- Uitg. Gebr. Haagens, Rotterdam
Emanuel Haagens (5 March 1830 to 27 December 1907) and Kalman Haagens (12 March 1836 to 19 February 1895), printers, publishers and paper merchants, Rotterdam. The brothers were printing by 1865. In 1869 Kalman was living at 25 Keizerstraat which became the editorial of the Israelite Household Weekly the brothers published. The journal ran from 1870 to May 1940. The brothers were also correspondents for one of the other two Jewish magazines published in Netherlands. Otherwise their output of books focussed on the liturgical including the 1880 Regulations of the Israelite Men’s Burial Society. They also had a label factory and an advertising agency.
Emanuel’s son Abraham Joseph Haagens (1873 to 1936) and Kalman’s son Joseph Nathan Haagens (26 April 1881 to 21 May 1943) carried on the business and must have been responsible for the postcard output which seems to be very limited. In 1918 JN Haagens was managing the label factory. The printing works were destroyed by bombing in WWII.
Source: Jewish Heritage Rotterdam
This card: The Delftsche Poort in Rotterdam was a city gate, the third and last of which was built in 1764 to a design by architect Pieter de Swart. It didn’t survive WWII. Fifty years later, a reconstruction in steel, designed by the artist Cor Kraat, was erected on almost the original site of the Delft gate on the Pompenburg, decorated with some remnants of the carved ornaments of the earlier gate.
Habra Brothers, Damascus
- Habra Freres, Damas
Four of the Islamic ceramics in the collection of the Badisches Landesmuseum Karlsruhe are recorded as having been acquired in 1897 from Habra Frères in Damascus, probably in the course of the new acquisitions for the Kunstgewerbemuseum founded in 18901. Haneh Yousef Mikhail Habra (born Swayed)2 (1832 to 1909) had seven children including Philip Abraham Yousef Atallah Habra (born 1863) and Habib Abraham Yousef Atallah Habra. Aziz Abraham Yousef Atallah Habra (1856 to 1933) was Roman Catholic Archbishop Grégoire Pierre Habra for the last ten years of his life3 but the others might have been merchants in Damascus.
- Verlag H. Häcki, Phot., Engelberg
Hermann Hacki-Hurschler, photographer and publisher, Engelberg, a major mountain resort in central Switzerland. Häcki’s business was located in the “Merkur” (Mercury) house on Alte Gasse, Engelberg.
Hacki produced studio portraits and published local topographical photocards into the divided-back era.
Wolff Hagelberg, Berlin
- WH monogram in shield Berlin
- Made by WH monogram in shield Berlin
- W. HAGLEBERG, AKT. GES. BERLIN
- in the stamp box: PUBLISHED BY W. HAGELBERG, LONDON & NEW YORK, Printed in [WH monogram in shield] Germany
Wolff Hagelberg was one of Europe’s leading fine art publishers between 1860 and the 1890s. He had manufacturing and printing works at 19-21 Marien-Strasse, Berlin4, a warehouse in London from 1885 at 12 London Wall and premises in New York from 1889 at 36 and 38 East 12th Street. Hagelberg also published for the Egyptian market. S. Hildesheimer (qv) invited Hagelberg to share judging their 1881 prize competition: We were fortunately able to obtain the valuable services of W. Hagelberg of Berlin, a gentleman of great experience, and occupying a foremost position amongst Fine Art Printers to assist in the selection of the designs, thereby securing not only the highest artistic but the best practical judgement for this important task5. In early/mid 1898 Hagelberg registered a hold-to light card design6, one of two successful competing designs7.
- G. H.
Gunder Olsen Hagen (1826 to 1914) gave up teaching to sell books and opened his book and paper shop in Hammerfest in 1855. In the 1890s, the business was expanded to include a printing and concert agency. Between 1910 and 1978 there was a bakery too. In 1988, the business became a limited company. In 1993, a branch was established in Honningsvåg.
After Gunder Hagen’s death in 1914, his son Toralv Hagen (1876 to 1957) took over the management of the company until the third generation, Gunnar Hagen, took over in 1946. The company is now run by the fourth generation, Toralv (Toto) Hagen, and is northern Norway’s oldest trading house, stocking a wide range of books, paper products, office equipment and gifts. Hagen published local topographical photo-cards in the divided-back era.
Hammerfest is a municipality and city in Finnmark. It was for over 200 years until 1996 considered the world’s northernmost city (now Honningsvåg). Despite its location north of the Arctic Circle, the city has an ice-free harbour.
This card: Nordkapp (North Cape) in Finnmark county is a 307 m (1007 ft) high cliff rising above the Arctic Ocean. It is the northernmost point in Europe reachable by car, and the northernmost place connected with the international road network. Some 200,000 tourists visit annually, during the two to three months of summer.
This card was sent by Pat in June 1903, at the height of the midnight sun, to Mrs W B Sellar OMS [or DMS] Fraser Buildings, St Sacrament Street, Montreal, Canada. At that time there were may have been two Mr WB Sellars in Montreal; W. B. Sellar who was a QC there in 1886 and one who was born in 1849, at Keith, Banffshire, Scotland. He went to Canada in about 1887, representing Messrs. Heyman & Alexander, lace-makers of Nottingham, and made his home in Montreal thereafter. In 1907 Style journal of the clothing industry reported that he had died in London, after having taken ill while on his customary trip to the Old Country.
William B. Hale, Williamsville. Mass
- W. B. Hale, Williamsville. Mass,, Publisher (Germany).
William B. Hale, travelling stamp trader, Williamsville, was already in business in 1889 when he was painfully injured when the bicycle he was riding from Holyoke to Springfield collided with a team of horses8.
In August 1897 Hale was a guest at a meeting of the American Philatelic Association held at Boston at which a dispute between him and another stamp trader was determined in his favour. In about 1900 he produced stamp-like 1 peso labels featuring himself as Stamp Merchant with vignettes of Africa, Switzerland, Hawaii and New Foundland. He sold collectible souvenir stamps for the Pan American Exposition held in Buffalo, New York in 1901. Hale’s 1907 Old Deerfield Series of postcards showed the displays of a local history museum in Deerfield. In 1906, while living in Williamsville, he was accused by J. M. Bartels of Boston of selling U.S. newspaper stamps with forged cancellations to customers in Germany. Although Hale agreed to make restitution, Bartels indicated that the case had been reported to the authorities.
When Hale died in 1936 in the federal penitentiary in Atlanta, Georgia, found among his possessions were a number of handstamps and cancellation blocks for forging postal markings9. Other reports, however, are more sensational – that his lawlessness eventually earned him over a million dollars a year, at the expense of the U.S. Post Office Department. When postal inspectors caught up with Hale, a 40-year department employee wrote I have saved until now what I consider the most amazing adventure in my entire career as an inspector. While there are no flaming guns or violent deaths involved, the criminal was the biggest and most brazen crook I ever encountered. Hale was twice incarcerated for his misdeeds, once in 1926 for a year and a day in the House of Corrections in Worcester10.
- “Personal Work” Series. Copyrighted, 1906, by I.N. Haley.
I.N. Haley, American postcard publisher who published a Personal Work series of cards including an engraving-type image of an Old Time-religion gathering which he copyrighted in 1906.
George P. Hall & Son
- George P. Hall & Son
George P. Hall was a photographer whose Metropolitan Photographic and Fine Art Gallery in Muscatine, Iowa he sold in 1863. Hall moved from St Louis to set up a gallery in Manhatten in 1872, joined by his son James in 1876. He died in 1900 after which James continued the business until 191411. Their images provide detailed, flattering depictions of Manhattan over the decades. Included are depictions of early skyscrapers, hotel and theatre exteriors, harbour activity, and downtown streets, as well as views of Brooklyn’s business areas and resorts. Their work also included views of the U.S. Navy’s new steel battleships of the 1890s and areas outside New York. New-York Historical Society have digitised the collection and put it online12. Their publishers included Koehler (qv) United Art Publishing Company and Illustrated Post Card Co (qv).
- Hamburg-American Line Dept. of Cruises
The Hamburg-Amerikanische Packetfahrt-Actien-Gesellschaft13, HAPAG for short, was a transatlantic shipping enterprise established in Hamburg, Germany, in 1847. Among those involved in its development were prominent citizens such as Albert Ballin (Director General), Adolph Godeffroy, Ferdinand Laeisz, Carl Woermann, August Bolten and its main financial backers were Berenberg Bank and H. J. Merck & Co. It soon developed into the largest German, and at times the world’s largest, shipping company, serving the market created by the German immigration to the United States and later immigration from Eastern Europe. On the 1906 cruise to the West Indies of the Prinzessin Victoria Luise, the department of cruises published daily postcards with images from cards published by the Detroit Photographic Company (qv) and others and progress cables from Captain Brunswig to the company’s New York Office. On 1 September 1970 HAPAG merged with the Bremen-based North German Lloyd to form Hapag-Lloyd AG14.
Hamlin & Moskowitz
- Hamlin & Moskowitz Publishers
Hamlin & Moskowitz published a numbered series of German-made tinted photo-cards of Coney Island during the undivided back era.
Victor O Hammon,
Minneapolis and Chicago, USA
V.O. HAMMON PUB. CO. MINNEAPOLIS & CHICAGO
Victor O Hammon founded his postcard business in Minneapolis in 1904 and in Chicago in 190615. Hammon left Minneapolis in 1907-08 and retained a manager in Chicago until 1923. In 1915 they were in 218 South Wabash Avenue, Chicago. They published pictorial post cards and view books of the Great Lakes region16. In 1915 they paid $1 each for rights to negatives17.
