewery. The business featured in the Berlin directory until 1905.

H. Bonamy, Poitiers, France

  • H. Bonamy, édit, Poitiers

The Bonamy House of Poitiers is listed at 15 Rue de Cordeliers in Printers and bookshops in Poitiers during the 17th and 18th centuries85 and H seems to have been a member of this family of booksellers and publishers in the early twentieth century. Bonamy without further name is listed at that address as a member of the Western Antiquaries Society in 1904 in a Bulletin that G. Bonamy, also of that address, co-published. In 1886 Bonamy Bookshop co-published a History of Diocese of Poitiers. In some religious cards they described themselves as Pontifical publishers. In 1892 the principal of the business seems to have been M. Bonamy. In 1917 J. Lévrier joined the business which became G. Bonamy-Lévrier, libraires Editeurs, Poitiers.

H’s activity as a postcard publisher focused on Paray-le-Monial and, in isolation, on a few communes in which he seems to have family ties: Poitiers, Châtelleillon (vacation spot), Pibrac (Haute Garonne) and Gueugnon (Saone et Loire). After WWI, the company was based in La Madeleine-lez-Lille (North)86. The wording Collection H.B. beside the photograph in my card suggests he took it himself.

N. J. Boon, Amsterdam

  • Uitg87. N. J. Boon, Amsterdam

Nicolaas Jan Boon, (3 March 1862 to 1921) publisher, Amsterdam founded in 1886 and published books, magazines, calendars and postcards88. Home and office were at 13(I) Amsteldijk89. Between 1901 and 1948 Boon published The Prince of Illustrated Sheets (abbreviated as The Prince) a magazine that featured many photos, reviews and serials (by among others Arthur Conan Doyle)90. The company was liquidated in 1951.

Boots, Nottingham, England

  • PELHAM SERIES. BOOTS NOTTINGHAM.
  • BOOTS LTD PUBRS

Boots was established in Nottingham in 1849, by John Boot91. Jessie Boot was born in Nottingham in 1850 and, after his father’s death in 1860, Jesse helped his mother run the family’s herbal medicine shop, which was incorporated as Boot and Co Ltd in 1883, becoming Boots Pure Drug Company Ltd in 1888. From the original chemist shop, branches in every town in Britain spawned. When fancy goods began to be sold, postcards were soon added92. In 1920, Jesse Boot sold the company to the American United Drug Company.

Borri & Son, Corfu, Greece

  • B Borri et fils

Bartolomeo Borri, a photographer of Italian origin, established a studio in Corfu in the 1860s. He won a bronze medal at the third Olympia Exhibition in 1875, and exhibited at the Paris Exposition Universelle of 1878. In 1890 his son Giuseppe (1873–1931), joined his studio and the name was changed to Borri & Son. In 1907 they received the “Great Award” at the Bordeaux Exposition.93 International. The firm was in existence until 1943.

A. C. Bosselman & Co., New York

  • A. C. Bosselman & Co., New York. Made in Germany

A. C. Bosselman & Company, 100 Grand Street, New York. A large company producing postcards primarily for the US market from 1900. Most cards are view-cards in tinted halftones but they also published comic and greeting cards. Their cards were printed in Germany94. Bosselman’s 1910 catalogue places them at 469 Broadway and describes them as manufacturers and importers of Postal Cards, View Books, Novelties and Souvenirs of Every Description. The company later diversified to the designing of glass paperweights with scenic views or currency. Two of my cards of Pittsburg credit R. W. Johnston (qv) for the photographs.

Richard Borek, Brunswick, Germany

  • Verlag. Richard Borek, Braunschweig
  • Verlag: Richard Borek, Braunschweig. 9


Postage stamp dealer and postcard publisher. In 1893, Richard Borek started selling stamps in his father’s hat and fur business. His business was initially financed by his mother. By 1900 he was generating additional revenue by publishing postcards he commissioned from various printers. In 1907 Borek opened his own shop and subsequently added accessories such as albums and catalogues to his product line. In 1918, he opened his own printing house95 and in 1925 began remote auctions for stamp rarities. For their 75th anniversary on November 1, 1968 the company published The History of the House Richard Borek, Brunswick, Lower Saxony. The Richard Borek group of companies operates a mail order business for stamps and other collectibles including coins96.

Boston Post-Card Company,

Boston, USA

  • Boston Post-Card Co., 12 Pearl St.

Boston Post-Card Company, 12 Pearl St, Boston used the fact that their cards were hand-coloured as selling point. In 1905 the Company published The Dominoe Card set. Each card from this mostly Ivy League set pictures the starting line-up of a college with background tinting matching the school’s colours, such as blue on the Yale card97. These cards depicted portraits of the players of each team arranged like the spots on a domino. That year the company was incorporated on 19 October with $50,000 in authorised capital stock98. In 1906 they copyrighted the Famous Blue Oyster, Fish houses, Orrs island, From one to another and Portland Head Light images99. In 1906 & 1907 they published large photo-cards measuring 5¼” by 7⅜”, Descriptive Post Cards with poetry on the other side. In 1908 they copyrighted leap-year postcards.

Alexandre Bougault, Toulon, France

  • A. Bougault, édit-phot. -Toulon-sur-Mer

Alexandre Bougault, (19 December 1851 to 14 September 1911) photographer and publisher, Toulon. Parisian Alexandre Bougault senior’s military career took him to the Franco-Prussian War of 1870 and then to Algeria. 1893 found him in Toulon with his family, from where he made many photographic reports, for the famous magazine L’Illustration, as well as for the Navy. The business was transferred to Biskra in Algeria in the early years of the twentieth century, as evidenced by his first report on the city, published in 1907. At some stage, his son Alexandre (1875-1950) joined. They published many postcards from the photographs made by them, notably the ships of the French Navy. Indeed, they used a naval anchor as their logo in reference to their being official photographers. Bougault received a gold medal at the London exhibition in 1908100.

Bougé-Béal,

Clermont-Ferrand, Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes, France

  • Lib101. Bougé-Béal, 21 rue de l’Ecu, Clermont-Ferrand

Bougé-Béal, 21 rue de l’Ecu, Clermont-Ferrand published photocards of the countryside and people of the Auvergne into the divided-back era. They put their own dust jackets on local guides, advertising Papeterie, Librairie, Journaux, Publications Periodiques102. They also published a street map of Clermont-Ferrand and Royat-les-Bains.

