Directory C

Aurelio Caggiano, Naples, Italy

  • Types napolitains Prof1. A.C. Gezetzlich Geschutz (Depose)
  • Collection artistique Prof. A.C et E.R. Types napolitains Reproduction interdite

Professor Aurelio Caggiano, (18 September 1869 to 1940), painter, sculptor and photographer, Naples. Son of the sculptor Emanuele, he soon left his study of humanities in favour of architecture. With the guidance of his father he devoted himself to sculpture. Adhering to the fashion for realism, he preferred to model his favourite subjects, commoners, rascals, fishermen and farmers in bronze. In the 1890s he was among the first in Naples to undertake artistic photography, acquiring a good reputation2. His Neapolitan Types photographs seem to be self-published. They present striking images in sepia taking up the whole picture side of the card in a modern fashion. In 1908 he provided the illustrations for Mala Vita Napoletana, a collection of stories on the Neapolitan underworld by a magistrate.

The Canada Railway News Company Limited

Toronto, Canada

  • The Valentine & Sons‘ Publishing Co., Ltd. Montreal and Toronto Printed in Great Britain Published by The Canada Railway News Coy., Ltd., Toronto, and R. & O. Navigation Coy.
card no 100661 J.V.

In 1883, the Phelan family of Toronto began the Canada Railway News Company to sell newspapers, magazines, confectionary and apples to the travelling public. Steamer bookstand and lunch counters were leased to the young T. P. Phelan, then in the employ of Chisholm Brothers, the proprietors of the similar privileges on the Richelieu & Ontario, and River St. Lawrence steamers. One of TP Phelan’s early ventures, in 1873, included buying 1,600 barrels of apples and shipping them off for sale in England.

From this he advanced to similar business at all the refreshment stations of the Grand Trunk and Grand Trunk Pacific Railways, so that by 1913, Barlow Cumberland recorded in his book A Century of Sail and Steam on the Niagara River that the Canada Railway News Co. was the largest news and catering company in Canada.

The Company published albums of photographs of Canada in the leporello (accordion-fold) format. Valentines published postcards for the company into the divided-back era. They also published a handbook on Canadian company law, the seventh edition in 1907. That year the superintendant and auditor of the Company was JJ O’Sullivan.

Cara, as the company is now known, bcame a food-service giant with $1.1-billion in annual sales and the owner of such restaurant brands as Harvey’s, Second Cup, Swiss Chalet, Kelsey’s and Montana’s. Cara was owned solely by the Phelan family from its inception in 1883 until it went public in 1968. The Phelan family bought back its public stock in 2004 and, once again, made it a private company.

Canadian View Card Company, Toronto.

  • Canadian View Card Co., Toronto.

Canadian View Card Company was based in Toronto, and was a prolific publisher of early Canadian patriotic postcards, as well as other early view cards. Their early series of postcards do not often bear the publisher’s attribution, however, the Canada Coat of Arms series shows the publisher’s name and a hugely elaborate Souvenir Mailing Card card back3. The company published into the divided-back era with a selection of elaborate Private Post Card backs.

Angelo H. Capato, Khartoum, Sudan

  • Angelo H. Capato, Khartoum

Angelo H. Capato, OBE, (1854 to 1937) born Angelos Helia Kapatos on the Ionian island of Cephalonia in western Greece, was the most eminent business magnate and one of the most powerful persons in Anglo-Egyptian Sudan at the beginning of the 20th century. Capato left home while still a boy and joined the British Navy at some point. He arrived in the Egyptian port town of Suez in 1870. In 1883, Capato arrived in the Sudanese port town of Suakin at the Red Sea as an agent of the Alexandria-based merchant-house John Ross & Co. In 1884, while the indigenous Mahdist rebellion escalated in most of Sudan, he started supplying provisions to the British Army and Navy. After the fall of Khartoum in 1885 to the Mahdist forces, Suakin remained under British control and became an all-the-more strategically important outpost. In 1886, the partnership with Ross ended and Capato started his own enterprise and obtained British citizenship. He became the main caterer of the Anglo-Egyptian forces, especially in fresh meat, set up a network of canteens run by Greeks, and an ice factory. The business offered huge profits, but also heavy losses at times, especially from animal diseases. At one point, he also recruited some three thousand contract workers from Yemen for the British authorities in order to fortify Suakin. When an Anglo-Egyptian army under Herbert Kitchener started the reconquest of Sudan in 1896, Capato and other Greek merchants followed the invading forces and again specialised in catering to the troops and officers. The establishment of the Anglo-Egyptian Condominium in 1899 opened vast business opportunities to foreign traders, mainly Greeks like Capato. Capato was especially well-positioned: he apparently not only spoke English and Arabic, but also nine local dialects. Capato quickly expanded his business activities beyond providing supplies to the colonial regime. In Khartoum, he became one of the pioneers of construction and traded in ivory and gum arabic. Soon, Capato owned hotels, started a postcard publishing company, and ran a service for fitting out big-game hunting parties. For his manyfold business activities, Capato recruited large numbers of Greeks, preferring family members. Capato – and probably many other Greeks – saw themselves as stalwarts of the colonial order. In 1906, Capato’s fortunes started turning with a series of fires and other serious misfortunes and his creditors grew nervous. By 1912 Capato had to declare bankruptcy. In 1926, Capato received the Order of the British Empire4.

John Carey

John Carey (1861 to 1943) was an animal and figure painter as well as an illustrator was the son of the Rev. J. W. Carey, a Moravian Minister at Kilwarlin Moravian Church, Kilwarlin, County Down, Ireland. who spent most of his life at 12 Cyprus Park in Belfast working with the affairs of the Moravian Church, University Road. Having worked with Marcus Ward & Co and with his brother Joseph in Ernest Hanford, John first began to make his own career by designing the label for Camp coffee with a Scottish Highland scene. In 1888, when he was a member of the Belfast Ramblers Sketching Club, he was commissioned to design the front cover of their exhibition catalogue. When sketching in Connemara, Carey travelled by train or bicycle and so was inspired by his surroundings. John became partially blind and deaf towards the end of his life; on the 26th April 1943 he was knocked over by a bus and later died in hospital on the same day5.

Arvid Carlson, Sweden.

  • Arvid Carlson, Stockholm. Imp. Arvid Carlsons Konstforlag, Stockholm.

Arvid Carlson, art publisher, Stockholm and Södertälje, was a significant publisher of Swedish topographicals in the undivided back era.

