Directory C

Aurelio Caggiano, Naples, Italy

  • Types napolitains Prof1. A.C. Gezetzlich Geschutz (Depose)
  • Collection artistique Prof. A.C et E.R. Types napolitains Reproduction interdite

Professor Aurelio Caggiano, (18 September 1869 to 1940), painter, sculptor and photographer, Naples. Son of the sculptor Emanuele, he soon left his study of humanities in favour of architecture. With the guidance of his father he devoted himself to sculpture. Adhering to the fashion for realism, he preferred to model his favourite subjects, commoners, rascals, fishermen and farmers in bronze. In the 1890s he was among the first in Naples to undertake artistic photography, acquiring a good reputation2. His Neapolitan Types photographs seem to be self-published. They present striking images in sepia taking up the whole picture side of the card in a modern fashion. In 1908 he provided the illustrations for Mala Vita Napoletana, a collection of stories on the Neapolitan underworld by a magistrate.

François-Louis Cailler, Switzerland

  • F.-L. Cailler

Created in 1819 by François-Louis Cailler (11 June 1796 to 6 April 1852), Chocolat Cailler recently celebrated its 200th anniversary as the oldest still-current chocolate brand in Switzerland. Cailler is credited with inventing the chocolate bar.

Soon after starting, Cailler rented larger premises and equipped himself with hydraulically powered machines to make chocolate on a larger scale. This was a step too far and in 1826, the company was bankrupt. His wife, Louise-Albertine ran the business until her husband could resume. Cailler’s sons Augustus and Alexander succeeded him on his death. Daniel Peter, a butcher’s son, married Cailler’s daughter and joined the business. In 1867 he started producing chocolate, still in Vevey, under the name of Peter-Cailler. In 1875, he developed and launched milk chocolate. At that time, chocolate was considered more of a fortifier than a treat. In marketing his product, Peter skilfully exploited the postcard image of a Switzerland of meadows, mountains and dairy cows. The company also produced the first pralines. In 1898, Alexandre-Louis Cailler, grandson of the founder, set up a new factory in Broc,

Soon after starting, Cailler rented larger premises and equipped himself with hydraulically powered machines to make chocolate on a larger scale. This was a step too far and in 1826, the company was bankrupt. His wife, Louise-Albertine ran the business until her husband could resume. Cailler’s sons Augustus and Alexander succeeded him on his death. Daniel Peter, a butcher’s son, married Cailler’s daughter and joined the business. In 1867 he started producing chocolate, still in Vevey, under the name of Peter-Cailler. In 1875, he developed and launched milk chocolate. At that time, chocolate was considered more of a fortifier than a treat. In marketing his product, Peter skilfully exploited the postcard image of a Switzerland of meadows, mountains and dairy cows. The company also produced the first pralines. In 1898, Alexandre-Louis Cailler, grandson of the founder, set up a new factory in Broc, a municipality in the district of Gruyère in the canton of Fribourg. Cailler is still firmly rooted in Broc.

In 1904, Kohler merged into the company. The following year, it was commissioned to produce milk chocolate on behalf of Nestlé, which in return marketed the Peter and Kohler brands through its international distribution network.

At that time, Alexandre-Louis Cailler was developing a new milk chocolate manufacturing process using condensed milk in a more liquid form. Today, Cailler is the only one in Switzerland to use this recipe, which gives chocolate an intense and milky taste as well as a creamy and melting texture. The years following the end of the First World War saw the launch of several brands such as Frigor. In 1929 Peter, Cailler and Kohler merged with Nestlé. Other innovations followed, such as air bubbles for chocolate bars under the name of Rayon.

Sources: Maison Cailler; Alpenwild


Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

  • A Caldonazzi – edit. – Rio Grande do Sul.
Igreja do Bomfin, Rio Grande do Sul

This could be Ângelo Caldonazzi, Lawyer who led a colourful life in Santa Maria, a municipality in the central region of Rio Grande do Sul, the southernmost state of Brazil.

Caldonazzi was briefly on the editorial staff of Echo Operário, a political weekly periodical that mixed socialism and anarchism. The motto, always on the front page of the newspaper, was: “Workers of the world, united with you! No more duties without rights or rights without duties”, a phrase was taken from the song The Internationale. In September 1897, he and three others were appointed editors, but in the edition of 7 November 1897 a note was published with the departure of Caldonazzi, explaining that he decided to leave for health reasons. From 8, January 1899 the authorship of the newsroom was credited to “diverse” until 14 May 1899.when Caldonazzi returned to the newspaper.