This card: Lincoln Library, Springfield Illinois. In 1856 a group of Springfield businessmen organized a subscription library. Known as the Springfield Library Association, members or stockholders of the organization were able to check out books from the library. In 1899, a request was sent to the industrialist and philanthropist Andrew Carnegie asking for funds to help build a new library building. The firm of Mauran, Russel and Garden of St. Louis was hired to design the new building. Construction began in 1902 and was completed in 1904, with the building being dedicated on June 7, 1904. Carnegie chose to rename the library as Lincoln Library. It was demolished in 1974 to make way for the current building.
Émile Hamonic (26 August 1861 to 24 July 1943) art publisher, painter and photographer Saint-Brieuc (Côtes d’Armor). He was one of the very first major publishers of illustrated postcards, having begun publishing in Saint-Brieuc as early as 189320. He was a regionalist committed to Brittany, in particular, to the Breton Regionalist Union21. This was a Breton cultural and political organisation created on 16 August 1898. It was a broadly conservative grouping dedicated to preserving Breton cultural identity and regional independence. It expressed the ideology of mainly middle-class and aristocratic groups to secure continuity in local administration and Breton culture22. Unsurprisingly, the information on his cards was largely in Breton. In 1908 Hamonic was listed in an Alphabetical Directory of living and deceased members of the College of Druids, Bards and Ovates23 of Brittany24. A collection of his glass plates is in Archives-finistere.fr.
W. G. Hard
Naugatuck, Connecticut, USA.
- Publ. by W. G. Hard, Naugatuck, Conn. (Germany.)
W.G. Hard’s 5 and 10 cent store, 270 Water Street, Naugatuck –
— a magical place with all sorts of treasures . Some of his merchandise is still to be found in local homes — mainly souvenir China of Naugatuck which sells for a pretty penny now.Naugatuck Daily News, Saturday, 1 July 1972
Naugatuck was a significant manufacturing town; Uniroyal was founded as The United States Rubber Company in 1892 as a consolidation of nine rubber companies, and maintained their corporate headquarters there until the 1980s. Charles Goodyear, who was the first American to vulcanize rubber, lived in Naugatuck as a young man.
Hard commissioned local topgraphical photocards from Germany into the divided-back era and these included promotionals of local businesses, commending the number of boots and shoes the rubber factories were producing and the brick factory building on Hotchkiss Street, then home to a paper box manufacturer called the White and Wells Company.
- TALL. GRAF. DE L. J. ROSSO, BELGRANO 463 COLECCION HARDY
There have been several generations of the Hardy family who have been photographers in Buenos Aires. Their work featured the San Nicolás neighborhood of the city where many merchants of English origin established their businesses, mostly on Reconquista Street. The Scots and Irish Catholics installed their shops on Calle de la Piedad (now Avenida Bartolomé Mitre). One of Hardy’s photographs of San Nicolas was published as a card by L J Rossi.
George A Hardy & Company
Port Said, Egypt
- GEO. A HARDY & Co PORT-SAID
George A. Hardy & Company, ships’ supplier, Port Said did not publish cards; they probably sold it but may have given it away as a promotional item. They had the telegraphic address Hardy, Port Said in 1912. In November 1924 the Sphinx journal announced the engagement of Mr and Mrs Hardy’s only daughter Evelyn to Mr Walter Bond, the joint manager of the Port Said and Suez Coal Co.
According to the US Office of Naval Intelligence Port Guide in 1928, Hardy was one of the principal sources of ships’ supplies in Suez where engineering supplies were said to be limited but chandler supplies and provisions plentiful and reasonably priced. In 1939 Hardy was living at maison Simonini, rue Kitchener and was Vice-President of the Union Club, of Port Said at 34, rue Fouad Ier, 2311 where Evelyn Waugh had stayed when he visited Port Said.
Hardy Ship Suppliers are now a part of Mosleh Group shipping agency.
Hargreaves & Abé, Leeds, England
- Published by HARGREAVES & ABE, Boar Lane, Leeds
Hargreaves & Abé, 3 Royal Exchange Chambers, 43 Boar Lane, Leeds. Listed both as manufacturing chemist and manufacturing stationers & printers in White’s Directory of Leeds & the Clothing District for 1894. They published local topographicals from the court-size to the divided-back eras. Their divided-backs were produced by Hartmann (qv).
W. Hartelius, Gothenburg, Sweden
- W. Hartelius Bokhandel, Goteborg
On November 15, 1849, the bookseller and printer Carl Fritiof Arwidsson (born 1828) opened his bookstore at 37 Södra Hamngatan, in the Arkaden district of Gothenburg. The business developed very well and in addition to the bookstore, Arwidsson ran Scandinavia’s largest toy store and started a printing business in Gothenburg in March 1856. The toy store took more and more of Arwidsson’s time, so in July 1886 he sold his bookstore to bookseller JA Waldemar Hartelius (1848 to 1920). Hartelius had started as an assistant at Gumpert’s bookstore at 35 Södra Hamngatan on 1 September 1873, and was a partner in Gumpert’s from 1882. Under his ownership, the business prospered and expanded.
Hartelius’ son Walter (31 May 1889 to 4 July 1953) took over the business and his son Ulf Hartelius , (1920 to 1997) took over the bookstore, but sold it in the late 50s though Hartelius had a bookstore in the grocery store Kompassen which closed in 1975.
Source: GENEALOGY A Gothenburg family 1621
- F. Hartmann’s “Rembrandt” Series. HARTMANN in heart-shaped logo surmounted by figure of artist25
- HARTMANN in heart-shaped logo surmounted by figure of artist26
Frederick Hartmann, 45 Farringdon Street, London. A publisher of postcards, Hartman was a strong advocate of the divided back postcard and was instrumental to its establishment in England. Hartmann may have issued the world’s first divided back card27:
Mr Hartman … was the first to adapt his cards to the requirements of the new regulations anent the address side of card it is now possible to write the message, or as much as you can, on half the obverse or address side. The picture can thus occupy the whole of reverse side, which is a decided improvement, those baneful small pictures being unnecessary.All About Post Cards by W.J. Scott, August 1903, Scott & Wilson, Leeds.
Hartmann was an indigo28 merchant which is seasonal to the winter. He began to trade in postcards to occupy the summer29. While most of his cards covered views from all over Great Britain, he also produced cards on various other subjects many of which were artist-signed. In addition to having his cards printed in Saxony, he imported many glamour cards from the Continent – in 1903 he was one of the first publishers to import series of bathing beauties from Paris30. In 1904 he joined the moonlight card market with transparent cards where the sunlight could be converted to night-time conditions by holding them against the window31. He was the British distributor of postcards for Trenkler & Company. His logo was also on the Imperial Series cards issued by the Picture Post Card Company of Ottawa (qv) from 1904 and a similar Imperial Series, produced for Holt, Renfrew & Co of Quebec and Toronto. Picture Postcard Annual 2020 records a card postmarked 26 September 1902. It is not clear whether cards marked FH London are by this publisher.
- COPYRIGHT 1906 BY FRED HARVEY DETROIT PHOTOGRAPHIC CO FRED HARVEY
Fred Harvey arrived in the US from England in 1850 at the age of 15 and started his business career in restaurants in New York, New Orleans and St. Louis. Harvey’s famous eating houses helped boost rail travel in the late 1800s. His inspiration came from working as a mobile mail clerk on the railroad during the civil war, enduring bad food and service. The first of his Harvey Houses at which Satna Fe Railway passengers detrained for meals before the day of dining car service, was opened in 1876. The journalists of his day said he made the desert blossom with beefsteak. As transportation methods changed, detraining for meals gave way to dining cars and Fred Harvey took over supervision of dining car service for the Santa Fe Railway, a Harvey operation that was to be carried on over more than 13,000 miles of Santa Fe Railway track.
By 1891, the booming business had expanded to 15 Harvey House restaurants. At the time of his death in 1901, the Fred Harvey empire had spread to 12 states, with 45 restaurants and 20 dining cars. Harvey was 65 years old when he died from cancer. His son Ford took over. In 1902, train travel and Southwest tourism was waning. To help rejuvenate enthusiasm, the Harvey Company created an Indian Department, which commissioned artists, photographers and ethnographers to depict the Southwest’s unique “Indian” lifestyle and culture. Images portraying the romance and mystique of the Southwest appeared on brochures, pamphlets, menus and postcards. The Fred Harvey Indian Building in Albuquerque at the El Alvarado Hotel Harvey House (neither of which exists today) was was established as a repository for the priceless collection of Indian arts and antiques then in the Harvey family.
The University of New Mexico has a collection of photographs made from negatives belonging to the Fred Harvey Company.
John Hassall, (21 May 1868 to 8 March 1948) artist and caricaturist, the son of a naval officer, who was born in Walmer, Kent. He studied in Antwerp and Paris at the Academie Julien where he was influenced by the famous poster artist Alphonse Mucha. In 1895 he began work as an advertising artist for David Allen & Sons, a career which lasted fifty years32. In 1900 Hassall opened his own New Art School and School of Poster Design in Kensington where he numbered Annie Fish, Bert Thomas, Bruce Bairnsfather, H. M. Bateman and Harry Rountree among his students. The school was closed at the outbreak of the First World War. In the post-war period, he ran the very successful John Hassall Correspondence School. His cartoons of The Revised Language Of Flowers was published as a set of six by Tucks33. Mine bears a postmark of October 1092. Probably his most famous work is the jolly sailor in the poster Skegness is so bracing! which was commissioned by the Great Northern Railway to encourage visitors to use their service to take them to the East coast town. In 1908 Hassall was paid 12 guineas for the iconic image. Hassall only visited Skegness once, in 1936 when he was given the freedom of the foreshore by the town. He is said to have remarked that Skegness …is even more bracing and attractive than I had been led to expect34.
Fritz Wictor Hasselblad & Company,
- Imp. F. W. H. & Co.