Södertälje is a city less than forty kilometers from Stockholm. Carlson published local topographicals from there including the work of Swedish photographer Gustaf Henrik Björkström (1879 to 1950). Like others, some of Carlson’s cards seem to have been published through the New Paper Store (Nya pappershandeln) which had a bigger network of branches.

E. Carrère

Rodez, Aveyron, France

  • Rodez, E. Carrère, imp. -edit.
The Gascarie viaduct is a French rail bridge located in the town of Rodez, in the Aveyron department in the Occitanie region . It carries the Castelnaudary – Rodez line . It is one of three railway viaducts built around Rodez at the xix th century .

Mrs E. Carrere, printer and publisher, Place Emma Calve, Rodez. The Carrere print shop was founded in 1624 and passed through the family. Mrs Carrere variously described herself as Widow by the abbreviations Ve and Vve. From at least 1871 she produced serious and factual materials: in 1874 she published the papers for the fortieth session of the Scientific Congress of France. She also issued religious publications including the weekly Religious review of the Diocese of Rodez and the JUBILEE MANUAL FOR THE HOLY YEAR 1875. In 1879 she published a dictionary of the local patois just one of many local Roquefort country topics covered. In 1903 she printed a Dictionary of institutions, mores and customs of Rouergue, a publication of the Society of Letters, Sciences and Arts of Aveyron by Henri Affre.

The topographical reach of Mrs Carrere’s postcards was mostly local but extended as far as the Portuguese colony of Guinea Bisssau in West Africa. Pierre Carrere operated a bookshop at the corner of Place de la Cite and Rue du Touat.

The printshop closed in 1983 and was demolished in 1985.

Source: Carto Club Aveyronais

Éditions La Carte Postale Artistique6, Paris

  • “La C. P. A.” Paris

CPA, publisher and printer, Paris were most famous for their LA NORMANDIE series of photographic topographicals produced from 1903 to 1907. They also published matching cards of LA PROVENCE. Emile Brocherioux, 25 quai Voltaire, Paris, was the photographer and Emile Grateau, of Pacy-sur-Eure, the printer.

Carter & Gut, New York

  • CARTER & GUT, PUBLISHERS, N. Y.

Carter & Gut, New York published undivided-back topographical cards, many with a theatrical theme and many with an advertising element. In directories for 1915 and 1916, Edwin K. Carter, photographer, is listed at 2231 Broadway.

Broadfoot Carter

  • BROADFOOT CARTER

David Broadfoot Carter (1880 to 1940) artist, 136 Wellington street, Glasgow, Scotland. Carter was an artist and designer who studied at the Glasgow School of Art from 1894 to 1909. In 1903 the author Bram Stoker, now best known as the author of Dracula, bequeathed the Bram Stoker Medal to the School and it was awarded to David Broadfoot Carter for the best imaginative work of the year no doubt including a composition entitled Peace exhibited at their exhibition that year. Some years later, he was exhibiting with the Royal Glasgow Institute:

Mr. D. Broadfoot Carter, ably represented by the clever Indian Ink drawing, An Old Vagabond, has had a busy and varied career. Like most Glasgow artists his initiation to Art was by way of the celebrated School of Art that helps to make the city distinguished; like many, he began a professional career as a lithographer; like not a few, he studied in Paris and finally settled in London where book illustration and poster designing absorb much of his attention. With limited medium and restricted line, he obtains convincing effect, the absence of colour is unremembered in the vigour that characterises the work.

The International Studio An Illustrated Magazine Of Fine And Applied Art Volume Fifty-Four Comprising November, December, 1914, January And February, 1915 page 221

Carter produced paintings, lithographs and book illustrations. His watercolour and body colour painting showed a characteristic vibrancy and simple style that made them ideal for children’s books. Carter produced a gouache drawing in connection with Dear Brutus, a 1917 fantasy play by JM Barrie, the Scottish writer best known as the author of Peter Pan.

This card was published by William Lyon of Glasgow

H. C. Carter,

Mammoth Cave, Edmonson County, Kentucky, USA

  • H.C.CARTER

H. C. Carter of Mammoth Cave, Kentucky. On the back of a stereoscope picture of Mammoth Cave, Carter listed more than 80 other Magnesium Light Views from there copyrighted by himself and Ben Hains, Cave Photographer, New Albany, Indiana. Mammoth Cave National Park encompasses 52,830 acres in south central Kentucky, commemorating the diverse geological, biological and historical features associated with the longest cave in the world7.

Manuel M. Casanova,

Buenos Aires, Argentina

  • Editor Manuel M. Casanova – Corrientes 695 B. Aires Neg. de S. Rimathé

Manuel M. Casanova, 695 Corrientes, Buenos Aires, tobacco and spirits merchant. Casanova published local topographicals including photographs by Samuel Rimathé (qv). In 1905-06 Casanova published La Valija postal8, a partly philatelic journal.

Basilio Cascella

  • B. Cascella

Basilio Cascella (1 October 1860 to 24 July 1950) was an Italian artist, active from the late nineteenth century to the mid-twentieth century.

His father wanted Cascella to help in his tailor’s shop, but the boy had little interest in becoming a tailor. Instead, in April 1875, he went to Rome and was hired as a lithography apprentice in the Luigi Salomone printing plant.

Cascella painted in the realist verismo (meaning “realism”, from Italian vero, meaning “true”) style, a 19th-century Italian painting style. Cascella published a number of art journals over the years and contributed to other people’s. He exhibited widely though his 1903 work Il bagno della pastora was not exhibited at the Venice Biennale because it went missing during transportation from Pescara to Venice. It was found in tact thirty years later near Ancona and returned to Cascella.

In the 1920s, he joined the National Fascist Party and served as a deputy in the Italian Parliament from 1929 to 1934.

A historic art museum in Pescara, where he was born, is dedicated to the work of Cascella and family members who were key figures in the Art Nouveau movement – three of Cascella’s sons became artists.

Cards of his work were published for the German market by Paul Finkenrath of Berlin. In 1997 a catalogue of his postcards by Franco Battistella was published by Carsa in Pescara.