Caldonazzi was also one of a group of Freemasons behind managing director a literary magazine entitled Reacção (reaction) which circulated from 1915 to 1917. Its poetry and prose featured a variety of anticlerical themes. This time their covers featured the expression in Latin “Tolle lege”, (“Take and read”), a famous constant phrase of Confessions  of Saint Augustine. Caldonazzi publicly criticised a judge for allowing his Catholicism to affect his judgements.

After all this, publishing postcards seems quite tame. This card of a church may sit ill with the anti-clericalism but, in fact, not only is the name of the place wrong (should be Bonfim) but it doesnt show the church there.

Sources: The socialist press in Rio Grande do Sul: a study of the newspaper Porto Alegre Echo Operário Camila Valéria Medroa; FRAGMENTS OF MODERNITY IN RIO GRANDE: THE CONTRIBUTION OF POSTCARDS (1902-1930) Marco Aurelio Barbosa

The Canada Railway News Company Limited

Toronto, Canada

  • The Valentine & Sons‘ Publishing Co., Ltd. Montreal and Toronto Printed in Great Britain Published by The Canada Railway News Coy., Ltd., Toronto, and R. & O. Navigation Coy.
card no 100661 J.V.

In 1883, the Phelan family of Toronto began the Canada Railway News Company to sell newspapers, magazines, confectionary and apples to the travelling public. Steamer bookstand and lunch counters were leased to the young T. P. Phelan, then in the employ of Chisholm Brothers, the proprietors of the similar privileges on the Richelieu & Ontario, and River St. Lawrence steamers. One of TP Phelan’s early ventures, in 1873, included buying 1,600 barrels of apples and shipping them off for sale in England.

From this he advanced to similar business at all the refreshment stations of the Grand Trunk and Grand Trunk Pacific Railways, so that by 1913, Barlow Cumberland recorded in his book A Century of Sail and Steam on the Niagara River that the Canada Railway News Co. was the largest news and catering company in Canada.

The Company published albums of photographs of Canada in the leporello (accordion-fold) format. Valentines published postcards for the company into the divided-back era. They also published a handbook on Canadian company law, the seventh edition in 1907. That year the superintendant and auditor of the Company was JJ O’Sullivan.

Cara, as the company is now known, bcame a food-service giant with $1.1-billion in annual sales and the owner of such restaurant brands as Harvey’s, Second Cup, Swiss Chalet, Kelsey’s and Montana’s. Cara was owned solely by the Phelan family from its inception in 1883 until it went public in 1968. The Phelan family bought back its public stock in 2004 and, once again, made it a private company.

Canadian View Card Company, Toronto.

  • Canadian View Card Co., Toronto.

Canadian View Card Company was based in Toronto, and was a prolific publisher of early Canadian patriotic postcards, as well as other early view cards. Their early series of postcards do not often bear the publisher’s attribution, however, the Canada Coat of Arms series shows the publisher’s name and a hugely elaborate Souvenir Mailing Card card back3. The company published into the divided-back era with a selection of elaborate Private Post Card backs.

Angelo H. Capato, Khartoum, Sudan

  • Angelo H. Capato, Khartoum

Angelo H. Capato, OBE, (1854 to 1937) born Angelos Helia Kapatos on the Ionian island of Cephalonia in western Greece, was the most eminent business magnate and one of the most powerful persons in Anglo-Egyptian Sudan at the beginning of the 20th century. Capato left home while still a boy and joined the British Navy at some point. He arrived in the Egyptian port town of Suez in 1870. In 1883, Capato arrived in the Sudanese port town of Suakin at the Red Sea as an agent of the Alexandria-based merchant-house John Ross & Co. In 1884, while the indigenous Mahdist rebellion escalated in most of Sudan, he started supplying provisions to the British Army and Navy. After the fall of Khartoum in 1885 to the Mahdist forces, Suakin remained under British control and became an all-the-more strategically important outpost. In 1886, the partnership with Ross ended and Capato started his own enterprise and obtained British citizenship. He became the main caterer of the Anglo-Egyptian forces, especially in fresh meat, and set up a network of canteens run by Greeks, and an ice factory. The business offered huge profits, but also heavy losses at times, especially from animal diseases. At one point, he also recruited some three thousand contract workers from Yemen for the British authorities in order to fortify Suakin. When an Anglo-Egyptian army under Herbert Kitchener started the reconquest of Sudan in 1896, Capato and other Greek merchants followed the invading forces and again specialised in catering to the troops and officers. The establishment of the Anglo-Egyptian Condominium in 1899 opened vast business opportunities to foreign traders, mainly Greeks like Capato. Capato was especially well-positioned: he apparently not only spoke English and Arabic, but also nine local dialects. Capato quickly expanded his business activities beyond providing supplies to the colonial regime. In Khartoum, he became one of the pioneers of construction and traded in ivory and gum arabic. Soon, Capato owned hotels, started a postcard publishing company, and ran a service for fitting out big-game hunting parties. For his manyfold business activities, Capato recruited large numbers of Greeks, preferring family members. Capato – and probably many other Greeks – saw themselves as stalwarts of the colonial order. In 1906, Capato’s fortunes started turning with a series of fires and other serious misfortunes and his creditors grew nervous. By 1912 Capato had to declare bankruptcy. In 1926, Capato received the Order of the British Empire4.