Fritz Wictor Hasselblad (1816 to 1893), Gothenburg founded a long-lasting business in 1841 when he opened a store that he passed to his son in 1871. The shop was well known for the imported thermos flasks but in 1885, with the purchase of a camera, the business introduced photography to Sweden.
The business started its production of postcards in 1901 and in the course of a few years published over 1000 numbered cards with motifs from all over Sweden, They published photographs on glass plates by Nils Bouveng. The cards were printed in Germany and sold to dealers for 17.5 Crowns per 1000. The company also sold postcard vending machines and postcard stands to businesses.
In an EEC Commission Decision of 2 December 1981 Victor Hasselblad Aktiebolag of Gothenburg was found in breach of the Community’s competition laws. At that time it was the world’s leading manufacturer of single-lens 6 x 6 format roll film reflex cameras. Its product range included four different models of camera and nearly 300 camera accessories.
Whitley Bay, Northumberland, England
- Auty Series G.H.,W.
- Nautilus Series G.H.,W.
- G. HASTINGS AUTY SERIES WHITLEY BAY
- Hastings’ Auty Series, Whitley Bay
- Hastings’ Nautilus Series, Whitley Bay.
Godfrey Hastings, Whitley by the Sea, Northumberland. Photographer with an art studio at Station Road,35. Hastings took over the business of Matthew Auty after Auty died in 1895 and picture postcards were produced by Hastings from Auty’s plates as well as his own. The court size cards that Hastings issued from 1898 to 1900 are the earliest commercially produced cards to be found of Newcastle and the surrounding areas36. He later also produced photographic view cards of the Cape Verde islands37. In December 1902 he was party to an agreement with Alfred James Lister in relation to a photograph of Bamburgh Castle by Lister38.
Stuttgart, Baden-Wuerttemberg, Germany
- Verlag v. G. Haufler, Stuttgart
Gustav Haufler opened his stationery shop in 1895 in the then Stuttgart City Hall. In 1896 he moved to the historic Lotter’s House at 5 Marktplatz which he purchased in about 1910. The building became so closely linked to the Haufler family and their shop that the Lotter’s house became Haufler’s house. Haufler’s son, grandson and great-granddaughter continued the company. Apart from a few years after WWII, the Haufler company was always present on the Market Square. At one stage, their stationery counter was the longest in Germany. In 1965 they were importing and retailing electrostatic photocopying machines with devices for reproduction of book text. When it closed in January 2015, it was the last owner-run stationery shop in the city centre.
Haufler published local topographical photocards into the divided-back era. His cards included a front view of a fire that destroyed Royal Court Theatre on 19 and 20 January 1902, showing the fire brigade and crowd.
This card: After the fire, this 1140-seat theatre was built as a provisional home to the court theatre. It was built in 6 months by Weigle and Hangleiter for King Wilhelm II von Württemberg and the city of Stuttgart. It opened on 12 October 1902 with Wagner’s Tannhäuser. It was used until the new Hoftheater complex could be opened in 1912 when it was demolished.
Hauser and Menet, Madrid
- Hauser y Menet. – Madrid
- HM monogram MADRID
- FOT H. y M. -M.
Hauser and Menet, 18 Calle Turco (later 30 Calle Ballesta) Madrid, were one of the main Spanish printers. The partners were Swiss photographers who settled in Madrid in 1890. Very soon they were overwhelmed by orders from all the Spanish provinces including the islands, which made them get hold of a team of photographers39. In 1899 they published twenty postcards based on different illustrations by the artists and painters of the weekly magazine Blanco y Negro40. They were closed by accumulation of debt in 197941.
Martin Hautecour, Namur, Belgium
- E.H. above N. Martin-Hautecour.
Martin Hautecour, 40 rue de l’Ange and 20, rue de la Croix, Namur.
Hautecour had a wide range of products: In the Namur Tirailleur, Weekly Newspaper of all Sports OFFICIAL BODY OF SHOOTING COMPANIES OF NAMUR PROVINCE of 2 December 1906, Hautecour advertised rubber stamps, badges, flags and medals
As well as local topographical photocards, Hautecourt’s output extended to coverage of the floods of 11 June 1910 in Thon-Samson, a village in Wallonia, Belgium.
When at the place d’Armes, Hautecour produced scented cards for pompeia perfume.
Alfred Herbert Hawke
Helston, Cornwall, England
- PHOTO BY A H HAWKE, HELSTON
Alfred Herbert Hawke (7 February 1881 to 11 May 1958) photographer, Helston. The West Briton newspaper of 11 February 1904 reported the recent formation of an Amateur Dramatic Society in Helston, of which Mr Hawke was joint Hon. Secretary. He had a leading part in a play Temporary Insanity and was certainly involved in postcards by 1905. Shipwrecks and lifeboats were to feature on numerous occasions on his cards in future years. Helston, the most southerly town in Great Britain, is close to the south Cornish coast, and there were 20 wrecks in the next 12 years within 15 miles of Helston. A motor car would get him the scene before some of his rival Cornish photographers, and on 27 June 1906 he took out his first driving licence. Hawke liked to put his car in a photograph and his vehicles appear at regular intervals. His first car, a three wheeler, had the registration CO 925.
Before WWI, Hawke produced postcards to a high standard in keeping with the Golden Era. These were mostly of Helston and The Lizard area, but he did get in the car and venture to the North Coast for the visit of the Prince and Princess of Wales to Newquay in June 1909 where he recorded the future King George V meeting a Parish Clerk aged 103.
Outdoor photographic activities were hampered during WWI by the Defence of the Realm Act -“DORA”- which prohibited sketching or photographing of sensitive areas, which included the entire Cornish Coast. However, his studio business was helped by forces personnel having their pictures taken and Hawke often produced these with a postcard back. One such card from this time describes him as A.H. Hawke, Helston & St Ives. His own turn to join up was soon to come. A military tribunal in October 1916 granted him a three month deferment, and in 1917 he joined the Royal Flying Corps as a photographer.
When he returned from the forces Hawke’s postcard work was directed towards the tourist trade, and to interest them in aspects of the Cornish character, he produced a small series called Real Cornish; with a small picture and a Cornish folklore joke underneath. Everything was printed on a Gravura machine fed with rolls of postcard-sized paper and worked by hand. He was still producing cards after the WWII and no doubt took an interest in the business below his flat until he died aged 77.
Apart from the early Real Photographic and special event cards, Hawke gave a number to each card. One series was prefixed with the letters HH, otherwise they just had a number. Some cards have a number as high as 21631, but most are four figures. He seems to have allocated blocks of numbers to a locality, but then beats his own system by allocating a number to three different views; for example 1635 is on a view of Goldsithney, one of Helford and one of Newquay, other similar examples occur, and there are huge gaps in numbers which appear unused. Before 1914 Hawke had to compete with other excellent Cornish photographers, such as Bragg, Govier, and Wootton, and his best work was produced in that era. Standards changed in the 1920’s and 1930’s, and to compete with the nationals such as Frith, Valentine and Judge, the price had to be right. Visitors were happy to buy a series of, say Bedruthan Steps where they had spent the day, even if the cards only showed sea and rocks. Hawke, whilst catering for them, still produced cards showing transport, adverts, dress, and pastimes of the era, which have given us a record of life in Cornwall in the first half of the 20th century.
William J Hay, Edinburgh
- “Knox” Series of Pictorial Postcards published by W.J. Hay at John Knox’s House, Edinburgh
William J Hay was born in Edinburgh in 1863. He worked as apprentice in the Princes Street bookshop of William Brown, on a site later occupied by RW Forsyth Ltd. He lived and worked for many years at John Knox House in the Royal Mile. In 1902, he started his own business in the shop beneath John Knox House. He produced postcards in the Knox series. Almost all are of scenes in the Royal Mile, leading from Edinburgh Castle to Holyrood Palace. In 1903 he was appointed custodian of the Museum at John Knox House – a post he held for 40 years42.
Carl Otto Hayd, Munich
- Carl Otto Hayd, Kunst- und Verlaganstalt, München N
Carl Otto Hayd, art and publishing house, an early postcard publisher of lithographic view-cards. He extended his range to divided backs and novelties such as hold-to-the-light, wood and passepartout cards. He Italianised his name and home town in the cards of Italy he published – Carlo Ottavo Hayd Monaco (Baviera)43.
Frederick William Hayes
- F. W. Hayes signature within the painting
FW Hayes A.R.C.A.44 F.R.G.S.45 (1848 to 1918) English landscape painter who usually painted in locations in Wales or Scotland known for their picturesque qualities. Having trained as an architect, he abandoned that calling to train as an artist and by 1872 was represented at the Royal Academy. Towards the end of the 1880s, Hayes was elected an Associate of the Royal Cambrian Academy, ceasing to exhibit at any other gallery for many years. He accepted extensive commissions entailing the provision of more than 3,000 drawings for process reproduction: a task which occupied him for the next quarter of a century. Being avowedly commercial in character, these lacked the cachet of his accustomed style, which manifested a sincere regard for truth46. It was not until 1917 that Hayes recommenced exhibiting at the Royal Academy and Royal Institute of Painters in Water-Colours. In 1919 a London newspaper posthumously awarded him the £100 prize offered by it for the best forecast of the European peace-map47. My cards of his paintings were published by Tucks (qv) and Meissner & Buch (qv). Like much of his commercial output, the latter feature swans in ponds.
