Directory F

S. C. Fagard,

Niagara Falls, New York

  • S. C. Fagard, Niagara Falls, N.Y. and Leipzig

S. C. Fagard, stamp dealer and publisher of sheet music, 3 Arcade Building, Niagara Falls, N.Y1. In October 1914 Fagard was listed in The American Philatelist, the Official Journal of the American Philatelic Society, as having attended their Convention as a visitor. In 1915 the Music Trade Review reported that S. C. Fagard. a music dealer of Niagara Falls, N. Y., who is at present located on Falls Street, that city, has leased the store at 343-345 Third street and will move to the new location about March 1, after the premises are remodeled.

W. S. Farrand,

Asbury Park, New Jersey, USA

  • Copyright W.S.Farrand, 1902

In 1902 W. S. Farrand copyrighted a rather ordinary photograph of ocean waves at Asbury Park and had postcards of it printed up by Ottenheimer of Baltimore (qv). On Saturday, January 22, 1910 the Ocean Grove Times of New Jersey reported in its Personal and Pertinent column that Mr and Mrs W. S. Farrand, who spent several months in the cottage at 5 Ocean Avenue, on Monday returned to their former home in Asbury Park.

Angelo Farrugia, Corfu, Greece

  • A Farrugia, editeur, Corfou

Angelo2 Farrugia moved from Malta to Corfu in about 18903

C W Faulkner & Co, London

  • C. W. Faulkner & Co.’s Celebrities Series.
  • C. W. FAULKNER & CO.’s “CHANNEL ISLANDS” SERIES.
  • C. W. Faulkner & Co. London, E.C.
  • C. W. Faulkner & Co.
There is another from the Cathedral series on the more cards page.

An important publisher of games, pictorial souvenirs, children’s books, and postcards. Charles Faulkner was originally in the Christmas card business with Albert Hilder Scheimer. In 1882, already established as lithographers, they began also printing in gravure. The partnership ended in 1885 with Faulkner taking over the business. He changed the company name in the 1890s and it became a limited company in 1905. The earliest card recorded by Picture Postcard Annual is postmarked 16 December 1899. While they printed a wide variety of card types, they are best known for their early black and white view-cards paired with a coat of arms, real photo cards of actresses, artist-signed cards by Louis Wain, Ethel Parkinson and G.J. Walters. Their Channel Islands series featured fine works of art signed EWH in a rectangular losenge. During World War I they produced propaganda cards. Up to that point, many of their cards were printed in Germany and Austria4. Charles Faulkner was killed in a rail accident in 19155.

Charles Fay, Paris

  • Ch FAY 9 rue de la Paix

Charles Fay established a business in 1850 called Maison Fay at 9 rue de la Paix, Paris. They were purveyors of perfumes, cosmetics and toiletries. They were best known for their powder Veloutine, a beauty product made of rice and bismuth6 and therefore changed their name to Parfumerie Veloutine. They won a gold medal at the 1900 Exposition7. They published a catalogue of cosmetics in 1900, giving prominence to Veloutine which was was heavily advertised and, indeed, a horse-drawn cart featuring it is seen in my card of Les Invalides. It may be inferred that cards were a means to an end rather than a principal business.

M. Fay wrote his name with a diaeresis (two dots) above the y, a usage found in a few French names indicating that the ÿ is to be pronounced separately8.

Ludwig Feist,

Mainz, Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany

  • Ludwig Feist, Mainz, Photofarbenkarte.
  • 1900 Ludwig Feist, Mainz.

Ludwig Feist, (30 June 1864 to 3 April 1942) Mainz. Feist published local topographic photocards into the 1920s. Feist’s identity card, issued in Mainz in 1939, identified him as a merchant / commission agent and a Jew9.

Paul Feldheim,

Hanover, Lower Saxony, Germany

  • Paul Feldheim, Kunst-Verlag “WELT-SPORT”, Hannover 104

Paul Feldheim, art shop and frame factory, 19 Georgstraße, Hannover10. As an art publisher published a numbered series of tinted view-cards of Hanover under the obscure name World Sport into the divided-back era.