This card: This card shows Gordon’s tree as a tall tree in the middle of an apparently empty plain near Khartoum. It reflects what visitors and residents were told. In 1925 Colonel W Stanton, writing in Sudan Notes and Records, put the record straight: The tree in fact marks the tomb of Mahu Urfali Bey who was Governor of Khartoum from May 1825 to March 1826 and who died in 1828. After the British re-occupation of Sudan in 1898, Lord Kitchener allowed a few tourists and a trip up the nearby White Nile was laid on for them. The association with Gordon, who had died in 1885 defending Khartoum, was spuriously created as a point of interest.

At some stage Gordon’s Tree acquired a railway station of the same name. In 1930, a number of pots and other antiquities were found during the construction of a new dockyard on the White Nile near Gordon’s Tree for the Egyptian Irrigation Service. By the end of 1941, a medical clinic and by the end of WWII it had an airfield. Into the 1980s the Blue Nile Sailing Club set aside two weeks a year for racing in the White Nile at Gordon’s Tree. The name doesn’t register on Google Maps.

Source: GORDON’S TREE Sudan Notes and Records, vol. 8, 1925, pages 237–237. JSTOR, . Accessed 4 Jan. 2021.

John Carey

John Carey (1861 to 1943) was an animal and figure painter as well as an illustrator was the son of the Rev. J. W. Carey, a Moravian Minister at Kilwarlin Moravian Church, Kilwarlin, County Down, Ireland. who spent most of his life at 12 Cyprus Park in Belfast working with the affairs of the Moravian Church, University Road. Having worked with Marcus Ward & Co and with his brother Joseph in Ernest Hanford, John first began to make his own career by designing the label for Camp coffee with a Scottish Highland scene. In 1888, when he was a member of the Belfast Ramblers Sketching Club, he was commissioned to design the front cover of their exhibition catalogue. When sketching in Connemara, Carey travelled by train or bicycle and so was inspired by his surroundings. John became partially blind and deaf towards the end of his life; on the 26th April 1943 he was knocked over by a bus and later died in hospital on the same day5.

Arvid Carlson, Sweden.

  • Arvid Carlson, Stockholm. Imp. Arvid Carlsons Konstforlag, Stockholm.

Arvid Carlson, art publisher, Stockholm and Södertälje, was a significant publisher of Swedish topographicals in the undivided back era.

Södertälje is a city less than forty kilometers from Stockholm. Carlson published local topographicals from there including the work of Swedish photographer Gustaf Henrik Björkström (1879 to 1950). Like others, some of Carlson’s cards seem to have been published through the New Paper Store (Nya pappershandeln) which had a bigger network of branches.

E. Carrère

Rodez, Aveyron, France

  • Rodez, E. Carrère, imp. -edit.
The Gascarie viaduct is a French rail bridge located in the town of Rodez, in the Aveyron department in the Occitanie region . It carries the Castelnaudary – Rodez line . It is one of three railway viaducts built around Rodez at the xix th century .

Mrs E. Carrere, printer and publisher, Place Emma Calve, Rodez. The Carrere print shop was founded in 1624 and passed through the family. Mrs Carrere variously described herself as Widow by the abbreviations Ve and Vve. From at least 1871 she produced serious and factual materials: in 1874 she published the papers for the fortieth session of the Scientific Congress of France. She also issued religious publications including the weekly Religious review of the Diocese of Rodez and the JUBILEE MANUAL FOR THE HOLY YEAR 1875. In 1879 she published a dictionary of the local patois just one of many local Roquefort country topics covered. In 1903 she printed a Dictionary of institutions, mores and customs of Rouergue, a publication of the Society of Letters, Sciences and Arts of Aveyron by Henri Affre.

The topographical reach of Mrs Carrere’s postcards was mostly local but extended as far as the Portuguese colony of Guinea Bisssau in West Africa. Pierre Carrere operated a bookshop at the corner of Place de la Cite and Rue du Touat.