F. Jay Haynes
Frank Jay Haynes (28 October 1853 to 10 March 1921) professional photographer, publisher and entrepreneur from Minnesota who played a major role in documenting through photographs the settlement and early history of the great Northwest. He became both the official photographer of the Northern Pacific Railway and of Yellowstone National Park as well as operating early transportation concessions in the park. His photographs were widely published in articles, journals, books and turned into stereographs and postcards in the late 19th and early 20th century. In 1877, Haynes made the acquaintance of Philetus Norris, then superintendent of Yellowstone National Park. At the time, Norris encouraged Haynes to visit the park with him and photograph its wonders. Because of his railroad work, Haynes was unable to make the trip until 1881. By 1881, Northern Pacific Railroad tracks had reached Glendive, Montana. Even before visiting the park, Haynes’s knack for business prompted him to apply early in 1881 to the Secretary of the Interior for the position of Official Photographer of Yellowstone National Park. The Secretary was unable to confer that position, but did, with Norris’s backing, grant Haynes a lease for a small photographic studio within the park along that was not made official until 1884. In September, 1881, travelling overland from Glendive, and with explicit support from Charles Fee, Haynes made his first visit to Yellowstone National Park. In close to two months in the park, he was able to visit all the major attractions and take over 200 photographs. Haynes returned to Yellowstone every year after that first visit until his death in 1921. In 1885, Haynes bought a Pullman Car from the Northern Pacific Railroad and had it refitted as a photographic studio48.
William Randolph Hearst, USA
- COMPLIMENTS OF N. Y. SUNDAY AMERICAN & JOURNAL Copyrighted 1906 by the American-Journal-Examiner.
William Randolph Hearst Sr. (29 April 1863 to 14 August 1951) was an American businessman, newspaper publisher, and politician known for developing the nation’s largest newspaper chain and media company, Hearst Communications. His flamboyant methods of yellow journalism influenced America’s popular media by emphasizing sensationalism and human interest stories. Hearst entered the publishing business in 1887 with Mitchell Trubitt after being given control of The San Francisco Examiner by his wealthy father, Senator George Hearst.
Moving to New York City, Hearst acquired the New York Journal and fought a bitter circulation war with Joseph Pulitzer’s New York World. Hearst sold papers by printing giant headlines over lurid stories featuring crime, corruption, sex, and innuendo. Acquiring more newspapers, Hearst created a chain that numbered nearly 30 papers in major American cities at its peak. He later expanded to magazines, creating the largest newspaper and magazine business in the world. Hearst controlled the editorial positions and coverage of political news in all his papers and magazines, and so often published his personal views. He sensationalized Spanish atrocities in Cuba while calling for war in 1898 against Spain. Historians, however, reject his subsequent claims to have started the war with Spain.
From 1895 to 1937 Hearst published New York Journal, an afternoon paper and the New York American which started out as a morning edition of the New York Journal, but was renamed in 1901 with Hearst’s favoured branding. The Sunday edition became the New York Sunday American. The New York American was Hearst’s flagship morning newspaper. The American and Evening Journal merged in 1937 and the New York Journal-American published daily from 1937 to 1966.
This card: Few Americans nowadays dream of shares in railway companies. The other new year aspiration seems to be a reference to the Brooklyn Dodgers baseball team. The Dodgers were originally founded in 1883 as the Brooklyn Atlantics, taking the name of a defunct team that had played in Brooklyn before them. The team joined the American Association in 1884 and won the AA championship in 1889 before joining the National League in 1890. They promptly won the NL Championship their first year in the League. In the 1898-1899 offseason, a remarkable thing happened, the ownership groups in Baltimore and Brooklyn swapped part shares in each other’s clubs, the Orioles effectively merged with the Dodgers, with the class of the two ball clubs going to Brooklyn and the dregs staying in Baltimore — with the exception of star Baltimore third baseman John McGraw, who refused to leave. The super-team in Brooklyn, became known as the “Superbas.” The team was also known as the Bridegrooms, Grooms, Robins and Trolley Dodgers, before officially becoming the Dodgers in the 1930s. On 24 September 1957, the Dodgers played their final game at Ebbets Field, Brooklyn and moved to California where they remain as the Los Angeles Dodgers.
Source: Sports Team History
Headley Brothers, London
- Headley Brothers, London
Headley Brothers was founded 1881 by brothers Herbert Dimsdale and Burgess Henry Headley who set up a printing press in a small room above their father’s grocery shop at 46 High Street, Ashford, Kent. Their main aim was to print vegetable bags for the grocers, but they hoped to also make a bit of cash by printing paper bags, billheads and circulars for other local traders49. The venture was such a success the brothers decided to launch a newspaper, releasing the Kent Examiner & Ashford Chronicle with Barham Boorman, who was also founder of the Kent Messenger. In 1892 a printing works and factory was built behind the High Street. After Burgess Headley returned from America on a fact-finding tour, Headley brothers became the third firm to install monotype in Europe and began to lead the way in printing. The printing moved to a new site in Ashford after fire destroyed almost the whole printing works in 190650. By 1908 they were carrying on business as printers, publishers, and booksellers at Ashford and Bishopsgate-street Without, in the city of London. However, the partnership was dissolved as from 26 September 1908. The printing business, as carried on at Ashford was continued by Burgess and the publishing and bookselling business in London remained with Herbert in partnership with Samuel Graveson51. Burgess’s share of the business went on to be one of Kent’s historic printing brands only to disappear early in 2017 after more than a century.
Paul Heckscher, Stockholm
- Paul Heckscher Imp
Paul Heckscher, (born 6 March 1869) a publisher of art reproductions, artist-signed cards, black & white views, and hand-coloured real photos, based in Stockholm at least during the undivided-back era.
Copenhagen-born Heckscher pursued his language and business studies in Germany (1888 to 91), in Scotland (1891 to 93) and in France (1893 to 94) . After a few years working for an industrial credit company, he set up as Nordic Art Publishers in Stockholm in 1899. His postcards included reproductions of art as well as topographical photo-cards. Heckscher’s divided-backs included photographs of the Swedish Royal Family and sentimental images of children. In 1913 he published a stylish caricature of the French dancer Cléo de Mérode by the Swedish artist Einar Nerman.
Heckscher’s love of travel seems to have been a constant feature; he published German topographicals with the designation Berlin-Stockholm. By 1916 Heckscher was publishing WWI-themed postcards from Paris and during WWI he marketed Fred Spurgin’s drawings to the British market, adding translations of the French captions.
Rudolf Hedrich, El Jadida, Morocco
- R. Hedrich, Mazagan
Rudolf Hedrich, (born 1865) a German merchant and photographer was established in Mazagan from the first years of the last decade of the 19th century. Hedrich spoke several languages, including Arabic. In 1893 he was employed by French businessman Robert A. Spinney. In 1902, with his brother-in-law Ottmar and his brother Oswald who was a judge in Leipzig, he founded the company Deutsche Cie du Maroc, with the help of the firm Günther & Rudolf in Dresden. In 1909 he was appointed representative of a Leipzig life insurance company.
El Jadida (originally in Berber: Maziɣen or Mazighen), is a major port city on the Atlantic coast of Morocco, located 100 km south of the city of Casablanca, in the province of El Jadida and the region of Casablanca-Settat. El Jadida’s old city sea walls are one of the Seven Wonders of Portuguese Origin in the World. The Portuguese Fortified City of Mazagan was registered as a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 2004, on the basis of its status as an “outstanding example of the interchange of influences between European and Moroccan cultures” and as an “early example of the realisation of the Renaissance ideals integrated with Portuguese construction technology”.
As well as topographical photocards, Hedrich’s postcards between 1902 and 1908 of photographs of contemporary and political events provide a historical record that reveals the diplomatic and political role played by the city’s port as a transit point between Tangier, where foreign diplomatic representatives resided, and Marrakech. A colourised photo, taken on 24 March 1907, illustrates the procession of Europeans and 25 envoys of Sultan Moulay Abdelhafid, carrying the coffin of Dr. Emile Mauchamp. Pierre Benoit Émile Mauchamp (3 March 1870 to 19 March 1907) was a French doctor assassinated by a mob in Marrakesh, near the pharmacy where he practised. He was characterised as a “martyr to civilization” in the French press; his death, an “unprovoked and indefensible attack from the barbarous natives of Morocco.” His death was taken as a pretext by Hubert Lyautey and his forces in taking Oujda, marking the beginning of the French conquest of Morocco. Dr Mauchamp’s coffin was transported for four days on the back of mules from Marrakech to El Jadida.
In July 1914, a month before the war, Hedrich travelled to Germany. The French protectorate proceeded to the sequestration, by war measures, of the property belonging to the Germans and the Austro-Hungarians in Morocco including Hedrich. Hedrich was accused in relation to weapons that arrived through the new marina to Marrakech. He was sentenced to death in absentia for “smuggling weapons and conspiracy” in 1915 by the French military court Casablanca. His nephew Théodore Kästner who was employed at his home was sentenced to two years in prison .
This card: This postcard entitled “Hafenbild in Mazagan” (Water port) was published in Mazagan in 1901. It illustrates a Moroccan delegation on the quay of the port, waiting for its boat to England. In the middle we recognize with the white moustache, the Caïd Mac Lean, military adviser to Sultan Moulay Abdelaziz. General (Kaïd) Sir Harry Aubrey de Vere Maclean, KCMG (15 June 1848 to 5 February 1920) was a Scottish soldier, and instructor to the Moroccan Army.
Source: Jalili Derif
J W Heeg, Bonn, Germany
- J W Heeg, Bonn
J. W. Heeg, Bonn, printed books and published black & white and chromolithographed Gruss aus cards, some of which were double size panoramic of photographs by Heinrich Schauer of Bonn. Schauer had a glass and porcelain decorating shop as well as photographic studio. Heeg also issued cards with coloured art nouveau images.
Sonthofen, Bavaria, Germany
- Orig – Aufn., Eigenth. u Vorlag J. Heimhuber, K. B. Hofphot., Sonthofen, Immenstadt, Oberstdorf.