Bourgeois Brothers,

Chalon-sur-Saône, Bourgogne-Franche-Comté, France.

  • B.F. CHALON-s-SAONE

Bourgeois Frères, printers & publishers, Chalon-s-Saone produced local topographical photo-cards into the divided-back era. They published Recherches Archeologiques dans la Vallee de la Saone, entre Lyon et Chalon-sur-Saone, de 1875 a 1920 by Bidault de Gresigny Leonce and also a biography of local artist Leon Valentin Gambey.

Bourne & Shepherd,

Kolkata, Shimla and Mumbai

  • Bourne & Shepherd, Calcutta, Simla and Bombay

Bourne & Shepherd, an Indian photographic studio and one of the oldest established photographic businesses in the world. Established in 1863, at its peak, it was the most successful commercial firm in 19th- and early 20th-century India, with agencies all over India, and outlets in London and Paris. It also ran a mail order service. From 1889 to 1894 Harry Clifton Soundy (qv) was a manager of Bourne & Shepherd’s Bombay studios at 19 Esplanade Road. In 1895 he and Charles Schulz, another employee, left Bourne’s to set up in partnership. A devastating fire in 1991 destroyed much of Bourne and Shepherd’s photographic archive and resulted in a severe financial loss to the firm. The long-term impact of the fire, legal difficulties with the Indian government, which owned the studio building, and the increasing dominance of digital technology, finally forced the studio’s closure in June 2016. At its closure, the studio had operated continuously for 176 years103. My monochrome viewcards were made in Germany.

Albert Edward Bowers

  • Painted by ALBERT BOWERS

Artist Albert Bowers (died 1893) lived in Kew, London. His paintings featured in Tucks’ Gem Scenery series which they chromographed in Saxony. Rural scenes in watercolour were the hallmark of his output. He exhibited landscapes between 1875 and 1893. He achieved one picture in The Royal Academy Summer Exhibition in London, five at The New Watercolour Society and twenty-nine at The Suffolk Street Galleries104.

J. H. Bradley & Co., Bermuda

  • PUBLISHERS: J.H.BRADLEY & CO., CERTIFICATED CHEMIST BERMUDA
  • J.H.Bradley & Co., Hamilton, Bermuda and maple leaf containing C.J.M.Co

J. H. Bradley Ph.G.105, Certificated Chemist, Hamilton, Bermuda. Their divided-back cards described them as qualified druggists of Queen Street, Hamilton. They published topographical cards of the island and its natural wonders. One of their divided-backs usefully featured an India Rubber Tree, Opposite Bradley’s Drug Store. They also commissioned maps of the island. In The Royal Gazette, Bermuda commercial and general advertiser and recorder of 28 November 1905, Bradley advertised as the trade supplier of Save-the-Horse, an equine cure-all. In 1913 Bradley advertised for rent for the Season Only “HILLSIDE” and “GLENOLA” Residences of J. H. Bradley, Esq., Hamilton, Bermuda. BOTH HOUSES ARE SITUATED IN FASHIONABLE RESIDENTIAL PART OF PITT’S BAY ROAD, NEAR PRINCESS HOTEL, AND WITHIN EASY ACCESS OF HAMILTON GOLF LINKS. GLENOLA. Both were said to be Electrically lighted, to have Commodious coach house and stabling for horses and Servants’ quarters.106

Percy Venner Bradshaw

  • PVB

Percy Bradshaw (27 November 1877 to 13 October 1965), was a British illustrator who also created the Press Art School, a correspondence course for drawing107. Bradshaw had his first drawing published in The Boy’s Own Paper when he was 15 years old, and moved to the art department of an advertising agency. Three years later he became a full time cartoonist, with his work also appearing in many magazines and the Daily Mail. He also wrote articles on drawing so successful that he decided to create his own art correspondence course, the Press Art School, in 1905. He remained principal of the school for more than 50 years. The school had more than 3,000 students by 1916, when he employed a staff of 20 people and he published many books in his Art of the Illustrator series. He created hundreds of illustrated postcards for specialised companies like Raphael Tuck & Sons.

C Brandes, Stuttgart, Germany

  • C. Brandes, Stuttgart

As early as 1899 an advertisement in International Postcard journal recorded that a view postcard album in book form had been patented by the postcard publishing house C. Brandes in Stuttgart. They were said to be extremely elegant books in gold-embossed linen108. Brandes published chromolithograph cards, souvenirs of Cairo, Jericho and Nazareth for the Egyptian market. My card published for the German market shows a young woman making a phone call and the caption How much does the sleek, brown box on the wall know109?

Carlos Brandt, Valparaíso, Chile

  • Editor Carlos Brandt, Valparaiso
  • Editor Carlos Brandt, Concepción

Carlos Brandt, German trader and importer, Valparaíso. In 1878 Brandt entered into partnership with Inghirami, a former partner of E. Niemeyer (qv). The company Inghirami & Brandt established a music and book store at 21 Calle del Cabo (Currently Esmeralda Street), in the port of Valparaiso. At the end of this association, around the middle of the 1880s, Brandt established his own business, directly importing writing and wrapping paper, blank books for schools and offices, stationery, fine hardware, albums, wallets and purses, cigarette cases, hats, fancy and gift items, fantasy and blank cards, French, English and Spanish cards, paper and cards for photographers, articles made of rush, Bristol board, bookbinders’ cardboard and card for making shoe boxes. Brandt also imported pianos, accordions, harmonies and printed music and received orders to import all kinds of items from Europe. The business was managed by Eugenio Schmutzen and H. Mattensohn. They opened branches in Santiago (in 1888) and at 73 Calle Comercio, Concepción110. The business produced cards until approximately 1909. My cards are monochrome and tinted photographs of topography and native people. They also produced a series of photographs of the 1906 Valparaiso earthquake.