The printshop closed in 1983 and was demolished in 1985.

Source: Carto Club Aveyronais

Éditions La Carte Postale Artistique6, Paris

  • “La C. P. A.” Paris
  • Mon de la “Cart. Post. Art.” 25, quai Voltaire. Paris.

CPA, publisher and printer, Paris were most famous for their LA NORMANDIE series of photographic topographicals produced from 1903 to 1907. They also published matching cards of LA PROVENCE some of which bore Les Poèmes de Provence (1874) of Jean Aicard (4 February 1848 to 13 May 1921) French poet, dramatist and novelist. Emile Brocherioux, 25 quai Voltaire, Paris, was the photographer and Emile Grateau, of Pacy-sur-Eure, the printer.

Carter & Gut, New York


Carter & Gut, New York published undivided-back topographical cards, many with a theatrical theme and many with an advertising element. In directories for 1915 and 1916, Edwin K. Carter, photographer, is listed at 2231 Broadway.

S. H. Kress & Co. was the trading name of a chain of five and dime retail department stores in the United States of America, established by Samuel Henry Kress, which operated from 1896 to 1981. In the first half of the 20th century, there were Kress stores with ornamented architecture on “Main Street” in hundreds of cities and towns.

Source: wikipedia: S H Kress

This card: Built between February and December 1899 at a cost estimated at $300,000, the new Texas & Pacific railroad passenger depot was designed by Otto Lang, an architect in the T&P’s engineering department. The exterior was built of Pecos sandstone and Thurber brick. The roof had Spanish tiles. The waiting room had classical columns supported by marble piers. The floor was tiled in marble. Windows were of cut glass. The depot was located at the intersection of Main and Lancaster streets east of the Al Hayne memorial, where the Frank Kent Cadillac dealership later stood.

Railroad officials estimated that fifteen hundred people had come to town for the grand opening of the depot on December 16. A parade marched from the courthouse down Main Street to the new depot. Participants included “secret orders” (fraternal lodges), the fire department, sheriff’s deputies, school children, local militia units. Bands played. speakers included Mayor B. B. Paddock, former Mayor John Peter Smith and T&P railroad officials. Paddock broke a bottle of Champagne over one of the building’s columns.

The Fort Worth Register on December 17devoted almost a full page to the new depot and estimated that 20,000-25,000 people were on hand. It proclaimed the depot “the finest passenger station in the entire South.”

Source: Hometime by Handlebar

This addressee: Schaefferstown is one of the oldest towns in Lebanon County, being at least a century older than the county itself. It is the main town in Heidelberg Township. Although the exact date of the first settlers is unknown, it is certain that they settled before 1725. Those first settlers were believed to have been German Jews though no physical evidence of their presence in the area that would become Schaefferstown exists. It is said twenty or so Jewish traders lived in the area in a place known as Lebanon Tradiing Post. An old jewish burial ground is said to have been situated about a quarter mile south of Tower Hill and almost a hundred yards east of South Market Street in Schaefferstown. Due to the lack of physical evidence, however, the presence of these early Jewish settlers is considered more of a myth than fact. Source: wikipedia: Schaefferstown Pennsylvania

Krall is a Germanized or Americanized form of Czech Král Slovak Kráľ Sorbian Kral and Slovenian Croatian or Serbian Kralj all meaning ‘king’.

Broadfoot Carter


David Broadfoot Carter (1880 to 1940) artist, 136 Wellington street, Glasgow, Scotland. Carter was an artist and designer who studied at the Glasgow School of Art from 1894 to 1909. In 1903 the author Bram Stoker, now best known as the author of Dracula, bequeathed the Bram Stoker Medal to the School and it was awarded to David Broadfoot Carter for the best imaginative work of the year no doubt including a composition entitled Peace exhibited at their exhibition that year. Some years later, he was exhibiting with the Royal Glasgow Institute:

Mr. D. Broadfoot Carter, ably represented by the clever Indian Ink drawing, An Old Vagabond, has had a busy and varied career. Like most Glasgow artists his initiation to Art was by way of the celebrated School of Art that helps to make the city distinguished; like many, he began a professional career as a lithographer; like not a few, he studied in Paris and finally settled in London where book illustration and poster designing absorb much of his attention. With limited medium and restricted line, he obtains convincing effect, the absence of colour is unremembered in the vigour that characterises the work.