Henri Cassiers

  • Henri Cassiers with the lower stroke of the C extending the length of the surname

Henri Cassiers (11 August 1858 to 27 February 1944) was a Flemish artist, best known for his applied art: illustrations, posters, wall charts and postcards, often with a maritime aspect. Cassiers trained as an architect before training as an artist. As well as maritime scenes and city and village views, he was particularly attracted by Dutch costumes, especially those from Zeeland and Katwijk and he produced series of postcards featuring different regional dress. He illustrated many popular weekly magazines and various books from 1886 to 1893. In de Guide descriptif illustré de la côte de Flandre9, there are no fewer than 106 drawings by Cassiers. Cassiers’ style was also excellent for publicity purposes and tourist places and shipping companies regularly called upon him. From 1898 he worked on many posters, postcards, menu cards and other advertising materials for the Red Star Line in particular. He was also a member of the Belgian artists’ association Les Hydrophiles10.

Cautin & Berger, Paris

  • Cautin & Berger, Paris

Cautin & Berger, photographers, had their studio at the Private Hotel at 62 rue de Caumartin, Paris. Their cartes de cabinet advertised their Gold Medal at the 1900 Paris Exposition. They published photographs of stage stars from opera to vaudeville. Postcards, along the same theatrical lines and the glamorous Varietes series of photographs of actresses lasted into the divided back era.

Their photographs featured in the magazines of Pierre Lafitte & Cie, and it may be that this is the significance of the letters PL in the corner of the photograph and that they published the cards. The initials RPI also feature and they may have been the printer.

The Central News Company, Philadelphia, PA, USA

  • The Central News Company, Philadelphia, Pa – Leipzig-Berlin

In 1869 four Philadelphia newspaper wholesaler businesses combined to form the Central News Company which very shortly substituted wagon-delivery for the previous central collection point method of distribution. In 1878-87 they developed a route of more than 700 news-stands, stationers and cigar stores to supplement their carrier system11. By 1888 the Central News Company was the leading agency for the distribution not only of newspapers and periodicals but books and other publications. Stephen Farrelly, the manager to whose energy the business was largely indebted for its development, was born in Ireland in 1843, and was the younger brother of one of the founders of the American News Company of which the Philadelphia company was originally a branch12. In 1886 they located in 614 South Washington Square13 and were still there in 1900 when Edward H. Johnson was their manager14. They were still in business in 195015.

Central Post Card Company, Cleveland, Ohio

  • Central Post Card Co., Cleveland, O

Central Post Card Company, Cleveland, Ohio. In the register for the second quarter of 1905 of books entered at the Library Of Congress, they were referred to as the Central Post Card and Publishing Company.

On 16 July 1911 the company advertised in the Albuquerque Journal in New Mexico for salesmen to carry line of post card novelties as side line. By December that year, they were seeking in the Des Moines Register, Iowa, reliable sales men to sell their line of advertising calendars, fine leather, aluminium and other advertsing novelties and similarly in the St. Louis Post-Dispatch, Missouri. Both advertisements warned: None but first class salesmen need apply. My photocard of Pittsburg was made in Germany.

Central Publishing Company

Glasgow, Scotland

  • C P Co. GLASGOW WATERLOO SERIES

Central Publishing Company, Glasgow published Scottish topographicals and themed cards, often with tartan or heather, into the 1920s.

Shugan Chand & Company,

Agra, India

  • Shugan Chand & Co., Agra

M.L.16 Shugan Chand is one of many photographers represented in the Newsome-Glenn Collection of Miscellaneous Indian Views in the British Library17. His work was published by Tucks as divided-back cards in their EXCELSIOR series: M.L. SHUGAN CHAND, INDIAN ART MUSEUM, DELHI.

E. P. Charlton & Company,

New Britain, Connecticut, USA

  • Published by E. P. Charlton & Co., New Britain, Conn. And Berlin, Germany
  • PUBLISHED BY E. P. CHARLTON & CO.

E P Charlton & Company was an American chain of five and ten cent stores owned by Earle Perry Charlton (1863 to 1930) which merged with several associated brands to create the F W Woolworth Company in 1912. From 1890, Charlton and his partner, Seymour H Knox, a cousin of retailer Frank W Woolworth, established a chain of stores under the name of Knox & Charlton Five and Ten Cent Store. The chain operated as part of a syndicate established by Woolworth, allowing for friendly competition, so long as the individual owners followed Woolworth’s principles. The first store opened in 1890. Between 1892 and 1895, three more locations opened, in Hartford and New Britain, Connecticut, and Lowell, Massachusetts. In 1896, the two men went their separate ways, with Knox acquiring the store in Lowell, and Charlton retaining the other three. By 1899, Charlton had opened nine more stores in New England which he sold to Frank Woolworth, using the capital to finance the opening of several stores in Canada19.

Charnaux Freres & Company, Geneva

  • CHARNAUX FRÈRES & CIE, GENÈVE
  • CHARNAUX FRÈRES & Co, GENÈVE

Family of photographers and editors Geneva. The company took off when Charles (1852 to 1937), Auguste (1862 to 1930) and George (1864 to 1939), their sister Marie (1854 to 1932), children of Florentine (1819 to 1883) and Jeanne Vogt, took their father’s workshop in 1881 (Charnaux & Simond) at Bel-Air in Geneva. George’s photography provided the material for the collotypes and postcards that made the reputation of the house. In the 1880s, the tourism market and local interest in the photographs of Alpine and lake scenery and heritage monuments enabled Charnaux Brothers to start publishing. In 1886, George made spectacular stereoscopic views of Mont Blanc and the main sights of the Alps. Charnaux Brothers photographed the biggest events of the late nineteenth century including the Swiss National Exhibition in Geneva in 1896. Awards included the Silver Medal at the 1878 Paris Universal Exhibition20.

Chicago Photo-Gravure Company

  • CHICAGO PHOTO-GRAVURE CO

Chicago Photo-Gravure Company listed at 296 Dearborn in Chicago city directories for 1886 but not 188721. In 1887 they published The Yellowstone National Park in Photo Gravure. In 1893 they published Official views of the World’s Columbian Exposition. They issued private mailing cards authorised by Act of Congress 19 May 1898.

Chisholm Brothers

Portland, Maine, USA

  • Chisholm Bros., Portland, Me.
  • CHISHOLM BROS., PORTLAND, ME.

Chisholm Brothers, Portland, Maine. Hugh Joseph Chisholm (2 May 1847 to 1 July 1912) was born in Ontario, to parents of Scottish ancestry. When his father’s death made it necessary for him to leave school to help support the family, he found employment in Toronto as a newsboy distributing newspapers to passengers on the Grand Trunk Railway and steamboats, where he made friends with Thomas Edison, who was a newsboy on a nearby line.