Francesco Felicetti, Rome

  • Felicetti, Roma
  • ED. F. FELICETTI – ROMA.

Francesco Felicetti, photographer, 9 Piazza di Spagna, Rome. Felicetti and a young Roman called Filippo Schlosser undertook almost the first projections of moving pictures in Rome, in a room of the Gambrinus and the Casa Ricordi shop at Corso Umberto where the headquarters of the Banco di Napoli now stands11. Meanwhile, in France, the Lumiere brothers began using their Cinematographe system to shoot and project motion pictures. After a series of presentations, the Cinematographe opened to the paying public in Paris on the 28th of December 1895. The Lumiere Cinematographe rapidly conquered Europe and in 1896 Felicetti took the concession for southern Italy. He promoted screenings at the Cafe Chantant in Rome and Salone Margherita in Naples12. As well as showing films, Felicetti also made some of the earliest Italian films13. Many of his cards were series of studio portraits of young women in traditional costume.

Alfred Fellerer, Zell am See, Austria.

  • Verlag A. Fellerer, Zell am See.

Alfred Fellerer, Zell am See published local topographicals of Zell am See into the divided-back era. His cards had something of a focus on Hotels.

Not to be confused with Anton Fellerer who published books in Freising, north of Munich, between 1882. and 1896.

Fergusson, Taylor & Company

  • FT Series

Fergusson, Taylor published fine photographic topographicals of New Zealand.

B. Ferrand

Bourg-en-Bresse, Ain, France

  • B. Ferrand editeur a Bourg (Ain)

B. Ferrand was a French publisher of postcards, based at 41 Rue Centrale in Bourg14. At one stage, traded as B Ferrand et fils. L Ferrand also traded in postcards in Bourg.

J. Ferrary & Co., Gibraltar.

  • J. Ferrary & Co., Gibraltar.

J. Ferrary & Co of Gibraltar published photocards of the Rock numbered modestly into double figures which they commissioned from Purger & Co of Munich (qv). Similar divided backs were later published under the name Ferrary & Romero.

Alfredo Fiecchi, Venice, Italy

  • A E Fiecchi Edit – Venezia

Alfredo Ermo Fiecchi was a stamp dealer in Venice and Milan at the end of the 19th century. In 1898 he published a monograph on philately15. He was recorded in the London Philatelist for 1898 as an exhibitor at that year’s Philatelic Exhibition at Turin16.

Finkenrath & Grasnick, Berlin

Finkenrath & Grasnick, chromolitho printers was set up by Paul Finkenrath and Paul Grasnick on July 1, 189718. Finkenrath had been sales manager of August Finkenrath Soehne (est. 1875) which had a branch in Berlin from the mid 1890’s. Grasnick had been the head lithographer of the well known company J. Miesler.

The business was formed at 66 Alte Jacobstrasse but the partnership lasted only about a year. Grasnick left and worked as a lithographer in his own studio and printing business at 47 Thaerstrasse, before moving to 37 Blumenstrasse, Berlin O27. His contract chromolitho printing business prospered, and he very likely worked also for former partner Finkenrath from time to time.

Paul Finkenrath, Berlin

  • P & F either side of a winged cross with B below it
  • P.F.,B.

By 1900 Paul Finkenrath had moved his business to 31 Schlesische Strasse, Berlin SO. He added a department for deluxe paper production. Before 1902 the business was converted into a limited company. Business partners / managing directors were a Robert Schimpf and Mr. Oettinger. All three were also travelling salesmen. In 1907 PFB had 8 litho presses, 40 other machines and 180 workers. They made good profits but when the exports faded, with the domestic market suffering from overproduction, the company was wound up by late 1910. Final liquidation dates from March 31, 1911.

Finkenrath published the work of Italian artist Basilio Cascella in a series of cards for the German market.