Josef Heimhuber (1853 to 1923) was a German Royal Bavarian Court photographer. Heimhuber worked as a photographer and publisher. He opened a photo studio in Oberstdorf in 1870. In 1877 Heimhuber founded the first daylight studio; in 1899 he became a royal Bavarian court photographer. Heimhuber had studios at Immenstadterasse, Sonthofen, opposite the Immenstadt Community Hall and Oberstdorf Railway Station. Sonthofen is the most southerly town of Germany, located in the Oberallgäu region of the Bavarian Alps. Neighbouring Oberstdorf is situated 14 km farther south but is not classified as a town. Immenstadt, meantime, claims to be the oldest town in the Oberallgäu.
Heimhuber’s granddaughter Lala Aufsberg grew up with him and also became a photographer. His son Fritz Heimhuber and his grandson Eugen Heimhuber also devoted themselves to photography. Heimhuber’s descendants opened the first colour laboratory in the Allgäu in 1938.
In addition to the portrait photography, which only took place at weekends, because only then did you wear the good Gwand Heimhuber is considered a pioneer of Allgäu landscape photography; many of his photographs were distributed as picture postcards. Heimhuber also pioneered skiing in the Allgäu. Skiing was not at all known in Oberallgäu at the end of the 19th century, when he came across a book from Norway and built his first ski using only the illustrations in the book. He was ridiculed and even insulted for the nonsense he was doing there. However, he did not let himself be discouraged and through a series of happy coincidences found like-minded others for the first ski tours in the Allgäu.
Dating itself from 1877, the family business Fotohaus Heimhuber is now in its fifth generation, still in the middle of Sonthofen. In 2005 The filmmaker Alexander Freuding was making a film about the company’s history when he discovered the business archive in the cellar. The Edition Heimhuber sells from the photo archive claimed to be one of the largest and best preserved in Europe.
Heinrich & Schlesier
- Edit. A. Soati Tip. Taddei, Ferrara H.e.S. D.
In 1880 the company advertised as trade suppliers of haberdashery and fashion accessories, writing and drawing materials, book jackets and bookmarks, paper and bookbinding supplies.
H&S were active in the Italian market, publishing cards of model soldiers and leporello hotel promotionals which Wilhelm Hoffman, also of Dresden, printed. Their postcards were in the undivided-back era – and also of Italy.
- “Edition HEINTZ-JADOUL”
Auguste Heintz-Jadoul published view-cards of the Liege area, cartoons of women and portraits of creative greats such as Shakespeare. At some stage he seems to have dropped the second part of the name. Herstal is a municipality of Belgium in the country’s Walloon Region and Province of Liège along the Meuse river. In the undivided era, a card with the coinage of the Transvaal embossed on it appeared with the initials AHH in a rectangular box and the words modelo reg (Portuguese for registered model).
Valentin Hell, Tangier, Morocco
- Edition Hell, Tanger
- V. Hell, Photographe Proprietaire, Tanger
- Valentin Hell, Tanger
Valentin Hell was one of the first generation of western photographers to establish himself in Tangiers. The proximity of Europe allowed the first photographer-travellers to work in Tangiers and Tetouan in the last thirty years of the nineteenth century while the difficulty of travel in the rest of the country, the dangers there to foreigners and the bulkiness of their photographic equipment, inhibited engagement further south. Many of Hell’s undivided backs were printed by Purger & Co.(qv).
For many years Hell and his wife Marie owned the hotel Villa Valentina in Tangiers which was noted for its Austrian regional style. They celebrated their silver wedding on 17 January 1913.
This card: The Minister of Foreign Affairs of Morocco. The death of Sultan Hassan I in 1894, ceded power to very young Abdelaziz bin Hassan with a regency until 1900 and a worsening of anarchy and foreign pressure. In 1904, an agreement between France and the United Kingdom left Morocco as a zone of influence to France, with the United Kingdom concentrating on Egypt and the north of Morocco conceded to Spain. A similar agreement had been concluded with Italy in 1902, which granted the Italians complete freedom of action against the Turks in Libya in exchange for their disinterest in Morocco.
In a speech in Tangier on 31 March 1905, Kaiser Wilhelm II opposed the establishment of a French protectorate over Morocco and demanded a “free and independent” state to protect German interests. This precipitated The Tangier crisis between opposing the European powers over the colonization of Morocco. It was initially resolved by the Algeciras conference and the resignation, at the request of Germany, of the French Minister of Foreign Affairs, Théophile Delcassé. One of the first crises of the early 20th century, it marked the beginning of tensions that lead up to WWI.
Sydney Hellier, Brighton, England
- S Hellier, 48 King’s Road, Brighton
Sydney Hellier, stamp and postcard dealer, 48 Kings Road, Brighton. Hellier began trading in London in 1884 and was for many years based at 179 Regent Street57. He moved to Brighton at about the turn of the century and became a pioneer Sussex postcard publisher. Collotype cards of Hastings and Brighton have been found with undivided backs postmarked 1902, which are labelled “S. Hellier 48 Kings Rd. Brighton & Duke St. London”. The cards were printed by Willhelm Hoffman.
H. J. Smith of 80 Kings Road, Brighton, published some very similar cards of Brighton that were also printed by Hoffman in Dresden. Both the Hellier and Smith cards have pictures with wide basal borders. Hoffman’s oval trademark and serial number is visible just under the pictures. The numbers on the Hellier and Smith cards are very similar, suggesting that they were all printed as part of the same batch.
A Hembo, Nice, France
- Riviera Journal, Nizza
Dr A Hembo, publisher, 1 route de la Corniche, Nice. Austrian Hembo published a newspaper Riviera Journal which the Petit Niçois described, in September 1898, as luxurious but no copy seems to have survived58. Hembo organised the first International Picture Postcard Exposition in Nice. The inauguration, scheduled for 15 January 1899 was delayed after difficulties arose with the planned venue at the Municipal Casino. Hembo had to build a wooden pavilion for its three month duration. This period was divided up by region of production and nearly 130,000 exhibits were shown. Stengel of Dresden alone sent 40,000 and Knackstedt & Näther of Hamburg sent collotypes, then a relative novelty. Hembo illustrated souvenir cards himself including a memorial card for Felix Faure, a former President of France who died on 16 February 1899. It was printed by Robaudy (qv) and published in Hembo’s own name. Other cards had Souvenir de Nice instead of Postcard above the space for address. In 1900 Kleine Chronic, a review of Swiss Hotels reported that Dr Hembo, the director of the Journal de la Riviera had organized An interesting Postcard exhibition in Paris59.
Hembo commissioned Raphael Kirschner to design a poster for his postcard exposition.
- Wandgemalde in der Sagenhalle zur Schreiberbau von Hermann Hendrich. Der Wolkenschatten (Hohes Rad)
Hermann Hendrich (31 October 1854 to 18 July 1931 ) was a German painter. From 1870 to 1872 he served apprenticeship as lithographer. In 1875, Hendrich got a job in Berlin where he had to lithograph oil paintings. In 1876, he visited Norway for further art studies. He submitted work to the Grosse Berliner Kunstausstellung (Great Berlin Art Exhibition) but the jury disapproved of his paintings. On his honeymoon in 1882 he visited his brother in Auburn in New York where he exhibited his paintings for the first time . After some initial sales, all the remaining pictures were bought by a single art dealer. Hendrich used the money to make a training trip across the US and also returned to Norway, an influence that can be seen in his work.
In 1889 the Kaiser bought a picture from Hendrich, a major recognition. In 1901, the Walpurgishalle in Thale, a building in a pseudo old-Germanic style was inaugurated. Hendrich did the paintings in the interior and created sketches that were used by Bernhard Sehring to create the architecture. Hendrich considered this the high point of his career. Inspired by this, he created the Sagenhalle in Schreiberhau two years later. Schreiberhau is now Szklarska Poręba, a town in Jelenia Góra County, Lower Silesian Voivodeship, in south-western Poland.
In 1905 Hendrich co-founded the Werdandibund, a society against decadent developments in modern art. The Nibelungenhalle at Drachenfels was opened in 1913 on the occasion of the centenary of Richard Wagner whom Hendrich had long admired. It contains twelve paintings by Hendrich with scenes from Der Ring des Nibelungen.
Joh. Henning, Amsterdam.
- Uitg. Joh. Henning; Amsterdam.
Between at least 1792 and 1830 JH Henning had a music shop and publishing business at Rokin, Amsterdam. By at least 1884, Joh. Henning had a bookshop at 108 Rokin. Henning’s shop seems to have been much more than a bookshop; In December 1893, Henning was advertising a great variety of Christmas and New Year cards. In the following years of the decade, he regularly advertised the largest choice, fairest prices for grave wreaths in all materials.
On 13 August 1900 J.M. Henning placed a notice in the Algemeen Handelsblad newspaper thanking people for their interest and concern about a recent accident to beloved brother and brother-in-law Joh Henning.
However, he survived long enough to put his name to an advertisement in the same paper of 30 March 1908 along with other residents and owners of plots on the Rokin offering a reward of a thousand guilders to the architect who could produce a plan against the filling in of the Rokin and its preservation as a moat. The Rokin was the business centre of the nineteenth-century city. The filling of the waterway in 1933 has been criticised as leaving the dam without water.
Henning’s postcard output seems to have been undivided-backs – tinted local topographicals.
Greiz, Thuringa, Germany
- Druck der Hofkunstanstalt Otto Henning (Jnh60. Dr. G. Henning) Greiz
Otto Henning (27 February 1833 to 28 December 1908) a printing company owner and a member of the German Reichstag. Henning was Court printer in Greiz where he was born and died. The Official Gazette was published in his printing house and official announcements and state parliament reports were published. He was also editor of the Greizer Tageblatt. In 1872 he was one of the initiators of the Gera – Weischlitz railway line and director and director of the Greizer railway company. He was also a member and head of the local council, member of the Landtag and was appointed honorary citizen of Greiz. Between 1887 and 1890 he was a Reich Party member of the German Reichstag 61. In 1894 Henning printed and published print of the set design by Max Brückner of the final scene from Richard Wagner’s Götterdämmerung for the Bayreuth Festival Theatre, showing Valhalla on fire. By the time my card was published, the business appears to have passed to another member of the family and, by 1920, it was a limited company. That year they published a Calendar consisting of snippets of history, literature, humour and riddles.