An entrepreneur from an early age, by the time he was sixteen, he was able to buy out his former employer, hiring over two hundred newsboys to sell papers, magazines and books to railway and steamboat customers. In 1861 his brother joined him and formed the Chisholm Brothers, which distributed papers over much of Canada and the north-eastern United States. Chisholm Brothers began printing travel guides and founded a lithograph company in Portland, Maine, moving to half-tone photographs and then eventually, in 1888, to picture postcards. Chisholm became a US citizen and moved to Portland in the mid-1870s.

His early years as an entrepreneur in the news distribution business provided a foundation for later accomplishments in the pulp and paper industry. His founding and leadership of pulp and paper, fibre-ware, and light and power companies as well as banks and railways made him a dominant figure in Maine industry. His legacy went beyond his reputation as a capitalist, however; he created the first forest management program for International Paper Company and developed a planned community for the workers in his mills which was a model for the nation22. One of my German-made cards bears Greetings from the World’s Fair at St. Louis, Mo. 1904.

This card: Bar Harbor is a town on Mount Desert Island in Hancock County, Maine. Bar Harbor is a popular tourist destination in the Down East region of Maine and home to the College of the Atlantic, Jackson Laboratory, and MDI Biological Laboratory (Salisbury Cove village). Until a catastrophic fire in 1947, the town was a noted summer colony for the wealthy.

Chocolat Vinay.

  • Cartes postales Chocolat Vinay.

Société anonyme du chocolat Vinay, chocolate manufacturers, Ivry-sur-Seine was active between 1900 and 1959.

They were hugely active in marketing; they produced at least two series of 28 cards reproducing art work from major European museums and an album of French History to be completed by inserting stickers that came with the product.

Le Monde of 1 November 1955 reported that on complaints filed by many milk producers in the region, the Le Mans commercial court had declared the Maine Milk Company bankrupt. It soon appeared that that company was linked with Vinay and the Société à Responsabilité Immobilière et Financière du Parc, both headquartered in Ivry-sur-Seine at 45 Rue Gabriel-Peri under general president Jean Morael. The Le Mans commercial court therefore ordered the extension of the first bankruptcy to these two companies. The report continued:

It is still difficult to quantify the liabilities of these three cases. But that of the Maine Milk Company, whose activity continues to avoid the massive layoffs of staff, would reach several hundred million. Its director, Mr. Guy Morael, brother of the general president of the two other companies, was imprisoned on the charge of fraudulent bankruptcy.

George Fyffe Christie

  • GF in an open oval
  • GF in an open oval TRADE MARK above quartered shield: L.G THE “PREMIER” SERIES
  • GF in an open oval forming the first letter of Christie
Popular Songs Illustrated was published by William Lyon as part of his Premier Series.

George Fyffe Christie was a freelance commercial artist who drew humorous postcards, not least for William Lyon in the undivided back era. He had a long career during which he also wrote and illustrated children’s books. He was living in the English town of Bushey, Hertfordshire when met and married an English girl, Ethel and, in 1918, when their son, later the figurative artist and mural painter Fyffe Christie, was born. Around 1930 Ethel died and the family moved back to Glasgow’s Pollokshields district. Christie had some commercial success with his creation of the cartoon strip Scottikin O’ the Bulletin in the popular Glasgow newspaper The Bulletin but he struggled financially through the years of the recession and discouraged his son’s artistic ambition23. He later worked for the American-style comics published in Scotland by Cartoon Art Productions, including Razzle-Dazzle (1946-47) and G-Boy Comics (1947)24. Whether he is the Captain G.F.Christie of whom the Imperial War Museum have a WWI army portrait25, must be an imponderable at this stage but the period fits.

S Civiletti

  • S. Civiletti signature in corner of painting with C extending under the rest of the surname.

S. Civiletti, artist, Sicily. Reber of Palermo (qv) published topographical photocards and paintings of Sicily signed S. Civiletti. Neither of the famous Sicilian sculptors of this family had this initial and it is not clear who the artist was.

Paul Jean Clays

Paul Jean Clays (27 November 1819 to 10 February 1900) Belgian artist best known for his marine paintings.

Clays left school early, without telling anyone why he left or where he was headed, and immediately pursued his desire to become a sailor. He approached some boat men who were hospitable towards him and took him on as an apprentice sailor. In his years on the sea he learned not only the perils of the life of a sailor but also developed an extreme sensitivity and the exact feeling for colors given by sea and sky during the tempest days.

In 1856 he relocated from Brussels to Antwerp at which point he became the official painter of the banks of the Scheldt. Unfortunately, there were few resources and artists for him in Antwerp and he had to sell his work at drastically low prices.  To  become financially sufficient, he was forced to become a sailor once again. He worked on a government ship that traveled across the North Sea. His artwork for the Belgian State Steamship Company may also owe something to this connection.

He became one of the most esteemed marine painters of his time, and his work is found in great galleries of the world.

Clément Tournier & Company, Geneva

  • C. T. & Cie. à G
  • Clement Tournier & Cie., Geneve

Clément Tournier & Company, hardware store and postcard publishers Geneva. Émile Clément and Marius Tournier’s cards included a numbered series of local topographical photocarads, sentimental cards posed by child models and art nouveau floral studies26.

Clifton & Co., Mumbai

  • Clifton Co.
  • Clifton & Co
  • Clifton & Co, Bombay

Clifton & Co Photography Studio of Bombay, and noted publisher of postcards was established by Harry Clifton Soundy (1863-1922)in 1896 or 1897. From 1889 to 1894 he was a manager of Bourne & Shepherd’s Bombay studios at 19 Esplanade Road and in 1895 he left Bourne’s to set up in partnership with Charles Schulz, another employee of Bourne and Shepherd. However, this partnership did not last long and by 1897, Soundy was trading on his own account as Clifton & Co, from a studio in Meadows Street, Bombay. The studio was the venue for daily screenings of silent films from 1897. Showing signs of expansion, on 23 January 1900 he advertised in the Times of India to buy a new or second-hand collotype printing press. The Postcards for which Clifton & Co are possibly best known are the subject of an advertisement in the Times of India of 12 Oct 1901: Pictorial Indian Post Cards: 24 new subjects now ready. Indian views size 10 by 8, Rs5 per dozen. Clifton & Co, Photographers27.

Wilfrid Coates

Sunderland, England

  • WILFRID COATES, SUNDERLAND.

Wilfrid Coates, bookseller, picture-framer, fancy goods and fine art dealer, 25 Fawcett Street, Sunderland. In July 1901, Coates was also advertising a Library in connection with Mudie’s Lending Library.