Friedrich Brandt, Gmunden

  • Originalaufnahme und Verlag F.E. Brandt in Gmunden Photochromiekarte
  • F.E. Brandt in Gmunden Photochromiekarte

Friedrich Ernst Brandt (17 September 1860 to 6 August 1921 ), photographer, Gmunden. From 1891 Brandt ran a clothing store and worked as an amateur photographer. From 1895 he ran a studio and photo shop in Gmunden, initiatlly at 5 Theatergasse and later at 3 Graben. By 1899 he was publishing postcards. of Upper Austria and the Salzkammergut in particular. Brandt produced many photochrome-lithographed postcards, a technique in use until 1943. In about 1912, Brandt published Pyhrnbahn, a book of a dozen photographs of the Gmunden area.

In 1921 the publishing house was taken over by Brandt’s daughter Anna, who was joined by his granddaughter Ilse in 1953 and continued until 1964 after which the company was wound up.

This card: Traunkirchen is a municipality on the Traunsee in Upper Austria. The village is known for the Fischerkanzel (Fisherman’s Pulpit), located in the parish church, which was carved in 1753.

Karl Braun & Co, Munich, Germany

  • Kunstanstalt Karl Braun & Co. Munchen
The sea shone far out image is part of Braun’s Lunakarte series

Karl Braun Company was founded about 1898 in Munich and moved to Berlin in 1911. The result is the strange company logo: the Münchner Kindl rides the Berlin Bear. The company was initially run jointly by Karl and Wilhelm Braun and, in later years, by Wilhelm Braun alone. The company had about 190 presses in 1907 and employed about 35 people. It existed until around 1921. The company’s speciality was topographic cards with cloudless skies and special metallic effects in silver or gold; sometimes glossy lacquer coatings were applied to parts or the whole card111.

Braune Franssen & Company,

South Africa

  • B.F. over C.
  • B.F. & C. over JHB

Braune Franssen & Company published fine topographical and ethnographical photocards of South Africa into the divided-back era with a number of variants on the logo112. Both partners seem to have operated independently: G. Franssen & Company published undivided-backs from PO Box 6296 Johannesburg which they had printed in Germany. Braune & Levy, Printers & Engravers, Johannesburg also published cards under that name113.

A Breger Brothers, Paris

  • Phototypie A. Breger, freres, 9, Rue Thenard, Paris

In 1895 Alcide and Arthur Breger, printers in Paris, founded the postcard publishing company of A. Breger Brothers. The company was one of the leading French publishers to use the phototypie (collotype) process. They printed cards for Emile Nourry of Dijon. Four generations on, the family are still in the postcard business114.

Christian Brennenstuhl

Meiringen, Bern, Switzerland

  • Verlag Chr. Brennenstuhl, Meyringen 38.
Unterer Reichnbachfall bei Meyringen. Lower Reichnbachfall near Meyringen. The uppermost of the Reichenbach Falls are famous as the site of the apparent death of Sir Arthur Conan Doyle’s fictional hero, Sherlock Holmes.The Reichenbachfall Funicular links them with Willigen, near Meiringen. On its route the line follows and crosses the lower falls of the Reichenbach. The funicular was opened in 1899, and was rebuilt in 1999 to the original design. Today it is owned by the EWR Energie company, which operates the adjacent hydroelectric power plant,

ChristianBrennenstuhl, (died 1940) bookseller, stationer and newspaper publisher. Brennenstuhl started his book and stationery shop in 1885. He also ran a print shop that was water-powered until 1919.

Meiringen is a municipality in the Interlaken-Oberhasli administrative district in the canton of Bern in Switzerland. Brennenstuhl’s newspaper, the Oberhasler, reflected the area. Belief in their descent from the Swedes is quite common among Oberhaslers.

Meiringen was adversely affected by fire in the late 19th century. After one in February 1879 that destroyed 110 buildings, regulation remained ineffective such that very few houses were erected as solid buildings such as Brennenstuhl’s house on Unteren Gasse. A further fire 1891, in which 184 buildings fell, led to an advertisement in Brennenstuhl’s own newspaper in May 1892 indicating the state of reconstruction:

“Finished window and door frames from us can be viewed … at the new building of Mr. Chr. Brennenstuhl on Bahnhofstrasse.”

Source: The fire in Meiringen in 1891 and the reconstruction of the village
By Ursula Maurer

W Brewer & Company, Hong Kong

  • W Brewer & Co Hong Kong

W Brewer & Co Ltd were listed as booksellers in The Directory & Chronicle for China, Japan, Corea, Indo-China, Straits Settlements, Malay States, Sian, Netherlands India, Borneo, the Philippines, &c 1908115. A design from W. Brewer & Company cards between 1902 and 06 featured in a sale of Fine Stamps & Covers of Hong Kong & China on 26 November 2000 by Spink in Hong Kong. The sale included a card of the publishers’ office in Queen’s Road116.

Lucien Briet, France

  • Cliche Lucien Briet

Lucien Briet (1860 to 1921) was born in Paris. In 1880 he deserted the French military and fled to Belgium where he spent four years.  On his return to France he was sentenced to hard labour, pardoned and assigned to the 11th  Infantry Regiment in Africa for a year.  In 1886, finally released, he returned to his family in Charly-sur-Marne and took up photography. His father died in 1887, leaving him a small annuity which allowed him to embark on the exploration of the Pyrenees in the footsteps of Ramond de Carbonnières. He was secretary of the Caving Society, taking numerous photographs, publishing articles in specialized journals and giving lectures accompanied by screenings.


Briet quickly realized that he arrived late on the Pyrenean scene, most of the peaks having been explored and studied. He turned his gaze towards the mountains, gorges and caves of Aragon. Briet stopped his exploration campaigns in 1911, his Spanish friends having promised him the publication of his travel accounts. Through his photographs and his travel accounts, Lucien Briet testifies to the evolution of landscapes and to a disappearing Pyrenean life.

British Photoprint Co., London.

  • British Photoprint Co., London. Collo-Printers.

British Photoprint Co., London. Collo-Printers established on 10 September 1895 in what appears to have been an incorporation of the business of Arthur G Collins who became their first managing director. Most of their postcard production was done in Farringdon Street between 1897 and 1904117. The company printed cards for sale far and wide: T. A. Rust, Art Photographer of Allahbad, Mussoorie, Landour & Meerut (qv) and Walch & Co. of Hobart, Tasmania. On 7 April 1899 Walch’s agent in London gave details of BP Co’s requirements:

“A negative is not really necessary. They can work with a good clear silver print of sepia tint and prefer this to a negative. Size must not be less than ½ plate, but a whole plate print for preference.