Henstock & Foulkes,
- Henstock & Foulkes, 42, Lord St., Liverpool
Henstock & Foulkes, publishers, 42 Lord Street, Liverpool. John Henstock was appointed Foreign Office Passport Agent there on 4 March 1871 and was still in post in January 187765. In the late 19th century the firm published a cycling and touring road map of Liverpool and District and Remember Your Dead 18 pages with which to commemorate the departed. They published Court sized monochrome photo-cards of Liverpool. In 1908 they published the articles of incorporation for the Blackpool Colosseum Picturedrome.
R. H. Hepworth, Doncaster, England
- Printed and Published by R. H. Hepworth. Photo by Bagshaw & Son.
Richard Henry Hepworth, printers and publishers, Borough Printing Works, 49 High Street, Doncaster. Hepworth left employment with Mr Ackrill in Harrogate in about 1899. From the same premises he also ran Hepworth’s Circulating Library and sold stationery.
Hepworth produced local topographical photo-cards into the divided-back era, and books of local views. He was printing very modern-looking colour before 1907. Many of his photocards were the work of local photographer Luke Bagshaw. There seems also to have been some tie-up with Tucks. In 1903 he printed The Railwayman’s Pocketbook by R H N Hardy.
Hepworth served as Mayor of the County Borough of Doncaster in 1929. In June 1932, as acting Mayor of Doncaster Hepworth opened the Doncaster Aviation Company’s aerodrome in Armthorpe Lane, Edenthorpe. According to the Yorkshire Evening Press:
The day proved to be very good for flying with over 3,000 spectators turning up for the event. Amongst the guests were Sir Alan and Lady Cobham who were personally invited to a luncheon at the Mansion House by Mr and Mrs Hepworth. In the afternoon the crowds were entertained by Sir Alan’s circus, whose display included aerobatics, inverted flying, passenger glider flights and rider acrobatics.
H. A. Herbster,
Put-In Bay, Ottawa County, Ohio, USA .
- H. A. Herbster.
H. A. Herbster, postcard shop owner, Delaware Avenue, Put-In Bay, Ottawa County, Ohio. Herbster’s shop was demolished in the 1980s, having fallen into disrepair66.
Gustave Hermans, Anvers, Belgium
- G H ED
- G. HERMANS, ED., ANVERS
- G. Hermans, uitg. Antwerpen
Gustave Hermans (1856 to 1934) was a Belgian photographer and publisher working in Anvers and active from 1884 into the 20th century. He is noted as an early pioneer in the postcard industry. In the Directory of Photographers Working in Belgium 1839-1905, his entry for 1892-1914 reads:
Collotype, photogravure. Publisher of postcards (views of Belgian towns). Illustrations for artistic and scientific works some of which, such as portraits of Flemish artists, may have been incorporated into postcards. Printer. Industrial albums. Line and halftone blocks67.
Herz Studio, Amsterdam
- Kunstanstalt HERZ Amsterdam
Sigmund Löw (11 May 1845 to 15 March 1920) photographer, Amsterdam. Löw came from a German Jewish family, In the 1870s he settled with his sister-in-law Sophia Herz (1852 to 1940) in Amsterdam, where they opened a shop retailing art, mirrors and framing, a continuation of a business that founded in 1869 in Germany. The Dutch business was Atelier Herz. In the 1880s, the business has two locations near the New Church in Amsterdam, the mirror shop at 4 Heerenstraat and an art dealership at 80 Herengracht. Photographer Löw made cartes de visite, cabinet photos and stereo photos. His cabinet card boasted a silver medal in the 1877 Karlsruhe State Exhibition, the state being Baden-Württemberg where Low was born.
In 1902 the studio moved to the Prinsengracht. Herz published series of monochrome photocards of the Netherlands
E. Heydrich, Istanbul
- S.H. Weiss, E. Heydrich successeur Constantinople
E. Heydrich took over S.H. Weiss’s bookshop and continued his business in Russia and the east68. In 1900 both were mentioned as publishers in a list published by the Commercial Journal69. In 1870 Weiss had published Soirées de Constantinople by Charles Mismer about the religions of Turkey.
Ferdinand Hey’l, Stockholm
- Ferdinand Hey’l, Stockholm A. Blomberg, Photo-card
Ferdinand Hey’l, publisher, Stockholm. In 1901 Hey’l he published Alfred Dreyfus’ autobiography Five Years of my Life. Many of his undivided-back topographicals were photographs by leading Swedish photographer Anton Blomberg (qv). His undivided backs included Traditional Costumes in a flag frame and topographicals in various sculptured frames. 43 million postcards were sent from 1903 to 1904 in Sweden. Not to be confused with the Wiesbaden actor of the same name.
T. N. Hibben and Company,
Victoria, British Columbia, Canada
- T. N. Hibben and Co., Victoria, B.C.
Thomas Napier Hibben (1827 to 10 January 1890) opened his bookstore in Victoria in October 1858. As well as books floor to ceiling, he stocked stationery and blank books, photographs, maps, typewriters and office equipment, toys, and sporting goods, Hibben had been among the other forty-niners drawn by the California gold rush in 1849, but after trying his hand as a prospector, he had turned to the book trade in San Francisco before buying the business in Canada70. Hibben started the venerable B.C. tradition of publishers who are credited as authors and was credited as the author of Dictionary of Indian Tongues, Containing Most of the Words and Terms Used in the Tshimpsean, Hydah, & Chinook, With Their Meaning or Equivalent in the English Language (1862) and A Dictionary of the Chinook Jargon (1871)71. The family were Episcopalians and occupied a very prominent social position72. The first lodge of the Freemasons of Victoria was established in 1860 above Hibben’s shop on Yates Street. On his death, his Scottish-born widow took over the business with long-term employee William H. Bone. The Hibbens’ son James Parker Hibben (born 29 October 1864) also joined the business with his older brother Thomas Napier Hibben. Both a wholesale and retail trade was carried on and in 1906 the business had become the most extensive in its line in the province. Their postcards were clearly commissioned from Valentines of Dundee.
A. Hildebrandt, Berlin
- A. Hildebrandt, Kunstverlag, Berlin W.8. Kunstler Radirung
A. Hildebrandt, art publisher, 30 Link Strasse, Berlin W.8. published a numbered series of artist-drawn etchings – Künstler Radirung – of important people including the greats of the worlds of classical music and drama.
Hildebrandt advertised in the satirical magazine Simplicissimus in its second year of publication (1896) offering sample collections of his view, art and children postcards.
S. Hildesheimer & Company Limited,
London and Manchester
- S. HILDESHEIMER & CO. LTD., LONDON & MANCHESTER
- S. HILDESHEIMER & CO. LTD., LONDON
- S. Hildesheimer & Co. Ltd., London
Siegmund Hildesheimer (1832 to 1896) was a German-born British publisher, best known for Christmas and other greetings cards, and postcards, produced by Siegmund Hildesheimer & Co Ltd, at 63 Miller Street, Manchester and 14-16 Silk Street, London England.
He published black-and-white topographical photocards and artist-drawn views often signed by artists from all over Europe including Henry Charles Seppings-Wright, John MacWhirter RA, Frederik Hendrik Kaemmerer, Frederick Morgan, E. Warren J Dumayne, Christian Mali, Maude Goodman, Stanley Berkeley, Robert Gallon, G. Morland, Henry Ryland, E. Longstaffe , Sir Lawrence Alma-Tadema and E. Wheatly. Their B&W photocards of continental cathedrals are very fine – some of the photographs are by Neurdein (qv). Coloured cards were printed in Germany. Picture Postcard Annual 2020 records a card postmarked 20 April 1899.
Hildesheimer also contracted the printing of postcards with many local publishers and through an office in New York City75. Thereafter, he imported fancy goods and published oleographs, chromos and lithographs. Christmas cards were added from 1881. The limited company was formed in February 1887 with Siegmund as chairman and his son-in-law Ferdinand Wunderlich as majority shareholder. Siegmund died in 1896 and by the turn of the century none of the family were listed as directors or major shareholders. The company was loss-making by 1926 and wound up the next year with the Manchester part being sold as a going concern which traded until 1940 when Miller Street was destroyed in the blitz76.
This card: This card is one of a series of cards with pre-written messages promoting Peak Frean, the London biscuit manufacturer. In 1906, the Peek, Frean and Co. factory in Bermondsey was the subject of one of the earliest documentary films shot by Cricks and Sharp. About then they undertook this innovative form of advertising.
Arthur Hind, Poole, Dorset, England
- Hind] [Photo
Arthur Richard Hind (born about 1871) photographer, 162 High Street, Poole. Hind published his own photographs of the locality as a modest part of his postcards.
By 1911 Hind had moved to Tipton in Staffordshire. He had already died by the time his third son, Walter George Hind, was killed in action on Sunday, 29 April 1917, aged 19, when serving with the 2nd Oxfordshire and Buckinghamshire Light Infantry at the Battle of Arras.
This Card: Parkstone Park was officially opened on the 17 January 1890 by the Prince of Wales (later King Edward VII). Set within the developing village of Ashley Cross, the space was acquired for parkland in 1887 by way of a land exchange with Lord Wimborne. It was valued at £1,200, and £560 was budgeted for the works. The ‘Three Acre Field’ as the land was then known was said to have been the site of a “blind-house” or “village pound” – an early form of gaol or lock-up to hold petty criminals.
Freiburg im Breisgau, Germany.
- Kunst-Verlag Paul Hinsche, Freiburg i. B.
- Verlag von Paul Hinsche, Freiburg i. Br.