On 23 August 1928, Coates and George James Milburn gave public notice that their partnership as booksellers, stationers and dealers in fine arts, at 25, Fawcett Street, under the style of WILFRID COATES, had been dissolved and that Mr Milburn would continue the business.

G. Cocci, Florence, Italy

  • FIRENZE G. COCCI – EDITORE

Publishers in Florence since at least 1875 under the name Galletti and Cocci printers publishers. Published calendario postales between at least 1880 and 188428.Published the Yearbook of the University of Florence for the academic years 1925 to 197129. In a reference to La tragedia italiana del Cinquecento by F. Neri that they published in 1904 they are referred to as Galletti-Cocci which may resonate with the wording of my card.

Cohn-Donnay & Company, Brussels

  • Cohn-Donnay & Cie, Rotterdam-Brussel-Luik.

German Berthold Cohn-Donnay moved to Belgium in 1902 to open major shops in Brussels and Liege. In 1902 he commissioned from Brussels architect Paul Hamesse a new facade for his forthcoming shop at 44 Rue Neuve, Brussels. A poster designed by Andre Blandin advertised openings of Grand Magazins in Brussels in October 1902 and in Liege (Luik in Dutch) in 1903, for which the same architect designed a building at Rue de l’Université.

In 1904 Hamesse also remodelled the house at 316 Rue Royale in the nearby Saint-Josse-ten-Noode district. Although his exterior changes were limited to a massive balcony, there is no doubt that the new interiors are among the most remarkable in Brussels; their details include the billiard room’s stained glass windows with yellow tones, the glazed roof light with geometric patterns and the staircase with Japanese-inspired woodwork. Most of the furniture is still present. The ground floor was completely redesigned: it consists of a concierge’s room, stalls for horses and storerooms. The architect made the most of the sloping site by designing a ramp suitable for carriages leading to the basement and to carriage storage areas underneath the mansion’s back garden.

There seems to be nothing available about any trading Cohn-Donnay may have done in Belgium but postcards were an essential of any retail establishment of note.

Charles Collas,

Cognac, Charente, France

  • CCCC in a clover logo30

Charles Edmund Collas, (15 January, 1866 to 23 May 1947) bookseller, photographer-publisher, printer and postcard publisher of Cognac, Charente where a street has been named after him. Collas was legitimated in 1869 by his parent’s marriage. In 1893 he gave up employment in Paris and moved to Cognac, where he opened a bookstore in the rue Neuve Saint-Martin and became active as a photographer. In 1900 he established a printing works employing about 10031. Collas’ main activity was printing books for others but he also produced postcards, both local topographicals and photo-cards of children in costumes that circulated throughout France and beyond. Particularly during 1903, sales of the series with babies and children were fantastic. He also published a photo-album, The Cognac vineyard, Excursions through the Charente vineyards. In 1904 Collas granted Fernand Fleury, a graduate photographer, exclusive use of his logo in Paris32.

The Collectors’ Publishing Company

London E.C.

  • The Collectors’ Publishing Co., Imperial Buildings, London E.C.
This appears to be Pendennis Castle near Falmouth in Cornwall but that belief hasn’t helped me identify the photographer Knowles.

The Collectors’ Publishing Company, 42 Imperial Buildings, Ludgate Circus, London, EC. Edmund W Richardson edited The Picture Postcard Magazine of Philately, Travel & Art which started in 1900 and in 1902 became The Picture Postcard and Collectors’ Chronicle. It was the first magazine devoted to postcards and advertised as THE BRIGHTEST AND BEST OF THE TWOPENNY MONTHLIES. The company took over the publishing from the fifth issue until it ceased in 1907.

It appears that Richardson was behind The Collectors’ Publishing Company, who were in 101 Fleet Street in February 1902 and again in 1907. To assist readers of the magazine, the company acted as agents for the postcards of many publishers, and for special issues of a short-lived nature. This card of a photograph by Knowles may be one of them. The company published cards of its own, notably photocards of London’s suburban and satelite towns into the divided-back era.

The Colombo Apothecaries Company Limited, Sri Lanka

  • The Colombo Apothecaries Co., Ltd.

The Colombo Apothecaries Company Limited was a mercantile concern established in 1883 by W. M. Smith and James Smith Finlay in the De Soysa Buildings, Slave Island, Colombo. In 1887 it moved into a small store at the junction of York and Prince’s Street. In 1889 an oilman’s store and a wine and spirits department was added. The store continued to grow. Later, stationery, china, fancy goods, photography and photographic supplies, electro-plated ware and boats and shoes were added. A further extension took in drapery, outfitting, hardware, toys, games and athletic goods. The company took the name Colombo Apothecaries Company in 1892. An outfitters, tailors and shoemakers branch employed 300 people in Baillie Street. The chairman in 1907 was Sir W. W. Mitchell, the general manager was C. Davidson. In the early 1890s the photographic studio was moved to more suitable quarters at Kandy, where climatic influences are more propitious for high class photographic work than in Colombo. At this studio thousands of views were produced and sent to all parts of the world. They include representations of the famous Buried Cities of Ceylon, concerning which the company published a catalogue. At the Colombo store, facilities including a dark-room and an electric job-printing department were provided for the use of amateurs, passengers and others, and a large stock of photographic materials kept33.

Columbia Polytechnic Institute for the Blind

  • PRINTED BY THE BLIND AT THE C.P.I.

In 1900, two blind men from Connecticut, Francis R. Cleveland and H.R.W. Miles, founded the Columbia Polytechnic Institute for the Blind in a small building in Northwest Washington, D.C. Now called Columbia Lighthouse for the Blind, the organization has changed its location, size and scope over the years. Its overall mission, however, has remained the same – to help people of all ages in the Maryland, D.C. and Virginia region overcome the challenges of blindness or vision loss and enable them to remain independent, active and productive. Early funds were invested in a printing plant, which would become a source of income for the organisation as well as provide employment for people who were blind. A monthly magazine was published but by 1918, both the printing and the magazine were discontinued34.

Combridge & Company, Mumbai

  • Combridge & Co., Bombay

Messrs. Combridge & Company, booksellers and publishers, Madras and Bombay. Messrs. A. .J. Combridge & Co., Bombay were listed as Agents for the Sale of Government Publications in the 1911 Census of North-West Frontier. They stamped their name into books they sold in blue ink: A.J. Combridge & Co. New and old booksellers. Bombay.