N. Fiorentino, Naples, Italy.

  • Edit. N. Fiorentino, via Roma, 262, Napoli.

N. Fiorentino, 262 via Roma, Naples published Italian topographical photocards. In 1904 Fiorentino published Alberto Ciaramella’s General Catalogue of illustrated postcards of the Italian Army.

Fix & David,

Cairo, Port Said & Alexandria, Egypt

  • Agents: Fix & David, Cairo-Port Said.

Fix & David, Sharia Mansour Pacha, Cairo, Port Said and Alexandria, Egypt. They produced Gruss Aus cards while, thereafter, their postcards featured particularly traders and other ethnographic photographs. In 1905 and 1906 Fix & David were the agents for German East-African Line regular mail service from Port-Said to Africa and Europe19. In the London Gazette of 11 February 1916 Fix & David, 7, Sharia el Bosta, Cairo, (telephone 865) were listed as licensed to carry on business for the purpose of liquidation only, under supervision of a Controller; they were one of many persons and firms in Egypt with enemy interests … No new transactions should be entered into with [them]- a situation that was still in force more than a year later.

Maison Fleurmont, Paris

  • MF Paris

Leopold Blumberg, postcard printer and publisher, 47 rue des Petites-Ecuries under the name Maison Fleurmont, Paris.

In 1907 the house advertised bromide postcards and, a constant choice multicolour printing of novelty and topicality. A speciality was said to be glazed enamel production. In practice they published photocards posed by models in the studio, often with a romantic theme, into the divided-back era. Some of the couples were surrounded by stamps or the language of flowers.

Blumberg was rendered bankrupt on 24 May 1909 but reached a deal whereby his creditors were to be repaid by 1913. In the 1920s topographical cards of Normandy marked a notable change of style and location albeit the wording of the mark was the same.

F. Fleury & Baldomar, Paris

  • Photo-Cartes, 28, Bd Poissonniere, Paris

F. Fleury & Baldomar, photographers, 28 Boulevard Poissonniere, Paris. Photographic studio trading as Photo-Cartes, published their studio portraits as postcards into the divided-back era as well as cartes de cabinet and CDV.

Emil Flohri

  • FLOHRI

Emil Flohri, cartoonist, born in Roanoke, VA on 27 October 1869. At age 16 Flohri became political cartoonist for Leslie’s Magazine. He settled in Los Angeles in 1920 and painted portraits of many silent-screen stars. In 1928 he joined the staff at Disney Studios20 where he remained until his death on 24 December 1938. His full dinner pail cartoons helped elect William McKinley as President21. My write away card of a comic motor car accident was copyrighted by the Rotograph Co (qv) in 1905. That year Flohri also produced Stop Your Cruel Oppression of the Jews! addressed to the Emperor of Russia after a pogrom in Kishinev.

Bazar Flury,

Pontresina, Graubünden, Switzerland.

  • Bazar Flury, Pontresina

When Alexander Flury (1825 to 1901) formed his company for high mountain photography in 1863, he was already a legend in the valleys as a mountain guide and for the first ascent of Piz Palü22. His daughter, Albertine Sappeur-Flury, continued the business, as well as the winter branches at the Kulmhotel in St.Moritz. The business continues as foto-flury under the Lochau family.

Andrea Forzano

Borgo San Lorenzo, Tuscany, Italy

  • Stab. Forzano – Borgo S. Lorenzo
This is the distinctive format of Forzano’s cards. The Strait of Messina is a narrow strait between the eastern tip of Sicily and the western tip of Calabria in the south of Italy. It connects the Tyrrhenian Sea to the north with the Ionian Sea to the south, within the central Mediterranean

Andrea Forzano, printer and publisher, Borgo San Lorenzo in business by 1892. Forzano published topographical photocards heavily focussed on the islands off Italy, not all of them numbered. He certainly published some of the earliest postcards of Sicily. Borgo San Lorenzo is a comune in the Metropolitan City of Florence in the Italian region of Tuscany, located about 20 kilometres northeast of Florence. Giovacchino Forzano (19 November 1884 to 28 October 1970) an Italian playwright, librettist, stage director, and film director was also born in Borgo San Lorenzo.