10,000 cards 25/- per thousand

20,000 @ 22/6 per thousand.

They are now doing a lot of these cards for advertisements… The rage for these cards in England and from the Continent is enormous & still increasing. I suppose there would be a large sale to passengers from England to New Zealand if you publish a series of Tasmanian views. I hear on all sides that it is the fashion to collect these cards now, this of course increases the sales.118

Britton & Rey,

San Francisco, USA

  • BRITTON & REY, LITHOGRAPHERS, SAN FRANCISCO
The S.S. Ventura was a vessel run by the Oceanic Steamship Company, on trans-Pacific runs, offering a regular service connecting San Francisco with Sydney and Auckland via Honolulu. Ventura sailed from San Francisco bound for Sydney and arrived at Auckland on Tuesday 29 December 1903.

Britton & Rey, Lithographers, San Francisco. The leading lithographic printers in San Francisco during the second half of the 19th century, Britton & Rey, published a very large number of views of California, printed both in large format and as postcards, as well as commercial work that included maps, stationery and stock certificates. Joseph Britton (1825-1901) was born in Yorkshire, England, and went to America in 1835 where he had become a lithographer in New York by 1847. In 1849 he travelled to California to seek his fortune in gold mining, but then went to San Francisco where he started a lithography business. In 1852 Britton formed a partnership with the lithographer Jacques Joseph Rey (1820-1892). Rey was born in Bouxwiller, Alsace, France, and apparently was trained in art and lithography. He migrated to California around 1850. In the partnership with Britton, Rey was chiefly the artist who travelled around sketching views and designing prints, although Britton designed views as well. Britton was the chief lithographer who also ran the business side of the firm. Some of their views were probably based on photographs taken by others. After Rey’s death in 1892 and Britton’s retirement, the firm was taken over by Valentine J. A. Rey, J. J. Rey’s son, who ran it at least until the 1906 earthquake and fire. What remained of the Britton & Rey business was sold to another San Francisco printer, A. Carlisle and Company, in 1916119.

A. C. Broggini, Milan & Cairo

  • A. C. Broggini – Milano-Caire

A. C. Broggini produced cards of good photographs of Egypt.

Giacomo Brogi

  • Brogi succrs120 Exportation de photographies Naples
  • FOT. BROGI [in the bottom corner of the photograph]

Giacomo Brogi (1822 to 1881) was an Italian photographer. He started working in photography in 1856. He created his first studio in Corso Tintori, in Rome in 1864. He began travelling around Italy and later travelled to the Middle East in 1868 including Palestine, Egypt and Syria. Brogi was associated with the Photographic Society of Italy. He had studios in Florence (1 Via Tornabuoni), Naples (19 bis Via Chiatamone) and Rome (419 Via del Corso). After his death, his son Carlo continued his photographic work121. Alteroci of Terni (qv) and Richter of Naples (qv) both published undivided cards with Brogi photocredits.

F J Brooke, Gloucester, England

  • BROOKE PRINTER, GLOUCESTER

F J Brooke, Gloucester printer and postcard publisher. Brooke and his wife were living in St Michael’s Square in 1901 when their daughter was born. Brooke was an active member of the Bible Christian Methodists of Gloucester during the early years of St Luke’s Church, Stroud Road which opened in 1904122. From 1904 he printed the Journal of the Wesley Bible Union of which he was a founder. In 1913 he printed a pamphlet for the British Union for the Abolition of Vivisection. Up to at least WWI Brooke printed views of the Gloucester area in the Dainty Series of ETW Dennis(qv).

The Brooklyn Eagle, New York

  • BROOKLYN EAGLE POST CARD SERIES 4 No. 24.
John Howard Payne (June 9, 1791 to April 10, 1852) was an American actor, poet, playwright, and author who had most of his theatrical career and success in London. He is today most remembered as the creator of “Home! Sweet Home!”, a song he wrote in 1822 that became widely popular in the United States and the English-speaking world. After his return to the United States, Payne spent time with the Cherokee Indians. He published accounts that suggested their origin as one of the Ten Lost Tribes of ancient Israel.
In 1842, Payne was appointed American Consul to Tunis, where he served for nearly 10 years until his death.

The Brooklyn Eagle, originally The Brooklyn Eagle and Kings County Democrat, was a daily newspaper published in the city and later borough of Brooklyn, in New York City, for 114 years from 1841 to 1955. At one point, it was the afternoon paper with the largest daily circulation in the United States. Walt Whitman, the 19th-century poet, was its editor for two years. The paper ceased publication in 1955 because of a prolonged strike. It was briefly revived from the bankrupt estate between 1960 and 1963 and again since 1996123. Between 1905 and 1907, when it was Brooklyn’s leading newspaper, the Daily Eagle, published a remarkable series of almost five hundred postcards, most with monochrome photographs of local scenes124. They are numbered by series and individual card.

William Brown, Edinburgh

  • Brown’s Series.
  • “BROWN’S SERIES”

William Brown was a fine art and antiquarian bookseller and publisher with premises at 23 Princes Street, Edinburgh. Attributing Brown’s Series of undivided-back black and white topographical photographs of Scotland to him is a little speculative.

Brown & Bigelow,

St Paul and Toronto

  • COPYRIGHT, 1906, BROWN & BIGELOW, ST. PAUL AND TORONTO

Brown & Bigelow, distributor of promotional products and calendar advertising, St Paul. In 1896 Herbert Huse Bigelow, a young calendar salesman teamed up with financier Hiram Brown to form his own calendar company. Bigelow was the sole representative in management, on the sales force, and at the press. Sales mounted. The first branch sales office opened in Boston in 1902, with others soon following. The business needed more space as early as 1899 and moved to new quarters, soon to be outgrown. The company built its own large manufacturing plant in 1914 and in 1980, built its present headquarters in St. Paul125. Unsurprisingly, their postcards were in the form of pages from a calendar

Tom Browne

  • Tom B.