Luca Comerio, Milan, Italy

  • FOT. COMERIO MILANO

Fortunato Luca Comerio (19 November 1878 to 5 July 1940) was a Italian photographer, early photo-journalist and a pioneer of the Italian film industry. Comerio took his first important photograph in 1894 of the King of Italy, Umberto I, on an official visit to Como which earned him the King’s thanks. Just twenty years old, with his numerous photographs, Comerio courageously documented, at the risk of his life, the popular riots that broke out in Milan in May 1898. He worked from his studio in via Serbelloni. In 1918 he filmed the entrance of the cavalrymen to Trento and the moment when the tricolour flag was raised in the city. The large amount of material he shot during the conflict allowed Comerio to produce a feature film. Comerio created films from the early years of the century up to the end of the 1920s35 after which he was unemployed. He spent the last years of his life in poverty and solitude with his second wife36. A street in Milan now bears his name.

Comic Card Co,

Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA

  • a logo in which a man with a Dachshund dog holds up a giant letter C which serves as the first letter of the words Comic Card Co. Under the logo are the words MINNEAPOLIS MINN

Comic Card Co Minneapolis published topographicals of the US Great Lakes states. A search of several Minneapolis City Directories for 1905-1907 did not find any listings of this company.

Comptoir Philatelique d’Egypte, Alexandria, Egypt

  • Comptoir Philatelique d’Egypte – Alexandrie. – cl37. Lékégian & C.
  • Comptoir Philathélique d’Egypte – Alexandrie.

Comptoir Philatelique d’Egypte, Alexandria published topographical and ethnographic photo-cards in the undivided back era. Some of the photographs were their own and some from others such as Gabriel Lekegian (qv) and Paul Dittrich (qv).

In 1901 they published (in French38) a Catalogue & Current Price List Of Postage Stamps and Stationery Of Egypt & Egyptian Sudan, French Post Offices In Alexandria and Port-Said and All Other Foreign Offices Of The Levant by Edgard Papasian … 1902-1903

Comptoir de Phototipie,

Neuchatel, Switzerland

  • EDITEUR: COMPTOIR DE PHOTOTIPIE, NEUCHATEL (SUISSE)
  • C.P.N.

Comptoir de Phototypie, publishers of books and postcards, 13 rue Pourtalès,39 Neuchatel. In 1897 they published books of photographic view-cards. Later, under the name Phototypie-Neuchatel, they published Collection de 50 Paysages Suisses, a box of postcards showing Swiss landscapes. Their cards were numbered tinted and monochrome photographs. Their books and 1900 calendars were strongly promoted in the educational press40. The company appears to have been publishing books in association with A. Schlachter of Paris and Koehler of Leipzig between the late 19th century and 1930. In November 1897 they advertised Nice housing to rent immediately or for next Christmas, comprising 5 rooms, veranda, garden and outbuildings on Advantageous conditions.

This card would be complementary for guests of the Grand Hôtel of Russia and the Continent, which was located at the corner of the Mont-Blanc quay opposite the Hôtel des Bergues. It was demolished in 1968. This card was franked in the ambulant post office on the train that left Geneva for Zürich 2 minutes before 1 am on 23 June 1904 and arrived at Zürich at 6.36 am. Villars-sur-Ollon, commonly referred to as Villars, is a village in Switzerland in the canton of Vaud, part of the municipality of Ollon. The 1878 edition of Harper’s Hand-Books For Travelers In Europe And The East advised that a pleasant excursion should be made to Villard, a trip offering magnificent views of the valley; a one-horse carriage could be hired from the Hotel Grand Muveran for 15 francs for three hours.

C. Contini, Naples, Italy

  • C. Contini – Napoli

C. Contini, Naples, published local tinted topographical photocards and concertina photobooks of places as far away as Capri. They reproduced fine art in the divided-back era.

Antonio Coppola, Naples, Italy

  • A Coppola [stylised signature within the painting with the A and C intertwined]

Antonio Coppola (1850 to c.1902) artist, Naples painted landscapes for postcards in chromolithographs for various Neapolitan printers such as Richter & Co (qv) E. Ragozino (qv) and Fabio Bicchieral Editore. He may have varied his signature for different clients – sometimes it looks more like Coppolo41 or J Coppola.

John Corah and Son

Loughborough, England

  • CORAH’S PICTORIAL POST CARD SERIES I

John Corah and Son, printers, Wood Gate Works, Loughborough. Corah went on to publish divided-back real photocards. An invoice issued by the company described them as Printers, Lithographers, Account Book Makers to the Laundry Trades42. In 1911 Corah copyrighted a photograph of girl holding white tea cloth taken by Frank Nield who had a studio at High Street, Loughborough43. In 1934 the firm published Bygone Loughborough by H W Cook. Their postcards were photocards of the locality.

Corbaz & Company

Lausanne, Switzerland

  • Corbaz & Cie, Lausanne

DH Corbaz and Company, publishers, Lausanne. In 1907 they merged with others to form Société de la Feuille d’Avis et des Imprimeries Réunies44. Corbaz published the Swiss Military Journal was from its foundation in 1856 to 1861 and 1893 to the merger after which it was continued by the new enterprise. Corbaz’ books online date between 1869 and 1905.

Cormault and Papeghin, Paris

  • J. Cormault et E. Papeghin. edit. Paris AP
  • AP in a circle

24 Rue des Petites-Écuries Paris. Listed as publishing postcards of the 1900 Paris Exposition Universelle Internationale under the name Cormault-Papeghin45. Also at times Papeghin et Cormault and E Papeghin. Used initials A.P. and AP in a circle, the latter commonly seen on photocards of Italy. Published books of postcards of Paris up to 1930.

M M Couvée,

Den Haag, Netherlands

  • M. M. COUVÉE

Marinus Mattheus Couvee (28 May 1861 to 23 April 1922) photographer and bookseller. In 1856 Couvée opened a bookshop on the Lange Poten in The Hague. His son, apparently of the same name, continued this business after his departure to Oegstgeest. In 1918 it was located at 4 Parkstraat. In the same period, they seem to have operated as photographers both of royalty and current events as well as studio portraits of which they produced bromide prints.

William ​Cowin & Company

Douglas, Isle of Man

  • ​Cowin’s Series

William Cowin & Company, fancy goods and general draper, 6 Victoria Street, and at the Star Bazaar, 13, Duke street, Prospecthil and Victoria Pier, Douglas.