Giuseppe Fossi,

Rio Marina, Tuscany, Italy

  • Cartoleria Giuseppe Fossi Rio Marina

Giuseppe Fossi had a stationery shop in Rio Marina for which he commissioned local topographical photo-cards from Alterocca of Terni (qv).

Foster & Reynolds

Washington DC and New York, USA

  • FOSTER & REYNOLDS, 1338 PENNSYLVANIA AVENUE, WASHINGTON D.C.
  • Foster & Reynolds, 1 Madison Avenue, New York
  • Foster & Reynolds, No. F. 17 Madison Ave., New York and Leipzig.
  • Foster & R., New-York-Leipzig.
Originally built for the State, War and Navy Departments between 1871 and 1888, this is now the Eisenhower Executive Office Building housinf a majority of offices for White House staff. Designed by Supervising Architect of the Treasury Alfred Mullett, the granite, slate and cast iron exterior makes the EEOB one of America’s best examples of the French Second Empire style of architecture.

In 1898 Foster & Reynolds published Washington, A Handbook for Visitors: The Standard Guide by Charles B Reynolds23. Reynolds also had a connection with Florida and, in 1921 the company published his book “The oldest house in the United States”, St. Augustine, Fla: An examination of the St. Augustine historical society’s claim that its house on St. Francis street was built in the year 1565 by the Franciscan monks. In 1917 the company published the Washington Standard Guide and accompanying map under the name FOSTER & REYNOLDS, New York and B.S. Reynolds Co, Washington24 but as early as the 5 July 1904 edition of the Evening Star in Washington, Foster & Reynolds was advertised as a contact for hotels and readers were being referred to Mr. Foster at the Standard Guide Information Bureau, 1338 Pennsylvania Ave. The company also published their tinted view-cards of Washington from 1 Madison Avenue, New York during the undivided-back era25 but the three-digit numbering is not a reliable guide to their different addresses.

Fradelle & Young

  • PHOTO BY FRADELLE & YOUNG. S. HILDESHEIMER & CO. LTD., LONDON & MANCHESTER

Fradelle & Young, photographers and lantern slide makers, 283 Regent Street, London, W.

Much of the business was portraiture, substantially of the great and good of the day. Initially, this was by way of albumen cabinet cards but in due course, their photographs were published as postcards. They also published as lantern slides and otherwise, topographicals from Scotland, Scandinavia, Switzerland and beyond.

According to Lucerna Magic Lantern Web Resource*, in spite of the business name, this was probably not a partnership; Albert Antonio Young (1865 to 1934) took over the business of Albert Fradelle (c.1843 to 1884) on the latter’s death and merged it with his own under both names at 246 Regent Street. It was there until 1897 when he moved it to 283 Regent Street where he was recorded in the 1901 census as resident. By 1911 he was living in Maida Vale.

However, the firm’s output included an 1860s portrait of Charles Dickens who died in 1870 and an 1875 portrait of Alice Terry. The Oxford Edition of Poems of Robert Browning has a portrait to frontispiece from a photograph taken by Messrs. Fradelle & Young in 1861. All these events are before the commencement date of 1884 given by Lucerna summarised above. The answer may be that they were assets of one of the predecessor firms marketed in the new firm’s name. The Royal collections include a photograph of the Prince of Wales, later King George V, attending a Savage Club Dinner on 20 April 1909. The firm is said to be at 246 Regent Street, some years after Lucerna indicates they left. Another issue is the dates for Young which make him only 19 when he merged his own business with the prestigious one of Fradelle.

* http://www.slides.uni.trier.de/organisation/index.php?id=1001434. Accessed 9 June 2020.