Tom Browne (1870-1910) was one of the first, and arguably one of the greatest, of the early British comic postcard artists. His output was prodigious and has always been much collected. Born in Nottingham, Browne began work at the age of eleven as an errand boy. By the age of fourteen he was serving a seven year apprenticeship with a printing company and had begun to exercise his artistic talent sketching cartoons. His breakthrough came in 1888 when James Henderson’s comic paper, Scraps, published his work. Browne made more money that day than his training would provide in months and he was to continue to moonlight for the comic papers while he completed his apprenticeship. In 1895 Browne moved to London to make his living as a comic artist. His work appeared regularly in low cost comic papers and his fame and success grew. He was the creator of several popular characters, his duo Weary Willie and Tired Tim bringing him a considerable following. Browne was an outgoing, gregarious and popular man. In 1897 he was one of the founders of the lithographic colour-printing firm of Tom Browne & Co in Nottingham. He was an enthusiastic cyclist and traveller, a Freemason, a volunteer in the territorial Army Service Corps. His cartoons were published worldwide as he travelled. He was also an accomplished water-colour artist. On April Fools day in 1898 Browne, together with with Dudley Hardy, Phil May, Walter Fowler, Lance Thackeray (qv), Cecil Aldin, W Sanders Fiske, and Walter Churcher founded the London Sketch Club, an organisation that he was later (1907) to preside over. Also in 1898 he became a member of The Royal Society of British Artists and saw his first water colour accepted for exhibition at the Royal Academy. Browne’s work differed from many of his contemporaries, with bold clear lines it was an unfussy poster style that was ideally suited to the emerging postcard publishing boom. Browne died at 39 of throat cancer. He was buried with full military honours at the Shooters Hill Cemetery in London126.

Brown and Rawcliffe

Liverpool, England

  • B. & R SERIES. B. & R.’S CAMERA SERIES

Brown and Rawcliffe, chromo-lithographers, fine art and general printers, was established in 1877, at 33 Wapping, Liverpool where they expanded until moving to specially-built premises at the Exchange Works, Pall Mall, Liverpool, in June 1894.

William Rawcliffe patented a machine which varnished and sized printings of small and large sheets. The Printing Times and Lithographer of 15 December 1884 printed a letter from Newsum, Wood, & Dyson of Leeds:.

Sir, —We notice in your issue of the Printing Times and Lithographer, of November 15th, that Messrs. Brown & Rawcliffe, 33, Wapping, Liverpool, challenge with their machine, all other makers of Varnishing Machines, and we beg to accept that challenge, and are prepared to send one of our Varnishing Machines to Messrs. Forman & Sons, Nottingham (who have two of Messrs. Brown & Rawcliffe’s machines), together with a man to work the same, and to test our machines against theirs…

The Printing Times and Lithographer, December 15, 1884 letter from Newsum, Wood, & Dyson of Leeds

In the 1890s B&R produced their Camera Series of topographical photographs of the UK with albumin technique as albums in a uniform series of local architectural and scenic views. The photo pages are fan folded.

The business was thus well-placed when postcards came along. Their main output was an extensive range of heraldic postcards in the B & R Camera series and a similar Manx Camera series. They also produced some water colours in the Sunset series + some Irish subjects and a number of humorous postcards in the Write-away series. They used a good amount of tartan in their cards of Scotland.

Using a patented process called silvergraph B&R produced a series of prints of piers on glass framed in velvet-covered board. In 1919 they were listed as boxmakers

Brück & Sohn

Meissen, Saxony, Germany

  • Brück & Sohn, Meissen.

Brück & Sohn was a German art publisher founded in Meißen in Saxony in 1793 . Carl Friedrich August Brück (1769 to 1833) set up in business after qualifying to join the Meissner Bookbinders Guild on 8 October 1793 when he also got civil rights in Meissen. Brück added trade in paper goods, calendars, pictures and fonts and, from 1801, also worked as a publisher, receiving a publishing license from the Royal Saxon State Government in 1819.

Karl August Brück (1797 to 1877) started working for his father in 1818. He expanded the company and operated it as a paper, bookbinder & fancy goods shop. The firm instituted Christmas exhibitions. Otto Julius Brück (1825 to 1905), grandson of the founder, also learned the bookbinding craft. In 1848 he joined the publishing house, which used the name Brück & Sohn from then on. Thanks to the invention of photography, postcards were conquering the world. In 1885 OJ Brück was one of the first to publish postcards. A Meissen motif was printed on the first card.

For the centenary of the company in 1893, Oscar Julius Brück (1855 to 1920) took over the publishing house together with his brother Franz Richard Brück (1858 to 1909). For the first time, neither was a bookbinder. The bookbinding workshop was converted into a shop with two large shop windows. The house was given a stylish appearance with an artistic sandstone facade. From 1897, Brück & Sohn exported the cards to other European countries, North America and Southeast Asia. A separate postcard archive has also been maintained since 1897.

In 1920 the fifth generation, Wilhelm Helmut Brück (1896 to 1961), son of Oscar Julius Brück, took over the post as managing director. Dietmar Ernst Albrecht Brück (1927 to 1997), resumed the postcard business after the WWII and added greeting cards and genre postcards. Limited paper and printing capacities remained problematic in times of the planned economy of the GDR. Advent calendars continued the Christmas theme.

When business ceased in 2019, it was one of the world’s oldest postcard publishers and had been family-owned for seven generations. Another card from this firm here.

Brunner & Co,

Zurich, Switzerland and Como, Italy

  • Brunner e C., Como with logo consisting of a fountain in the form of a face in a circle127
  • Ph & E Link, Druck128Brunner & Co, Zurich

Brunner & Company, printer and publisher founded in Zurich in 1874 by Jacob Brunner. In 1904 he opened the Como branch, headed by U. Wyss-Brunner. The business issued postcards into the thirties with production extending to many regions of Italy and a more overt commercial style than the Florentine editors Alinari (qv) and Brogi (qv)129. Brunner printed most of its cards at its factory in Zurich. With the designation B&C, they printed undivided cards for Philipp and Ernst Linck photographers (qv) and John Chapman130 in the 1910s. In the 1920s, Brunner & Co. published large sets of generic landscapes as collotypes131. They also published books in the 1920s.

Bryant Union Publishing

New York City

  • BRYANT UNION PUBL. NEW YORK CITY,

Bryant Union Publishing, New York City,

The Bryant Literary Union published a hand-coloured folding map, a fascinating guide book to the Hudson River and adjacent areas with attractive black and white wood engravings of scenic spots in the area on the verso of most of the text pages, plus a black and white map of the New York West Shore and Buffalo Railway Connections. The illustration New York and Brooklyn Bridge Opened Thursday, May 24, 1883 suggests a later publication date than the map copyright date of 1878.