The International Studio An Illustrated Magazine Of Fine And Applied Art Volume Fifty-Four Comprising November, December, 1914, January And February, 1915 page 221

Carter produced paintings, lithographs and book illustrations. His watercolour and body colour painting showed a characteristic vibrancy and simple style that made them ideal for children’s books. Carter produced a gouache drawing in connection with Dear Brutus, a 1917 fantasy play by JM Barrie, the Scottish writer best known as the author of Peter Pan.

This card was published by William Lyon of Glasgow

H. C. Carter,

Mammoth Cave, Edmonson County, Kentucky, USA


H. C. Carter of Mammoth Cave, Kentucky. On the back of a stereoscope picture of Mammoth Cave, Carter listed more than 80 other Magnesium Light Views from there copyrighted by himself and Ben Hains, Cave Photographer, New Albany, Indiana. Mammoth Cave National Park encompasses 52,830 acres in south central Kentucky, commemorating the diverse geological, biological and historical features associated with the longest cave in the world7.

Manuel M. Casanova,

Buenos Aires, Argentina

  • Editor Manuel M. Casanova – Corrientes 695 B. Aires Neg. de S. Rimathé

Manuel M. Casanova, 695 Corrientes, Buenos Aires, tobacco and spirits merchant. Casanova published local topographicals including photographs by Samuel Rimathé (qv). In 1905-06 Casanova published La Valija postal8, a partly philatelic journal.

Basilio Cascella

  • B. Cascella

Basilio Cascella (1 October 1860 to 24 July 1950) was an Italian artist, active from the late nineteenth century to the mid-twentieth century.

His father wanted Cascella to help in his tailor’s shop, but the boy had little interest in becoming a tailor. Instead, in April 1875, he went to Rome and was hired as a lithography apprentice in the Luigi Salomone printing plant.

Cascella painted in the realist verismo (meaning “realism”, from Italian vero, meaning “true”) style, a 19th-century Italian painting style. Cascella published a number of art journals over the years and contributed to other people’s. He exhibited widely though his 1903 work Il bagno della pastora was not exhibited at the Venice Biennale because it went missing during transportation from Pescara to Venice. It was found in tact thirty years later near Ancona and returned to Cascella.

In the 1920s, he joined the National Fascist Party and served as a deputy in the Italian Parliament from 1929 to 1934. A historic art museum in Pescara, where he was born, is dedicated to the work of Cascella and family members who were key figures in the Art Nouveau movement – three of Cascella’s sons became artists.

Cards of his work were published for the German market by Paul Finkenrath (qv) of Berlin. In 1997 a catalogue of his postcards by Franco Battistella was published by Carsa in Pescara.

Henri Cassiers

  • Henri Cassiers with the lower stroke of the C extending the length of the surname

Henri Cassiers (11 August 1858 to 27 February 1944) was a Flemish artist, best known for his applied art: illustrations, posters, wall charts and postcards, often with a maritime aspect. Cassiers trained as an architect before training as an artist. As well as maritime scenes and city and village views, he was particularly attracted by Dutch costumes, especially those from Zeeland and Katwijk and he produced series of postcards featuring different regional dress. He illustrated many popular weekly magazines and various books from 1886 to 1893. In de Guide descriptif illustré de la côte de Flandre9, there are no fewer than 106 drawings by Cassiers. Cassiers’ style was also excellent for publicity purposes and tourist places and shipping companies regularly called upon him. From 1898 he worked on many posters, postcards, menu cards and other advertising materials for the Red Star Line in particular. He was also a member of the Belgian artists’ association Les Hydrophiles10. He came to the attention of British postcard collectors with a fine series of cards for the 1901 Glasgow Exhibition, one of which is here.

This card: If you take the N49 highway, a few km before Knokke you can’t miss the mill of Hoeke. It stands right besides the highway and kind of welcomes you to the Belgian coast. There was a wooden standard mill in 1481 and reference to a mill in the town of Hoeke in 1324. It seems to have been lost during a flooding after which a new windmill was erected on the spot where the current mill is. The current one was built in 1840 with mill-irons marked 1772, after the previous one fell to the ground in a storm. Source: Hoeke Mill

The mill is open to the public every sunday from 10 till 12.

Giuseppe Castiglione

Giuseppe Castiglione (1829 to 1908) was an Italian artist known for genre paintings and portraits. Castiglione was born in Naples, Italy. He moved to Paris early in his career and is thought to have studied painting there. He started exhibiting his paintings in Paris and Turin.   At the Paris Exposition Universelle of 1900, Castiglione was awarded a bronze medal. He was decorated with the Légion d’honneur in 1893. He played chess.