This Card: Sir Henry Irving (6 February 1838 to 13 October 1905) was an English stage actor in the Victorian era, known as an actor-manager because he took complete responsibility (supervision of sets, lighting, direction, casting, as well as playing the leading roles) for season after season at the West End’s Lyceum Theatre, establishing himself and his company as representative of English classical theatre. In 1895 he became the first actor to be awarded a knighthood, indicating full acceptance into the higher circles of British society.

Rafael Franco’s widow

Aracena, Huelva, Spain

  • Viuda de Rafael Franco. == Aracena

Rafael Franco’s widow, Aracena published photocards of Aracena and Fuenteheridos in Huelva, south-west Spain that were printed by Hauser & Menet. There is no sign of Mr Franco having published cards or Mrs Franco having published divided-backs. The business was still going in 1937.

F. Frankel & Company, London

  • F.F. & Co

F. Frankel & Company, publisher, London, WC. Their undivided backs included coloured topographicals advertising Horniman’s tea. They produced a star series using the star as a trade mark and humorous cards including a set called the Six Senses. The star contained the initials of Gottschalk, Dreyfus & Davis of London who started in 1904 though it isn’t clear what the connection was.

Joseph Frankfort

Arnhem, Netherlands

  • Uitg. Joseph Frankfort, Arnhem v.d. Sande Bakhuizen

Joseph Frankfort, publisher, Arnhem published cards of landscapes by artists including H W Meadag and Julius van de Sande Bakhuyzen

George Frankfurter,

The Fair, Winnipeg Manitoba, Canada

  • Stationery Dept., “The Fair,” 614-616 Main Street

With the construction of the Canadian Pacific Railway in the early 1880s, western Canada saw the opening of large tracts of land for settlement, and Winnipeg grew from a little trading post of 250 people in 1870 to an important city, along the way being incorporated in 1874 when it had a population of 1,870. George Frankfurter (1842 to 1919) arrived in 1880 and became a member of the first Jewish congregation, known as the Children of Israel26. Frankfurter, a dry goods merchant, and his wife Fanny were early business people in Winnipeg and ran a clothing store at 614 to 616 Main Street. By 1903 he had opened his stationery department and started publishing cards. Later cards had G.F. 616 Main Street, Winnipeg and Novelty Souvenir Co., 614-616 Main Street, Winnipeg. In 1906 Frankfurter had a house built in Bannatyne Avenue by Frank Robert Evans the builder, contractor and architect.

Lorenz Fränzl & Company, Munich.

  • L. Fränzl & Co., München.

Lorenz Fränzl, photographer, Munich sold gelatin silver prints of photographs of Oberammergau. He published topographicals of Bavaria and Austria into the divided-back era. Coloured topographicals were printed by lithographer Louis Glaser of Leipzig. Franzl published the work of German artist Hans August Zierngibl.

Fränzl was an early hiking photographer; he made a pilgrimage across South Tyrol to take pictures of the country and its people For decades from 1920 or so, he published topographicals of the Dolomites from Bolzano, culminating in 1948 with the publication of a volume of 160 photos in rotogravure printing.

Dolomiti in cartolina : Dolomites on picture postcards by Giuseppe Tomasoni (Arca Editore published by Esperia Srl in 2001) reproduces many of his cards of the Dolomites.

John Fredrikson, Oslo

  • FREDRIKSONS KUNSTFORLAG27; CHRISTIANIA
  • JOHN FREDRIKSONS KUNSTFORLAG; CHRISTIANIA
  • Eneret* J.F.
Larviksfjorden is a fjord in the municipality of Larvik in Vestfold, Norway.

John Fredrikson, photographer and art publisher, Oslo. In 1905, the year of Norwegian independence from Sweden, Fredrikson took topical photographs including royal visits and the newly established border posts. Thereafter, he took photographs of actors. His postcards featured young women in national costume and artist-signed original artwork of locations in Norway.

Eneret – exclusive

E. Frey & Company, New York

  • E. FREY & CO. PUBLISHERS NEW YORK.