Paul Hinsche, photographer and art publisher, Freiburg, published local topographicals, some of them marvellous photographs, into the divided-back era. Hinsche published this Gruss aus card celebrating the 2000th student at Freiburg University on July 1904.
Founded in 1893, Paul Hinsche Spielwarenladen traded as a toy shop in Freiburg city centre until the end of 2012.
Wilhelm Hoffmann A.-G.,
- Wilhelm Hoffmann A.-G., Dresde
- WILHELM HOFFMANN A.-G., DRESDEN in an oval lozenge
Wilhelm Hoffmann A.-G.77, Dresden, printer and publisher, especially of posters and postcards. The company was founded in 1840 and in its first decades worked with photographic glass plates. At the beginning of the 1890s it had its headquarters at 12/14 Marschallstraße in Dresden. In 1896 Otto Fischer designed a marvelous poster for the business in the Vienna secessionist style78. In 1897 the company was converted to a public limited company. In 1900 about 4,000 printing workers were working in the Wilhelm Hoffmann art print shop and in Dresden-based competitors such as Römmler & Jonas (qv) and Stengel & Company (qv). After Black Thursday and the beginning of the world economic crisis, the company was dissolved in 193079. Judging by my collection, their work in the period of undivided backs was exclusively photo-views of Belgium other than a rather fine tinted photo of Union Terrace Gardens in Aberdeen and a B&W photocard of Hyde Park Corner.
Kipsdorf, Altenberg, Saxony, Germany
- Verlag Waarenhaus M. Holfert, Kipsdorf 6296
Max Holfert, general store, 27 Altenberger Straße, Kipsdorf. Max Holfert sold coals, slaughtered carp, developed films, rented cars and issued his own beer bottles. He also published local topographicals into the divided era when they were printed by Bruck & Son of Meissen.
In 1908 Holfert published the second edition of The mountain climatic health resorts of Kipsdorf, Bärenfels and Bärenburg by, Richard Porzig and in 1918 he published another book about the same resorts by the same author.
Kipsdorf is now a district of the city of Altenberg in Saxony, in the Eastern Ore Mountains on the B170 between Dresden and Prague, fifteen km from the border with the Czech Republic.
Flensburg, Schleswig-Holstein, Germany
- Huwald’sche Buchhdlg80., O. Hollesen, Flensburg
Books published by the Huwaldschen Bookstore between 1896 and 1924 are on sale81.
Eskil Holm, Stockholm.
- Förlag Eskil Holm, Stockholm.
Eskil Holm, bookseller and Christmas publisher, Stockholm. Holm opened his Konstförlag (art publisher) business in 1892. In Swedish Tourist Association’s yearbook for 1894 Holm was listed as having given them Stockholm Memories. In October 1896 Holm was appointed librarian of the Swedish Philarmonic Society.
Holm published artwork, much of it wintry scenes for the Christmas market. His output included the work of Swedish painter and illustrator Jenny Nyström (June 1854 to 17 January 1946) and advent-calendar artist Aina Stenberg-Masoll (1885 to 1975). Nystrom’s work included posters for children and snowball cards featuring seasonal images in white roundels. Many Christmas cards were drawn by Stenberg-Masoll.
His undivided-backs included photographs of the Stockholm region. Holm continued to publish books and postcards of Stockholm into the 1950s. In 1912 he published a photocard of the Swedish royal family on the way to the opening of that year’s Olympic Games in Stockholm.
Alfred Holzman, Chicago, IL, USA
- Copyright 1905 – A H
- Copyright – A H
Alfred Holzman, postcard manufacturer, 340 Dearborn Street, Chicago. In 1905 Holzman copyrighted a series of cartoons bearing the slogan You Why dont you write? In April 1910, the company sought to recruit salesmen with advertisements in the Salt Lake Herald with the inducement that Salesmen who have a little spare time daily can make from $5 to $10 per day with our pocket samples.
A divided-back card they published described their factory as the largest building in America devoted exclusively to the manufacture of post cards. They published a divided-back National Flag series of young women in dresses incorporating flags which the backs clearly suggest were for the continental market. The renumbering of Chicago’s streets in 1909 and 1911 obviously required a great deal of preparation. Residents needing to notify correspondents of a new house number could find a variety of pre-printed postcards in styles ranging from humorous to decorative to matter-of-fact. The August 21, 1909, Record-Herald headlined an article, Postcard makers Reap Harvest on Change in City’s House System.82“.
- Edition Holzmann
Holzmann published numbered topographicals of Cairo. The first French-medium schools in Egypt were established in 1836. By the end of the nineteenth century it became the dominant foreign language in Egypt and the lingua franca of foreigners especially in Cairo.
J F Hood & Son, Arbroath, Scotland
- J F Hood & Son, Stationers, Arbroath
Listed in 1903 as James Hood, bookseller, Keptie House83. The National Library of Scotland has correspondence dating from 1863 related to the business84 and J F Hood was included in a list of charitable donors in 1876. In about 1900 they published Views of Arbroath and Neighbourhood. J. F. Hood and Son, Printers printed the programme for the Annual Supper of the Arbroath Literary Club of 26 April 1922. They were still trading as booksellers in the High Street in 195085.
Robert Hotz, Shimla, India
- R HOTZ, PHOTOGR.
Carl Robert Hotz, Swiss photographer. Hotz worked as a telegraphist on the Suez Canal project in 1864 before making his way to Bombay, where he met and married Florence Wilkinson86. In 1893 John Falconer was an assistant to Hotz who was then a photographer in Simla87. In 1902 Hotz bought a building in Simla originally called the ‘Tendrils’. He re-christened it the Hotel Cecil. Located close to the railway station, this hotel proved to be so successful under the guidance of his hotelier wife that, according to EJ Buck in Simla Past & Present (1904), it gained a well-deserved reputation for comfort. She sold it to J Faletti. Hotz went on to open a second Cecil Hotel at Delhi and a third at Agra88. There are, however, other accounts of his hotel career89.
Hoursch & Bechstedt,
- H. B.
Hoursch & Bechstedt, publishers, Cologne, published Relief-Panorama of the Rhine in English, French and German and other Cologne and Rhein-themed items. My postcard of Blankenburg, nearly 400 km away, simply has the initials after a number and so may be by someone else though the company used a monogram of these letters on their divided-backs. In 1935 the company published By Sail round the World by Count Felix von Luckner with 19 line drawings.
Hourston & Sons, Ayr, Scotland
Hourston & Sons, Drapers, 22 to 30 Alloway Street, Ayr. Drapers shop opened in 1896 and closed as a department store in February 2019. The Ayr Post Office General and Trades Directory for 1911-12 lists David and James S. Hourston as involved in the business of drapers, milliners, dressmakers and outfitters. Their drapery warehouse was claimed to be one of the largest retail drapery establishments in Scotland. Every Accommodation To Make Shopping A Pleasure. Luncheon And Tea Rooms. Lounges. Rest Rooms. Writing Rooms. Ladies’ Rooms. Smoking Rooms. Toilet Rooms. Visitors To Ayr Should Not Fail To Visit This Warehouse. British & French Dress Goods. Art Needlework. Silks And Velvets. Smallwares And Trimmings. General Drapery. Underclothing. Napery. Blankets. Corsets. Hosiery. Gloves, Umbrellas. Mantles & Costumes. Furs, Laces, Fancy Goods. Millinery. Gents’ And Boys’ Outfitting. Dressmaking. Ladies & Gents Tailoring. Carpets, Linoleums, Waxcloths. Furnishings, Sewing Machines, Washing Machines, Etc., Etc. Headquarters Of Ayrshire School Of Art & Women’s Industries. Their postcards appear to have been produced by Valentines (qv). In 1911 David Hourston was President of the Ayrshire North of Scotland Association and a director of a local insurance company.
J Raymond Howe Company of Chicago
- Copyright 1905 by R.H., Chicago
The J Raymond Howe Company of Chicago was an important early card publisher and a prolific publisher of greeting cards, especially Christmas cards. They were in business for about ten years from 1904 specialising in cartoons90 including topical cards featuring suffragettes91. Their graphics were influenced by the Arts & Crafts movement.
P. G. Huardel & Company, London
- P. G. H. LONDON W.C.
Paul Georges Huardel, fine art and postcard publisher, 295 High Holborn, London. Initially a bill-posting company, by 1899, the business had become fine art dealers at 18 & 19 Cranbourn Street. In December 1899 The Poster journal recommended that poster collectors who desire to obtain specimens of Spanish posters apply to Messrs. P. G. Huardel & Co., the well-known dealers in artistic posters and estampes and, indeed, their postcards were fine artworks they imported from the continent. My cards are French-made reproductions of major Parisian sights by Luigi Loir (qv). He also had dealings with Deyring-Honnest (qv).
Huardel appeared at the Bow Street Police Court after police had raided his shop in 1903. He had in his possession 27,550 postcards of which 386 postcards were obscene. In this case, sexual postcards formed a small and relatively unimportant part of his stock. Huardel defended himself by saying that he did not sell anything not found in other shops92. The only journal that publicised the case to any extent was the Poster and Postcard Collector which Huardel himself had founded93. The business ceased to operate in 190494.
Franz Josef Huber
- Franz Josef Huber, München
Franz Josef Huber, postcard publisher, Munich. Published local topographical cards and advertising stamps into WWI. Not the same individual who served in the SS in WWII though possibly his father. This card was produced by Mader & Springer of Isny im Allgäu in south-eastern Baden-Württemberg.
Robert Hügel, Berlin
The Kunstverlag Robert Hügel was a publishing house in Berlin SW 29. The company specialized in real photograph postcards of views of Potsdam and Berlin. The company’s trademark, KHB, likely stood for Kunstverlag Hügel Berlin95. Photo-cards of Barcelona were also published with the same initials but, I would suggest, by a different publisher.