In 1906 Bryant Union Publishing published Panorama of the Hudson, showing both sides of the river from New York to Albany as seen from the deck of the Hudson River day line steamers – one hundred and fifty miles of continuous scenery accurately represented from eight hundred consecutive photographs. This theme was also dominant in their postcards. I do not have more about this organisation but assume that it has to do with William Cullen Bryant (November 3, 1794 – June 12, 1878) an American romantic poet, journalist, and long-time editor of the New York Evening Post who had close affinities with the Hudson River School of art132 and whose poetic works included Scene on the Banks of the Hudson.

George Budricks,

Cape Town, South Africa

  • BUDRICKS, CHURCH STREET, CAPE TOWN
  • G. BUDRICKS, CHURCH STREET, CAPE TOWN
  • BUDRICK’S ART GALLERYS, ADDERLEY & CHURCH STREETS, CAPE TOWN.

G. Budricks & Co, also known a Budrick’s Art Galleries, was located on the corner Adderley & Church Streets, Cape Town. The Budricks were Polish and first arrived in South Africa with the British troops during the Second Boer War133. They produced a number of postcards covering Rhodesian, Nyasaland and South African scenes. The Rhodesian Study Circle have produced an analysis of the numbering of their cards134. In 1913 a strike began on a single gold mine over a specific issue. Six weeks later, after most of the white gold miners had joined the strike, the SAIF135 called a general strike and many other groups of white workers joined the strike, including building, engineering, tramway, power station and typographical workers. The casualty list for the general strike in 1913 includes George Budricks, commercial traveller who died as the result of rifle fire136 one of 21 people shot by troops.

Buffalo Morning Express,

Buffalo, New York

  • Buffalo Morning Express – Seeing Buffalo Series

Daily newspaper founded January 15, 1846, by A. M. Clapp & Co. Clapp was a printer who held various public offices137. The paper merged with the Buffalo Daily Courier to form the Courier-Express in 1926138. Between 1866 and 1878 it appears to have beenThe Buffalo Express139. Mark Twain’s father-in-law gave him the money to buy one-third interest in the newspaper, where he became a managing editor and reporter. The job, along with money his wife inherited when his father-in-law died in 1870, gave him the freedom to pursue side projects, like penning stories for magazines and beginning to write his book Roughing It140. The newspaper also published Niagara Frontier and Beautiful Buffalo Series of postcards during the undivided back era.

Buffalo News Company,

Buffalo, New York

  • The Buffalo News Company, Buffalo N.Y., Leipzig, Dresden

Buffalo News Company, newspaper founded in 1873 by Edward Hubert Butler, Sr. as a Sunday paper. In 1880, it began publishing daily editions as well, and in 1914, it became an inversion of its original existence by publishing Monday to Saturday, with no publication on Sunday. Journalists for The Buffalo News and The Buffalo Evening News have won four Pulitzer Prizes141. It is still in business. They published local topographicals produced for them by the American News Company (qv) into the divided-back era.

Louis Burgy,

Saint-Imier, Switzerland

  • EDITION BURGY LITH. SAINT-IMIER
  • Edition Burgy Lith. Saint-Imier

Louis Burgy (died in 1938 in his 69th year)142. Photographer and postcard publisher in Saint-Imier143, Louis Burgy published topographical cards, local activities and Swiss costume cards. In 1901 Burgy published The Jura Album, a book of 42 photographs of the region which he advertised as a precious, instructive and patriotic gift and sold for 2 francs 50144. He filed a US patent application for a pocket-case for post-cards in April 1904145. Burgy moved to Lausanne in 1905 where he continued as a publisher until 1922 before becoming a commercial agent in 1923.

W. Atlee Burpee Company, Doylestown, Pennsylvania, USA

  • W A B monogram Registered Trade Mark inside a circle

Washington Atlee Burpee (1858-1915) founded the famous seed company W. Atlee Burpee and Company, better known as Burpee Seeds. Their postcards featured Fordhook Farms, the fifty-plus acre historical farm of the Burpee Company, located in Doylestown, Pennsylvania. This logo was in use at least as early as 1898 and at least as late as 1914. The family name originated with French Canadian Huguenots called Beaupe or Beaupé146.

Philipp Bussemer,

Baden-Baden, Germany

  • Verlag von Ph. Bussemer, Baden-Baden.

Philipp Bussemer, (1855 to 1918) hiker and touristic pioneer, 6 Langestraße, Baden-Baden. Bussemer is credited with inventing hiking147. He was also among the first skiers in the northern Black Forest. The Westweg, running through the Black Forest, Europe’s first ever long-distance footpath, was created in 1900 by the Badischer Schwarzwaldverein on the initiative of Bussemer, and Julius Kaufmann from Lahr. Bussemer was the author of numerous hiking guides and maps, including the Black Forest from Baden-Baden to the Swiss border, the Kaiserstuhl, the Danube Valley, Hegau and Lake Constance. Bussemer took his camera, heavy with glass plates, with him. His fine photographs appeared in the monthly pages of the journal of Black Forest Association of which Bussemer led the Baden-Baden group for many years from its start in 1884. Bussemer ran a haberdashery shop in Baden-Baden. In 1885 he extended it to include a tourist information office, the first in the spa town. From this, he sold his maps, guides and picture post-cards148.