E. Frey & Company, was an early predecessor of Souvenir Post Card Co28. Frey was from New York and ran the US branch of the Frankfurt postcard printer August Frey29. Both firms appear to have had a similar background and relationship with the USA30. Their tinted photocards of New York were German-made.

Frey & Son, Zurich

  • Lith. Art. FREY & FILS (ancien maison Frey & Conrad) Zurich
  • LITH. KUNSTANSTALT31 FREY & SOHNE (vorm Frey & Conrad) ZURICH

Frey and E. Conrad, Limmatstrasse, Zurich III were nineteenth century publishers and printers notable for their tourist and rail posters and botanical education plates. This business appears to have continued in the new century under the name Frey & Son albeit seeking to trade on the goodwill of the old name. Their Marine Series 53 features fine paintings of ships at sea. They chromolithographed works of Swiss 19th century floral artist Emilie Vouga for Vouga & Company of Geneva.

Francis Frith

Reigate, Surrey, England

  • FRITH’S SERIES
  • F.F. & Co.

Francis32 Frith, (7 October 1822 to 25 February 1898) was an English photographer of the Middle East and many towns in the United Kingdom. His reputation as a photographer was established largely on his photographic work from three expeditions to the Near East between 1856 and 1860. The critical and commercial success of these photographs allowed Frith to start a business whose vast photographic archive would become his greatest legacy33. On his return from the Middle East in 1859 he opened the firm of Francis Frith & Co in Reigate, Surrey, as the world’s first specialist photographic publisher. In 1860, he married and embarked upon a colossal project — to photograph every town and village in the United Kingdom; in particular, notable historical or interesting sights. Initially he took the photographs himself, but, as success came, he hired people to help him and set about establishing his postcard company, a firm that became one of the largest photographic studios in the world. Within a few years, over two thousand shops throughout the United Kingdom were selling his postcards34. In 1895 Frith established Cotswold Collotype Printing Company in the Bristol Mill, Charfield to print his cards. That business lasted into the 21st century. Picture Postcard Annual 2020 records a card postmarked 15 August 1899. Firth’s name continues as a commercial archive of his work35.

Another card in this series was printed by Woolley of Ludlow.

Max Fruchtermann, Istanbul

  • Max Fruchtermann, Constantinople
  • Editeur Max Fruchtermann, Constantinople

Max Fruchtermann (1852 to 1918) Constantinople, Turkey. The most prominent early publisher of Ottoman postcards. Born on the eastern border of Austria-Hungary to German parents, he came to the central part of the Ottoman Empire in the 1860s. Two years later, at the age of seventeen, he opened a frame-shop at Yüksekkaldirim in Istanbul. It is hard to overestimate his role in the publishing scene that followed.

He was one (if not the first) of the first to create postcards depicting the Ottoman Empire. Orientalism was still in vogue when Fruchtermann began creating cards and his depictions became very popular. His early postcards (1895) are hand coloured but he began to produce colour cards in 1897 that were printed by Emil Pinkau. In addition to his view-cards he produced a large series of figure studies and types in native costume. Many of his cards were photographs by Abdullah (qv). The disruption of the First World War caused his bankruptcy and he died in 1918. His son Paul continued to run his postcard shop until 1966 when the entire remaining inventory was sold off36.

M. Fujii & Company

Yangon, Myanmar

  • M. Fujii & Co., Rangoon

M. Fujii & Company, Japanese curio shop, 283 Dalhousie Street, Rangoon. In Twentieth century impressions of Burma : its history, people, commerce, industries, and resources (Arnold Wright, Lloyd’s Greater Britain Pub. Co., 1910) this was said to be the biggest curio shop in Rangoon, doing a very considerable trade in Japanese curio with departments devoted to tailoring, outfitting, and hairdressing and branches at Kobe and Osaka in Japan.