Source: wikipedia

Cautin & Berger, Paris

  • Cautin & Berger, Paris

Cautin & Berger, photographers, had their studio at the Private Hotel at 62 rue de Caumartin, Paris. Their cartes de cabinet advertised their Gold Medal at the 1900 Paris Exposition. They published photographs of stage stars from opera to vaudeville. Postcards, along the same theatrical lines and the glamorous Varietes series of photographs of actresses lasted into the divided back era.

Their photographs featured in the magazines of Pierre Lafitte & Cie, and it may be that this is the significance of the letters PL in the corner of the photograph and that they published the cards. The initials RPI also feature and they may have been the printer.

Lizzie Caswall Smith

  • Photo L. Caswall Smith.

Lizzie Caswall Smith (1870 to 1958), photographer specialised in theatre and society subjects in the early 1900s. She first exhibited at the Royal Photographic Society in 1902 and then again in 1913. From 1902-1920 she operated the Gainsborough Studio at 309 Oxford Street. She probably trained with her brother, John Caswall Smith, who ran a studio at 305 Oxford Street until his death in 1902. Caswall Smith was a supporter of the suffrage movement and photographed many suffragettes including Christabel Pankhurst and Flora Drummond, images that were then made into postcards.

As well as this, many Edwardian stage performers such as Lily Elsie, Billie Burke, Gertrude Elliott and the renowned Gibson Girl Camille Clifford were photographed by Caswall Smith. She is associated with 263 portraits in the National Portrait Gallery.

Sources: National Portrait Gallery; wikipedia Lizzie Caswell Smith

This card: Evelyn Mary Millard (18 September 1869 to 9 March 1941) was an English Shakespearean actress, actor-manager and stage beauty of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries perhaps best known for creating the role of Cecily Cardew in the 1895 premiere of Oscar Wilde’s play The Importance of Being Earnest.

Millard was born in Kensington in London and studied at the Female School of Art in Bloomsbury. She made her first stage appearance in 1891 In September 1895 Millard appeared before Queen Victoria in a Royal Command Performance of Liberty Hall at Balmoral. Miss Millard played Cho-Cho-San in the London premiere of David Belasco’s play Madame Butterfly, which opened on 28 April 1900 at the Duke of York’s Theatre and which ran for sixty-eight performances. This production was seen by the composer Giacomo Puccini, who is said to have based his opera on it.

Millard formed her own theatrical company a an actor-manager in 1908. Her last known role was a brief appearance as Calpurnia in Julius Caesar during the Shakespeare Tercentenary Celebration at Stratford-upon-Avon in 1916.

This card was published by Hartmann (qv)

Source: Wikipedia: Evelyn Millard

The Central News Company, Philadelphia, PA, USA

  • The Central News Company, Philadelphia, Pa – Leipzig-Berlin

In 1869 four Philadelphia newspaper wholesaler businesses combined to form the Central News Company which very shortly substituted wagon-delivery for the previous central collection point method of distribution. In 1878-87 they developed a route of more than 700 news-stands, stationers and cigar stores to supplement their carrier system11. By 1888 the Central News Company was the leading agency for the distribution not only of newspapers and periodicals but books and other publications. Stephen Farrelly, the manager to whose energy the business was largely indebted for its development, was born in Ireland in 1843, and was the younger brother of one of the founders of the American News Company of which the Philadelphia company was originally a branch12. In 1886 they located in 614 South Washington Square13 and were still there in 1900 when Edward H. Johnson was their manager14. They were still in business in 195015.

This card: The United States Mint is the largest coin factory in the world. The Mint was established in Philadelphia in 1792, and coins have been continuously struck there for over 200 years. The Mint is the nation’s sole manufacturer of legal tender coinage. It has its own police force, one of the oldest federal police forces.

Central Post Card Company, Cleveland, Ohio

  • Central Post Card Co., Cleveland, O

Central Post Card Company, Cleveland, Ohio. In the register for the second quarter of 1905 of books entered at the Library Of Congress, they were referred to as the Central Post Card and Publishing Company.

On 16 July 1911 the company advertised in the Albuquerque Journal in New Mexico for salesmen to carry line of post card novelties as side line. By December that year, they were seeking in the Des Moines Register, Iowa, reliable sales men to sell their line of advertising calendars, fine leather, aluminium and other advertsing novelties and similarly in the St. Louis Post-Dispatch, Missouri. Both advertisements warned: None but first class salesmen need apply. My photocard of Pittsburg was made in Germany.

Central Publishing Company

Glasgow, Scotland


Central Publishing Company, Glasgow published Scottish topographicals and themed cards, often with tartan or heather, into the 1920s.