1http://www.thirdstbooks.com/snohmil2.html

2http://www.landofsixpeoples.com/news701/ns07032087.html

3 published by the Bureau of the American Republics

4 https://www.antiquetrader.com/featured/henry-rinn-jr-vintage-postcards/

5Picture Postcard Annual 2020

6http://bamforthpostcards.co.uk/bamforths-iconic-history/

7http://beecheyspostcardhistory.org.au/homes/publisher/24

8 http://www.mhs.mb.ca/docs/photographers/barrowclough_ga.shtml

9http://www.bl.uk/onlinegallery/onlineex/earlyphotos/h/006zzz0pp1912feu00012000.html

10http://discovery.nationalarchives.gov.uk/details/r/C10344925?descriptiontype=Full&ref=COPY+1/514/363

11Picture Postcards and their Publishers Anthony Byatt 1978 Golden Age Postcard Books page 334

12http://www.postcardmania.co.uk/postcard-publishers/harvey-barton-son/

13https://www.bbc.co.uk/history/ww2peopleswar/stories/98/a7588498.shtml

14https://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ludovic_Baschet

15https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Basel_Mission

16Literary Culture in Colonial Ghana: ‘how to Play the Game of Life’ Stephanie Newell Manchester University Press, 2002

17https://shodhganga.inflibnet.ac.in/bitstream/10603/132049/11/11_chapter%205.pdf

18http://www.digitami.it/opera.do;jsessionid=B183FE8B58F910796F80833732217CA0?operaId=591&visual=ocr&paginaN=83

19 Sole rights

20 Editori a Milano (1900-1945). Repertorio [Directory of Publishers in Milan (1900-1945)], Patrizia Caccia 2013  Franco Angeli

21Picture Postcard Annual 2020

22 Picture Postcards and their Publishers Anthony Byatt 1978 Golden Age Postcard Books page 39

23https://www.nls.uk/media/1126444/discover-nls-26.pdf

24https://blogs.canarias7.es/retrografias/2018/09/el-bazar-aleman/

25http://www.bournemouthecho.co.uk/news/11800746.134_years_of_Beales__a_look_at_the_department_store_s_long_history/

26 Sole rights

27 Engineer or holder of some similar masters degree.

28 Magazine of the Stamps

29 http://www.afi-roma.it/Pubblicazioni/AngoloRaritaFilateliche/AggiornamentoNovembre2016/BNOTIZIARIOAFI362016a.pdf

30https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Luigi_Bechi

31 Marian Rappl: Aryanising in Munich. The repression of Jewish traders from the economic life of the city 1933 – 1939. Zeitschrift für bayerische Landesgeschichte , Vol. 63 (2000), Vol. 1, pp. 123-184.

32Das Kulturerbe deutschsprachiger Juden: Eine Spurensuche in den Ursprungs-, Transit- und Emigrationsländern [The Cultural Heritage of German-speaking Jews: A Search for Traces in the Origin, Transit and Emigration Countries] Elke-Vera Kotowski Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG, 17 Dec 2014

33An Island Called Home Returning to Jewish Cuba Ruth Behar

34http://www.tpa-project.info/html/body_littauer__boysen.html

35http://www.metropostcard.com/publishersb1.html

36https://twicemodern.wordpress.com/2013/03/24/windermere-and-great-photography/

37http://www.ebay.co.uk/itm/Waterhead-Lake-Windermere-Cumbria-Original-1890s-Collotype-by-H-Bell-/322082481051

38https://www.geni.com/people/Karl-Rudolf-Georg-Bellander/6000000010581105747

39http://e1466.blogspot.co.uk/2011/04/vykortsforlag.html

40http://benghiat.org/giat-yemen.htm

41Charles Nedey, un hôtelier photographe à Aden

42 Cassine is a town and commune of the Province of Alessandria in the Italian region Piedmont.

43 Fornace Fratelli Benzo di Cassine

44http://www.lancora.com/09/2009-09-13/art_aq_03.html

45 Braine-l’Alleud is a Walloon municipality in the Belgian province of Walloon Brabant, about 20 kilometres (12 miles) south of Brussels. Bordering Flanders, the town is home to a minority of Dutch-speakers.

46https://www.wiki-braine-lalleud.be/index.php5?title=Institut_Saint-Jacques

47http://wiki-braine-lalleud.be/index.php5?title=Royal_Cercle_Musical

48Private law in Ypres in the 13th Century

49 Gray is a commune in the Haute-Saône department in the region of Bourgogne-Franche-Comté in eastern France.

50http://fantaisiesbergeret.free.fr/albert_bergeret.htm

51http://www.alienor.org/publications/carte_postale/historique2.htm

52http://sebastianhondarribia.blogspot.co.uk/2012/10/restaurante-sebastian-hondarribia-la-tienda-de-souvenirs.html

53http://olerki-poesia1.blogcindario.com/2008/12/01559-guadalupe-serrano-berrotaran-mi-madre-juliana-berrotaran-mi-amatxo.html

54Euphonium/saxhorn

55https://www.facebook.com/145502952204991/photos/a.145505132204773.37459.145502952204991/558708017551147/

56http://data.bnf.fr/15342641/michel_berthaud/

57 https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Berthaud_fr%C3%A8res

58http://c86.tumblr.com/post/28699679469/michel-berthaud-paris-exposition-of-1900-view

59 https://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/%C3%89diteurs_fran%C3%A7ais_de_cartes_postales

60 https://www.etsy.com/listing/229490149/risque-art-nouveau-mercury-french

61http://www.youscribe.com/catalogue/tous/savoirs/tebessa-lambese-timgad-monuments-antiques-de-l-algerie-1892874

62 Troyes is a commune and the capital of the department of Aube in north-central France in existence since the Roman era. It is located on the Seine river about 150km (93 miles) southeast of Paris. This area is known as the Champagne region of Northern France.

63https://atec-troyes.blogspot.co.uk/p/qui-sommesnous.html

64 O’Shea’s Guide To Spain And Portugal Edited By John Lomas Eleventh Edition London Adam And Charles Black 1899

65http://campanillasysuhistoria.blogspot.co.uk/2014/03/la-produccion-de-pasas-en-campanillas.html

66http://campanillasysuhistoria.blogspot.co.uk/2014/03/los-vinos-de-campanillas.html

67 http://runeberg.org/baenosw89/0188.html

68 Imprimeur editeur – printer & publisher

69 http://www.pays-royannais-patrimoine.com/themes/histoire-histoires/victor-billaud/regard-sur-une-vie/

70https://archinoe.fr/console/ir_ead_visu.php?eadid=FRAD017_92Fi&ir=24419

71https://archivesunlocked.northyorks.gov.uk/CalmView/Record.aspx?src=CalmView.Catalog&id=NRCC%2FCL%2F9%2F1%2F312

72 https://archive.org/stream/brechinalmanacdi1904brec/brechinalmanacdi1904brec_djvu.txt

73https://web.wpi.edu/academics/library/collections/printworcester/histories_worcester.html