The proprietor was Mohamed Abdul Kader, a son of Munshi Abson Ali, a Chittagong Mahomedan well-known and highly respected in Rangoon as the president and sole financing head of the Bengal Steam Navigation Company. Mahomed Abdul Kader was vice-president.

The Burma Guardian, a Burmese language daily newspaper was also published at 283 Dalhousie Street.

1 Johnson’s BUSINESS AND PROFESSIONAL DIRECTORY OF BUFFALO, Rochester, Erie, Pa., Niagara Falls, Lockport, North Tonowanda, Tonowanda, Batavia, Hamburg, Dunkirk, Williamsville Geneva, Lyons, Canandaigua and Lancaster, N. Y., Etc. Etc. 19O2-O3

2http://eliaserver.elia.org.gr/elia/site/searchwin.php?srch=25&name=ekdotis

3http://www.my-malta.com/service/researcherscorner_f.html

4http://www.gracesguide.co.uk/C._W._Faulkner_and_Co

5 Postcards from the Nursery Dawn & Peter Cope New Cavenish Books 2000 page 188

6 A History of Advertising Henry Sampson Published by Prabhat Prakashan.

7https://cleopatrasboudoir.blogspot.co.uk/2014/05/charles-fay-perfumes.html

8https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/%C3%BF

9 http://www.alemannia-judaica.de/images/Images%20387/Kastel%20KK%20MZ%20Feist%20Ludwig.jpg

10https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paul_Feldheim_(Verleger)#cite_note-Ein_Anfang-2

11https://sempreinpenombra.com/2014/07/18/pionieri-del-cinematografo-romano/

12 Encyclopedia of Early Cinema Richard Abel 2005 Taylor & Francis page 335

13 A Companion to Italian Cinema Frank Burke 2017 John Wiley & Sons, page 33

14https://fr.wikibooks.org/wiki/Photographie/Soci%C3%A9t%C3%A9s_et_Organisations/%C3%89diteurs_de_cartes_postales/B._Ferrand

15http://www.internetculturale.it/opencms/ricercaExpansion.jsp?q=&searchType=avanzato&channel__creator=Fiecchi%2C+Alfredo+Ermo&channel__contributor=Fiecchi%2C+Alfredo+Ermo&opCha__contributor=OR&opCha__creator=OR

16https://archive.org/stream/londonphilatelis71898roya/londonphilatelis71898roya_djvu.txt

17 Card not held

18 http://www.tpa-project.info/html/body_paul_finkenrath.html

19 https://gitcdn.link/cdn/dig-eg-gaz/content/1be7cee7fa6b8c31d30dff77d78eb1d334baf130/1906-05-09.xml

20 https://www.imdb.com/name/nm3580899/

21 New York Times 27 December 1938

22http://www.fotoflury.ch/geschichte.html

23https://www.scribd.com/document/79289984/Historic-Survey-of-Shaw-East-Kelsey-amp-Associates-2001-2002

24https://www.loc.gov/resource/g3850.ct004474r/

25 March 1, 1907 in the USA: http://www.vintagepostcards.ca/Postcard_Eras.html

26 The Jews Of Canada by Martin Wolff http://www.ajcarchives.org/ajc_data/files/1925_1926_5_specialarticles.pdf

27 Art publishers

28http://collections.mcny.org/Collection/Soldier’s-and-Sailor’s-Monument,-New-York.-2F3HRGOCIN2.html

29http://www.tpa-project.info/TPA_17_3_Frankfurt.pdf

30http://www.tpa-project.info/html/body_th__eismann.html

31 Art publisher

32 also spelled Frances

33 Encyclopedia of Nineteenth-Century Photography John Hannavy (2008) Routledge http://home.fa.utl.pt/~cfig/Anima%E7%E3o%20e%20Cinema/Fotografia/Enciclopedia%20of%20the%2019th%20Century%20Photography.pdf

34https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Francis_Frith

35www.francisfrith.com/uk/

36http://postcards.turkishpostalhistory.com/index.php/fruchtermann