Franz Huld, New York
- FH in shield surmounted by owl with wings outstretched
- Franz Huld, Publisher, New York
- Franz Huld, Publisher, New York FH in shield surmounted by owl with wings outstretched
Franz Huld (1861 to 1928) was a German who migrated to New York in 1897 and immediately went into the postcard business96. He issued hundreds of view cards, comics, artist-signed cards, holidays and greetings and many types of novelty cards. These included instalment sets – cards that made up a complete picture when placed in a row – such as the alligator. Huld cards were published from the Private Mailing Card era circa 1900 into the divided back era. His topographicals extended to Puerto Rico97. Some of his view-cards of New York were captioned in German. In 1906 he published a card marking the marriage of President Roosevelt’s daughter in the White House.
He was adjudicated bankrupt in December 1909.
- COPYRIGHTED, 1903, ESTHER HUNT
Esther Anna Hunt, artist, a painter focused on Oriental themes, especially portraits and figures she did from models that she found in Chinatown in San Francisco. Hunt’s stepfather Frazier took his wife and her children to San Diego County where he acquired 700 acres of land and established the town of Carlsbad. In 1893, the family moved to Los Angeles, and from 1896 to 1900, Esther Hunt was listed in the City Directory as an artist. In 1901 she enrolled at the Mark Hopkins Institute in San Francisco, and financed her education with paintings of Chinatown, child genre figures. and portraits. They became popular and widely circulated when she perfected a colour process to make reproductions, which featured the colourful costumes of the children. A marketing agent sold them in the East. Making money, she travelled to New York City and enrolled in the Art Students League from 1903 to 1905 and studied with William Merritt Chase in New York and in Paris, where she studied portraiture, for six years. When she had returned from Europe, she had studios in Los Angeles from 1913 to 1918, San Francisco from 1918 to 1926, Greenwich Village in New York from 1927 to 1931, San Francisco from 1932 to 1945, and Santa Ana until her death in 1951. When she returned to Los Angeles in 1913, she again took up her interest in Chinese subjects and made many painting trips to San Francisco. Settling there in 1918, she devoted most of her attention to Oriental subjects and had a nation-wide market for her paintings, prints, postcards, and coloured ceramic figurines. She also did portraits of children in France, beach scenes at Laguna and Native American women and children from the Pomo of northern California98. The National Art Company of New York, who published my card of her work, were still copyrighting it in 1918.
T W Hunter
Hexham, Northumberland, England
- Hunter’s Series, Hexham Printed by Valentine, Ltd., Dundee
T W Hunter, stationer and photographer, 98 & 96 Fore Street, Hexham
In the 1886 Clegg’s international directory of the world’s book trade, the business was listed as TW & G Hunter at 25 Fore Street:
New books, second-hand books, antiquarian books. Retail. Fancy goods, stationery, news
and magazines. Book shows. Special displays, Christmas shows
Most striking was the claim to have been established for over 150 years.
Their local topographical photo-cards were printed by Valentine Ltd of Dundee up to 1907. Some of Hunter’s divided-backs are clearly prints of studio portraits.
H.S. Hutchinson & Company,
New Bedford, Massachusetts, USA.
- H.S. HUTCHINSON & CO. NEW BEDFORD, MASS.
H.S. Hutchinson & Company, wholesale and retail booksellers and stationers, 194 Union Street, New Bedford. Established 1864, the business celebrated its 75th anniversary in 1939. The company published a series of maritime pictures including A view of the Stone Fleet. The Stone Fleet was a fleet of ageing ships (mostly whaleships) purchased in New Bedford and other New England ports during the American Civil War by the Union Navy for use as blockships. They were loaded with stone, and sailed south from New Bedford on 16 November, 1861. Hutchinson published cards into the divided-back era bearing the message: SOUVENIR OF NEW BEDFORD, MASS., U.S.A. Once the famous WHALING PORT now the FIRST city in America in the manufacture of Fine Cotton Goods. Their cards and other publications often featured the whaling industry including Cutting in a Whale; A Series of Twenty-Five Photographs Taken on Board Bark California, a book of photographs copyrighted in 1903. Hutchinson’s also ran a Circulating Library.
This Card: Washington Social And Musical Club started on Social Street, New Bedford, Massachusetts in 1892. This picture shows the club located on 1 West French Avenue (now Rodney French Blvd) named after the mayor at the time Rodney French. Facilities included a barber shop and the ballroom where live bands offered music and dancing at the weekend. Much of the interior of the building was destroyed by fire in 1922. The members repaired the first floor and used that until 1960 when the building was sold to the city of New Bedford and subsequently demolished for the space to build the Howland Green Library on the corner of Cove Street and Rodney French Blvd.
Hutson Brothers Limited
- H. B. Ltd.
Hutson Brothers Limited, printers and publishers, 146 London Road, Croydon, Surrey,
Percy Hutson was a traveller for the Pictorial Postcard Company in 1904 when he was living in Cornwall. When that company went into liquidation in 1908, Hutson and his brother H bought the stock, goodwill and furniture for £102 and continued the business from the same premises at 15 Red Lion Square, London, W.C. They took over the valuable connection with Donald McGill and, later that year advertised as the sole publishers of McGill’s Comics and Red and Black Series with new cards issued every week. However, McGill didn’t like the brothers’ drinking or womanising or the quality of their cards and sent work elsewhere.
Often the initials are all that identify the brothers’ cards but when they added the address, this helps identify the period:
- 1915 to 1923 53A Aldersgate Street, London, EC
- 1928 64 – 68 Whitecross Street
- up to 1935 48 Great Sutton Street
- pre WWII 1-9 Seward Street, Goswell Road
The company was founded in 1919, well outside the undivided-back era which means that this card was a historical anachronism when it was published, perhaps a sign that the brothers’ attention was indeed elsewhere.
Hyde Paper Company,
Pueblo, Colorado, USA
- Hyde Paper Co., Publishers, Pueblo
In the Years 1905-1906, the Hyde Paper Company supplied stationery and toilet paper to the Colorado State Insane Asylum99. In the 1909 Colorado City and Manitou Directory the company advertised from the address 100-102 S. Victoria Avenue, Pueblo, Colorado with the slogan PAPER THAT’S ALL BUT ALL KINDS. Jobbers of Paper, All kinds Stationery, Twines, Notions etc. The company was led by Verne Hyde (President and Treasurer) A V Fagerstrom (Vice-President) and F M Hyde (Secretary).
1 Islamic ceramics: from the collection of the Badisches Landesmuseum Karlsruhe
6 D.R.G.M. no. 88077
8 Paper chase the amenities of stamp collecting Alvin Fay Harlow, 1940
11Pioneer Photographers from the Mississippi to the Continental Divide: A Biographical Dictionary, 1839-1865 Peter E. Palmquist, Thomas R. Kailbourn, 2005 Stanford University Press
13 literally Hamburg American Packet-shipping Joint-stock company, often referred to in English as Hamburg America Line, sometimes also Hamburg-American Line, Hamburg-Amerika Linie or Hamburg Line.
15Minnesota in the Mail: A Postcard History By Bonnie Wilson
17 The Editor: The Journal of Information for Literary Workers, Volume 42 1915
18Brittany in the Breton language
21 Breton Regionalist Union – Union Régionaliste Bretonne or URB
25Picture Postcards and their Publishers Anthony Byatt 1978 Golden Age Postcard Books page 309
26Picture Postcards and their Publishers Anthony Byatt 1978 Golden Age Postcard Books page 309
28 the dark blue dye obtained from the indigo plant
29Picture Postcards and their Publishers Anthony Byatt 1978 Golden Age Postcard Books page 111
30Pictures in the Post Richard Carline (1959 Gordon Fraser) page 49
31Pictures in the Post Richard Carline page 55
43 Munich is called Monaco di Baviera (Monaco of Bavaria) in Italian
44 Associate of the Royal Cambrian Academy
45 Fellow of the Royal Geographical Society
46 The Life and Work of F. W. Hayes,, A.R.C.A. by F. Gordon Roe
47 The Connoisseur An Illustrated Magazine For Collectors 1921
51 London Gazette 14 June, 1910
54 Photographer Owner
57My card has 107 Regent Street, W
60Inhaber – proprietor
62Picture Postcards and their Publishers Anthony Byatt 1978 Golden Age Postcard Books page 190
65The Foreign Office List and Diplomatic and Consular Hand Book
66 Ohio’s Lake Erie Vacationland: In Vintage Postcards R. Wayne 2000 Ayers Arcadia Publishing, page 57
74Pat Brown Picture Postcard Monthly no 327 page 39
76Pat Brown Picture Postcard Monthly no 327 page 39
77 AG is an abbreviation of Aktiengesellschaft – public limited company
80 Buchhandlung –
83 Slater’s Royal National Commercial Directory of Scotland
89 In 1908 he won the Calcutta Sweepstake, and with the proceeds Florence Hotz bought a property outside Shimla which became the first of the family hotels, Wildflower Hall – https://www.himalayanclub.org/hj/58/20/in-memoriam-13/
91 American Woman Suffrage Postcards: A Study and Catalog Kenneth Florey,27 Jul 2015 McFarland page 328
92 FILTH IN THE WRONG PEOPLE’S HANDS: POSTCARDS AND THE EXPANSION OF PORNOGRAPHY IN BRITAIN AND THE ATLANTIC WORLD, 1880-1914.
93 The Sculpture Machine: Physical Culture and Body Politics in the Age of Empire Michael A Budd (1997 Palgrave Macmillan) page 162
94Picture Postcards and their Publishers Anthony Byatt 1978 Golden Age Postcard Books page 136
96The Statue of Liberty Barry Moreno, 27 Feb 2017 Arcadia Publishing page 33
99 Fourteenth Biennial Report Of The Board of Lunacy Commissioners