74 Government Street

75 Picture Postcards and their Publishers Anthony Byatt 1978 Golden Age Postcard Books page 45

76Picture Postcard Annual 2020

77 Pictures in the Post Richard Carline (1959 Gordon Fraser) p 44

78 Frankfurt am Rhein in Italian.

79 Seems to be an indication of Royal patronage

80 http://www.tpa-project.info/TPA_17_3_Frankfurt.pdf

81Picture Postcard Annual 2020

82https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gerhard_Bl%C3%BCmlein_(Verlag)

83 http://www.fadingimages.uk/photoBo.asp

84 https://www.nhm.ac.uk/CalmView/Record.aspx?src=CalmView.Catalog&id=DF+PAL%2F100%2F66%2F48

85 L’Imprimerie & la librairie à Poitiers pendant les XVIIe et XVIIIe siècles

86http://www.cparama.com/forum/editeur-h-b-ou-h-bonamy-t11632.html

87 Uitgeverij – Dutch for Publishing house

88http://www.ihesm.com/ansicht/NJB/index.htm

89http://redeenportret.nl/portret/04e0bc2e-60b9-11e2-82e9-003048976c14

90https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/De_Prins_der_Ge%C3%AFllustreerde_Bladen

91https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Boots_UK

92Picture Postcards and their Publishers Anthony Byatt 1978 Golden Age Postcard Books page 47

93http://www.getty.edu/research/tools/guides_bibliographies/photography_greece/photographers.html

94http://www.metropostcard.com/publishersb1.html

95https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_Borek_Unternehmensgruppe

96 Helmfried Luers - The Postcard Album
	http://www.guestrow-history.de/richard-borek

97http://antiqueshoppefl.com/articles/football.htm

98https://core.ac.uk/download/pdf/146813715.pdf

99 Catalog of Copyright Entries, Engravings, Prints Etc. Fine Arts July-Dec 1906

100http://photographesenoutremerafrique.blogspot.co.uk/2009/11/bougault-alexandre-1851-1911-et-son.html

101Librairie – bookshop

102 Stationery, Bookstore, Newspapers, Periodical Publications

103 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bourne_%26_Shepherd

104https://archive.org/details/dictionaryofarti00grav/page/32

105 Graduate of Pharmacy

106 The Sun newspaper,New York, 5 January 1913

107 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Percy_Bradshaw

108 No. 1, page 7; Vorstudien und Dokumente zu einer Geschichte der Bildpostkarte bis 1933 – Preliminary studies and documents on a history of the picture postcard until 1933 Jutta Assel Georg Jäger

109 Ich wieviel doch weiss das sleine, Braune kastchen an der Wand?

110 Text by Samuel Leon http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/searchq=cache:0YhjC0yu_1UJ:www.chilecollector.com/archwebpost00_edit/archwebposteditor02/post_edit_brandt_valpo.html+&cd=2&hl=en&ct=clnk&gl=uk

111 http://www.guestrow-history.de/karl-braun

112 http://www.martin-nicholson.info/zy2xw7/checklistofpublishers.txt

113http://www.rhodesianstudycircle.org.uk/braune-levy/?COLLCC=1345202305

114http://www.mexichrome.fr/presentation/d-ou-venons-nous

115https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=GoxEAQAAMAAJ&pg=PA1459&lpg=PA1459&dq=%22W+Brewer+%26+Co%22+%22hong+kong%22&source=bl&ots=j6ZXTDbvir&sig=I59ijn3IgJI1dkUDKcmQQ5KQ6X4&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwiN4NrV3PbPAhVhI8AKHUi-AQAQ6AEIIjAB#v=onepage&q=%22W%20Brewer%20%26%20Co%22%20%22hong%20kong%22&f=false

116http://www.christies.com/lotfinder/Lot/cover-w-brewer-co-1902-06-a-1921919-details.aspx/

117Picture Postcards and their Publishers Anthony Byatt 1978 Golden Age Postcard Books page 49

118http://beecheyspostcardhistory.org.au/homes/aboutseries/86

119https://art.famsf.org/britton-rey

120Successeurs ? [successors]

121https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Giacomo_Brogi?oldid=208216229

122 Gloucestershire History No. 23 (2009) pages 2-11

123 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brooklyn_Eagle

124 Brooklyn: Daily Eagle Postcards, 1905-1907 Richard L. Dutton June 28, 2004

125 https://www.brownandbigelow.com/experience/our-story

126https://aboutcards.blogspot.com/2007/03/tom-browne-comic-postcard-artist.html

127 The face appears to be vomiting but some other explanation is no doubt correct

128 Printingbu

129 https://www.memorieinfoto.it/fondo/fondo-foto-edizioni-brunner-c-fotografie

130 http://bnaps.org/hhl/newsletters/pcrds/pcrd-2000-11-v001n05.pdf

131 https://www.doaks.org/research/library-archives/dumbarton-oaks-archives/collections/ephemera/names/brunner-co

132 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_Cullen_Bryant

133http://anglo437.rssing.com/browser.php?indx=59775919&item=555

134http://www.rhodesianstudycircle.org.uk/g-budricks-co/

135The South African Industrial Federation of trades unions.

136http://www.historicalpapers.wits.ac.za/inventories/inv_pdfo/A3299/A3299-G1-1-1-003-jpeg.pdf

137http://bechsed.nylearns.org/pdf/Buffalo_Newspapers_Since_1870.pdf

138https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Buffalo_Courier-Express

139http://cdm16694.contentdm.oclc.org/cdm/landingpage/collection/VTP005

140 www.twcnews.com/nys/…/mark-twain-s-writing-legacy-boasts-buffalo-roots.html

141 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Buffalo_News

142(11 October 1899 – 31 May 1902)

https://musees.lausanne.ch/SGP/Consultation.aspx?Id=12301

143 Saint-Imier is a municipality in the French-speaking Jura Bernois administrative district in the canton of Bern in Switzerland.

144La Fédération Horlogerie Suisse 31 December 1901

145http://www.google.com.pg/patents/US807719

146http://www.laurelcottagegenealogy.com/?tag=vintage-postcard-publisher-logo-for-fordhook-postcards

147 https://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:STPrkUKWn4MJ:https://bestdestinationmarketing.wordpress.com/page/3/+&cd=12&hl=en&ct=clnk&gl=uk

148 https://www.schwarzwald-informationen.de/persoenlichkeiten/philipp-bussemer.html

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