Advertising in The Isle of Man Weekly Times of Saturday 28 July 1883, Cowin attributed the reasonableness of the prices of his tourist ware to working the department in connection with our drapery, thereby saving rent and many incidental expenses.

Cowin published The Photographic Series Album Views of The Isle of Man. His postcards were local topographical photo-cards produced for him by Valentines of Dundee.

In about 1928, an advertising photo for the Star Bazaar shows fancy goods and souvenirs including crested china for sale from his Victoria Pier which were demolished in 1961.

This format is indicative of Valentines of Dundee

Aurelio Craffonara

Craffonara A46

Aurelio Craffonara47 (1875 to 1945) was an Italian watercolourist, illustrator and caricaturist. He started a successful career as an illustrator in satirical magazines under the pseudonym Lelo when he was about twenty. He did the art work for posters, postcards and dozens of books for children. As an illustrator he worked very successfully with watercolour painting in numerous national and international exhibitions. He also decorated exhibition halls including the industrial one in Genoa in 1901 and the Rome one in 1911. From 1915 he was Professor of Merit of the Ligustica Academy of Fine Arts. He exhibited as far as London, Cape Town and Cairo48.

John Critien, Valetta, Malta

  • J Critien, 34 Strada Reale, Malta
  • J Critien, Malta, 34 Strada Reale.

John Critien, living at 34 Strada Reale, Valletta, on the 1895 electoral list49. Republic Street, formerly Kingsway and Strada Reale, stretches throughout the length of Valletta from the City Entrance (formerly City Gate, Kingsgate, Porta San Giorgio) to Fort St. Elmo. It is the main street of the city50.

William Crolard

Cancale, Brittany, France

  • Collection Crolard, Cancale

William Joseph Marie Crolard, (15 June 1871 to 1942), photographer, and painter-photographer, Place de L’Eglise, Cancale. Crolard’s father Victor continued to trade in photography and souvenirs in the same town after his son was established in his own right. Crolard left Cancale for Lorient in December 1907. He was mobilized on 3 March 1915 and finished the war with the 62nd Infantry Regiment51. After the war, Crolard and his son René, bought an art photography studio (Maison Chabrier) in Alençon where he died. In January 1927, his older son, Albert, took over the Alençon business until 1936. Editions Germain Fils (qv) of Saint-Malo published cards of his photographs. Thousands of photographs by various members of the family are in the archives of the City of Lorient52.

Giovanni Crupi, Taormina, Sicily

  • Fotographia Artistica-Crupi, Via Teatro Greco.

Giovanni Crupi, photographer, Via Teatro Greco, Taormina. Crupi, a man of refined, shy and introverted ways but a brilliant and keen innovator, he is credited with originating Sicilian artistic photography. Crupi was elected a city councillor on 9 November 1889. He lived in the splendid Villa Mon Repos, now a hotel. There he was part of the glamorous society that wintered in the mild climate of Taormina. He was especially devoted to the entourage of the Latvian baroness Stempel, whose lady-in-waiting he married. Crupi opened his Artistic Photography studio in 1885 in via Teatro Greco with a branch in Piazza Duomo. Crupi devoted his whole life to artistic photography, anthropological types, trades, period costumes of the Sicily of time. His photos create distinct atmospheres of the Mediterranean and include views of the archaeological sites of Taormina, Syracuse and Agrigento. From 1901 to 1910, while Crupi was in Heliopolis, Egypt after the collapse of his finances53, the Taormina photo lab continued its activity thanks to his nephew Francesco Galifi54.

Joseph Cumbo, Gibraltar

  • J. Cumbo, Gibraltar
  • V. & J. C. Gibraltar

The 1901 Register Of Inhabitants in Gibraltar show Joseph Cumbo as aged 31 and born in Malta. He was employed as an engine-driver. He lived at 13 Waterport Street with five others. He was single and had the family relationship of nephew – presumably living with an aunt. The 1911 register shows Joseph/Jose Cumbo now aged 41 and living at no 3 Castle Street in the Dockyard District. By this time he was married and head of a household of four. His occupation was listed as read and write55. Undivided photocards were also published under the names Cumbo & Montegriffo and Montegriffo & Cumbo.


Vincent B. Cumbo, Gibraltar

  • V. B. Cumbo, Gibraltar
  • V. B. C. Gibraltar
  • V. & J. C. Gibraltar

Vincent B. Cumbo (born 186956) photographer, 157 Main Street, Gibraltar57 – later Cumbo and Montegreiffo – was one of the larger local publishers of souvenir photo-booklets and tinted collotype view-cards depicting Gibraltar and Tangiers. The company probably produced most of its postcards during the early 20th century although they continued to be sold long after that58. The Souvenir of Gibraltar Postcard Folder of 12 cards he published is widely dated about 1920. Cumbo took some at the bullring portraying different bullfighting scenes between 1915 and 1920. My photocard of a Moorish Girl in Tangier with the initials V. & J. C. clearly indicates cooperation with his relative Joseph. In the 1901 Register Of Inhabitants in Gibraltar, Vincent Cumbo is listed as aged 42 and born in Malta. He was a self-employed dealer in Moorish Curiosities. He lived at 13 Waterport Street with five others. He was single and had the family relationship of nephew – presumably living with an aunt. By 1911 the number of adult Cumbos in Gibraltar had increased from 3 to 7. Vincent was now 52, married and the head of the household at 17 Church Street which was said to have 24 rooms. He was self-employed in the occupation read and write. There he is listed as Vincent V Cumbo. On one level, the difference of name and date of birth from the other information available makes the position unclear but it seems curious if they were different people.

The Cynicus Publishing Co. Ltd., Tayport, Fife, Scotland

  • The Cynicus Publishing Co. Ltd., Tayport, Fife
  • Cynicus underlined signature within cartoon
  • The Cynicus Publishing Coy. Ltd.
  • THE CYNICUS PUBLISHING COY. LTD.