Hotel Chamberlin

Fortress Monroe, VA, USA


Arriving with three ships, the colonists of the Virginia Company established the settlement of Jamestown and the British Colony of Virginia on the James River in 1607. On their initial exploration, they recognized the strategic importance of the site at Old Point Comfort for purposes of coastal defence and built a fort there between 1609 and 1622.

In March 1819, President James Monroe’s War Department came up with a plan of building a network of coastal defenses, later called the third system of U.S. fortifications. In 1822 construction began in earnest on the stone-and-brick fort which would become the safeguard for Chesapeake Bay and the largest fort by area ever built in the United States. It was intended as the headquarters for the third system of forts. Work continued for nearly 25 years. From the beginning of its construction until 1832 the fort’s name was Fortress Monroe.

The first Hygeia Hotel was built in 1822 to provide housing for the workers constructing Fort Monroe. Both it and a successor were destroyed on military orders. Land leases were provided for other hotels and the Chamberlin became the main competition on the waterfront for the Hygeia Hotel. It was named for the original owner John F. Chamberlin (1837 to 23 August 1896), a renowned American chef and restaurateur. The Chamberlin opened in April 1896 and was a popular resort for the wealthy until consumed by a fire in 1920. A new Hotel Chamberlin opened in 1928, but was unable to capture the same level of glory is its predecessor. It remains today as a retirement community and a hotel called The Chamberlin.

In 1873 John Chamberlin successfully defended a defamation action by journalist George Wilkes in respect of his allegation that Wilkes forged the will of Senator David C. Broderick. Chamberlin attacked Wilkes’ character in forthright terms, citing a previous lost libel case when Wilkes was sentenced to a term in the New York city jail, the Tombs.

Sources: Fort_Monroe John_Chamberlin

Shugan Chand & Company,

Agra, India

  • Shugan Chand & Co., Agra

M.L.16 Shugan Chand is one of many photographers represented in the Newsome-Glenn Collection of Miscellaneous Indian Views in the British Library17. His work was published by Tucks as divided-back cards in their EXCELSIOR series: M.L. SHUGAN CHAND, INDIAN ART MUSEUM, DELHI.

F W Chandler & Son

Brunswick, Maine, USA

  • Boston Post-Card Co., 12 Pearl St. F. W. CHANDLER & SON COLLEGE BOOK STORE BRUNSWICK M.E.

Bowdoin College is a private liberal arts college in Brunswick. At the time Bowdoin was chartered in 1794, Maine was still a part of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. At the time, it was the easternmost college in the United States. Bowdoin was chartered by the Massachusetts State Legislature and named for former Massachusetts Governor James Bowdoin, whose son James Bowdoin III was an early benefactor.

From its founding, Bowdoin was known to educate the sons of the politically elite and catered very largely to wealthy conservatives from the state of Maine. During the first half of the 19th century, Bowdoin required of its students a certificate of good moral character as well as knowledge of Latin and Ancient Greek, geography, algebra and the major works of Cicero, Xenophon, Virgil and Homer.

Harriet Beecher Stowe started writing her influential anti-slavery novel, Uncle Tom’s Cabin, in Brunswick while her husband was teaching at the College. However, the College’s involvement in the Civil War was mixed as Bowdoin had many ties to slave labour and the Confederacy.

From the first class at Bowdoin College in 1802 to 1830, the students either purchased their text-books abroad, or had them supplied by the professors and charged in their term-bills. A few books were kept on commission, deposited by Boston and Hallowell booksellers with Captain Daniel Stone and Brown & Humphreys.

Simultaneously with the establishment of the press in Brunswick was the opening of the first regular bookstore by Mr. Griffin. In 1822, Charles Weld (who proposed to add needed capital to the store) was received into partnership, and the stock was enlarged. This partnership was soon dissolved. Mr. Weld continued the bookstore for about a year; finding it not remunerative, he sold out by auction. The printer removed his apparatus in 1822 to the upper story of the building, again starting to keep a few books in his counting-room – obtaining them from Portland and Boston houses in exchange for work. And this was the nucleus of what in 1833 became the College Bookstore, from which most of the college text-books have since been furnished.

ABBA FATHER by the late President Wm. DeWitt Hyde is an excellent book for every Bowdoin man to own… Ask to see our 50 cent EXPANDING BOOK RACK. A new lot of WATERMAN’S SELF FILLERS have just arrived. This year’s Tennis Goods are in. NEW CHAMPIONSHIP BALLS 55c EACH; 1918 CHAMPIONSHIP BALLS 40 CENTS. We have some of last year’s Rackets on hand which will be sold at the old prices, which are considerably less than this year’s prices. We wish to call your attention to our new FRATERNITY STATIONERY in a large man size paper. The stock is the well known OLD HAMPSHIRE VELLUM The price is $ 1 .00 per box.