Martin Anderson was born in Leuchars, in 1854. Anderson studied at Glasgow School of Art under Robert Greenlees, in Ingram Street Glasgow. On leaving he worked as a designer at a calico printer. In 1877 he began to provide small illustrations for serial stories in the short-running News of the Week. In 1878 his painting The Music Lesson was accepted for the Royal Scottish Academy’s annual exhibition. In 1879, age 24, he decided to move to London, to study art proper he explained in an 1894 interview in The Sketch. In 1880 he was invited to join John Leng and Co., the publisher of titles such as the Dundee Advertiser, the Evening Telegraph, Peoples Journal, and Peoples Friend, as its staff artist. Accepting the position, Anderson became the first such artist to be employed by any daily newspaper in Britain; until then, daily newspapers were un-illustrated. In 1881, as a freelance artist, he began contributing cartoons and illustrations to the comic weekly The Quiz, an imitation of the magazine Punch. For his illustrations in The Quiz he used the pseudonym bob, but in November 1887 he adopted a second pseudonym, that of Cynicus, and began to move away from the safe and trivial to the dangerous and powerful realm of politics. In 1891 he moved back to London in an attempt to get his work noticed, taking a shop in Drury Lane, with the sign Cynicus Publishing Company over its door and with prints of his cartoons displayed in its windows. In the late 1890s a new market for his products was quickly emerging – that of picture postcards. In 1898 Anderson began working for Blum & Degan where he designed court-sized postcards. In 1902, after the Post Office allowed divided back postcards, picture postcards became very popular and also began to be widely collected; Anderson decided to form his own company. The Cynicus Publishing Company was incorporated as a limited company and began publishing colour postcards by the second half of 1902. These appear to have been hand-coloured by colourists who were mostly girls or young people whose delicate constitutions have unfitted them for hard labour59. Initially, the company did exceedingly well. However, by 1908 the mass-market popularity of postcards began to decline and the company suffered from dwindling profitability60.

1Proféré? – uttered?

2http://www.oacn.inaf.it/museo/artisti.php?id=102

3http://www.vintagepostcards.ca/Publishers/CVCC/

4 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Angelo_Capato

5 https://www.rosss.com/artist/john-carey/365/

6The Artistic Postcard

7 https://edmonsoncounty.ky.gov/da/Pages/mcnp.aspx

8 The Postal Bag

9 Brussels, 1888

10https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henri_Cassiers

11 The Daily Newspaper in America, Volume 1 Alfred McClung Lee 2000

12 A biographical album of prominent Pennsylvanians 1888

13 Philadelphia’s Washington Square Bill Double

14http://www.brynmawr.edu/iconog/bbill/appendix2.html

15https://casetext.com/case/schaefer-v-central-news-co

16 https://www.bonhams.com/auctions/14417/lot/15/

17https://www.bl.uk/catalogues/indiaofficeselect/PhotoShowDescs.asp?CollID=1501

18http://www.woolworthsmuseum.co.uk/1800s-biogepc.htm

19https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/E._P._Charlton_%26_Company

20https://musees.lausanne.ch/SGP/Consultation.aspx?Id=10932

21CHICAGO PHOTOGRAPHERS 1847 THROUGH 1900 AS LISTED IN CHICAGO CITY DIRECTORIES CHICAGO HISTORICAL SOCIETY

22https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hugh_J._Chisholm

23https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fyffe_Christie

24 Alan Clark, Dictionary of British Comic Artists, Writers and Editors, British Library, 1998, page 39

25http://www.iwm.org.uk/collections/item/object/205292156

26 Privat Livemont: entre tradition et modernité au cœur de l’Art nouveau, 1861-1936 Benoît Schoonbroodt, Lannoo Uitgeverij, 2007

27 http://wiki.fibis.org/index.php?title=Clifton_%26_Co,_Photographers_(Bombay)

28http://expo.fsfi.it/bergamo2015/exhibits/18Astolfi.pdf

29http://aibstudi.aib.it/article/view/10262/10301

30 filed on 12 June 1902 by Charles Collas for Ch. Collas and Cie collotype of art and industry

31http://cartes-postales35.monsite-orange.fr/page-5757eeff5c893.html

32 http://cartes-postales35.monsite-orange.fr/page-5757eeff5c893.html

33 http://www.lib.cam.ac.uk/rcs_photographers/entry.php?id=135

34 https://www.clb.org/about-clb/our-history/

35 https://www.cinetecamilano.it/cinestore/percorsi/collezione-luca-comerio

36 https://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/Luca_Comerio

37 Cliché – photo

38 Catalogue & Prix-courant Des Timbres-poste Et Entiers D’Égypte & Du Soudan Égyptien, Des Bureaux de Poste Français À Alexandrie Et Port-Saïd, Ainsi Que de Tous Les Autres Bureaux Étrangers Du Levant. Rédigé Par M. Edgard Papasian … 1902-1903

39 Feuille D’Avis de Neuchatel newspaper of 22 November 1899

40 https://www.resonances-vs.ch/index.php/docman/ecole-primaire-1881-1956/1899-1900/1298-no-03-ecole-primaire-an-1900/file

41 L’iconografia nella produzione a stampa della Richter & C. per il settore turistico tra il 1900 e il 1930 Ewa Kawamura Eikonicity 2016 vol 1 issue 1 page 147

42https://www.ebay.ie/itm/1907-INVOICE-JOHN-CORAH-SON-LOUGHBOROUGH-LEICESTERSHIRE-SLEAFORD-LAUNDRY/352456733127?hash=item52100ef1c7:g:8JMAAOSwYwFbdn7u

43http://discovery.nationalarchives.gov.uk/details/r/C10240290?descriptiontype=Full&ref=COPY+1/556/304

44 file:///C:/Users/MB/Downloads/rms-001_1932_77__673_d.pdf

45https://www.sheffield.ac.uk/polopoly_fs/1.480746!/file/WorldFairs.pd

46 Signature with a stylised ff

47 His name is often rendered “Graffonara”, a term that appears in official catalogues and texts.

48https://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aurelio_Craffonara

49http://website.lineone.net/~aldosliema/rc.htm

50https://vassallohistory.wordpress.com/some-houses-in-valletta/

51http://cartes-postales35.monsite-orange.fr/page-56d4b20d649ef.html

52https://patrimoine.lorient.bzh/histoire/personnalites/c/famille-crolard/

53 http://www.wikipink.org/index.php/Giovanni_Crupi

54 http://www.blogtaormina.it/2015/05/24/taormina-giovanni-crupi-e-la-nascita-della-fotografia-artistica-siciliana/201140/

55http://www.nationalarchives.gi/gna/Individual_1911.aspx

56https://www.myheritage.com/names/vincent_cumbo

57 http://www.ebay.co.uk/itm/c-1920-Souvenir-of-Gibraltar-Postcard-Folder-12-cards-Vincent-B-Cumbo-Vintage-/130904671095

58http://gibraltar-intro.blogspot.co.uk/2013/07/1905-v.html

59 Pictures in the Post Richard Carline (1959 Gordon Fraser) page 27

60https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cynicus

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