1919 Chandlers advertisements for the College Book Store; Bowdoin Orient journal

This card was published for Chandlers by the Boston Post-Card Company.

Sources: History of the press of Maine, ed. by Joseph Griffin, 1872; wikipedia

E. P. Charlton & Company,

New Britain, Connecticut, USA

  • Published by E. P. Charlton & Co., New Britain, Conn. And Berlin, Germany

E P Charlton & Company was an American chain of five and ten cent stores owned by Earle Perry Charlton (1863 to 1930) which merged with several associated brands to create the F W Woolworth Company in 1912. From 1890, Charlton and his partner, Seymour H Knox, a cousin of retailer Frank W Woolworth, established a chain of stores under the name of Knox & Charlton Five and Ten Cent Store. The chain operated as part of a syndicate established by Woolworth, allowing for friendly competition, so long as the individual owners followed Woolworth’s principles. The first store opened in 1890. Between 1892 and 1895, three more locations opened, in Hartford and New Britain, Connecticut, and Lowell, Massachusetts. In 1896, the two men went their separate ways, with Knox acquiring the store in Lowell, and Charlton retaining the other three. By 1899, Charlton had opened nine more stores in New England which he sold to Frank Woolworth, using the capital to finance the opening of several stores in Canada19.

Charnaux Freres & Company, Geneva


Family of photographers and editors Geneva. The company took off when Charles (1852 to 1937), Auguste (1862 to 1930) and George (1864 to 1939), their sister Marie (1854 to 1932), children of Florentine (1819 to 1883) and Jeanne Vogt, took their father’s workshop in 1881 (Charnaux & Simond) at Bel-Air in Geneva. George’s photography provided the material for the collotypes and postcards that made the reputation of the house. In the 1880s, the tourism market and local interest in the photographs of Alpine and lake scenery and heritage monuments enabled Charnaux Brothers to start publishing. In 1886, George made spectacular stereoscopic views of Mont Blanc and the main sights of the Alps. Charnaux Brothers photographed the biggest events of the late nineteenth century including the Swiss National Exhibition in Geneva in 1896. Awards included the Silver Medal at the 1878 Paris Universal Exhibition20.

G. Chevalier, Paris

  • G. Chevalier 68-111 pas du Caire, Paris

G. Chevalier, printer, 68-111 passage du Caire, Paris. Built in 1798, Passage du Caire is the oldest covered arcade in Paris. It was the first glass-covered arcade in Paris outside the Palais Royal. It takes its name from the Egyptian capital by reason of 3 statues that decorate the entrance. The arcade is known for being the longest and narrowest in Paris. Business is non-stop under its large glass roof in the form of a fish bone. It was traditionally occupied by printers, who gave way to specialists in shop window dressing. Situated in the Sentier district, the Passage du Caire is almost entirely devoted to ready-to-wear wholesalers.

Alphonse Mucha (1860 to 1939) created Zodiaque, a calendar model for Fernand Champenois’ printing press. Champenois lithographed it into a calendar for his company which met with immense critical and popular success. It was available in several variants and in the form of a “master key”. Chevalier’s name and address featured on the 1897 calendar but other printers also put their names to versions and it seems to be a sign of its popularity. Zodiac still exerts a fascination today. The serenity that emanates from this extraordinary female profile encapsulated in a zodiacal wheel seems unreal. Mucha produced a graphic work of finesse and perfectionism that was undoubtedly unmatched at the time.

In 1910 Chevalier were producing colour lithograph posters.

Offert par la Maison Crémieux Tours

Chicago Photo-Gravure Company


Chicago Photo-Gravure Company listed at 296 Dearborn in Chicago city directories for 1886 but not 188721. In 1887 they published The Yellowstone National Park in Photo Gravure. In 1893 they published Official views of the World’s Columbian Exposition. They issued private mailing cards authorised by Act of Congress 19 May 1898.

Émile Chiffelle

Neuchâtel, Switzerland

  • E Chifelle, phot
Promenade a Neuchatel – Grande Avenue

Émile Chiffelle (7 October 1868 to 16 September 1920) artistic and industrial photographer, place Am Piaget, Neuchâtel.

Chiffelle was in business in Neuchâtel between 1896 and 1920. In 1896 he took part in the Swiss National Exhibition in Geneva, where he received an honourable mention. He was a member of the Swiss Union of Photographers (USP)  and President between 1910 and 1917.

As well as portraits, Chiffelle took pictures of the local topography and events such as the entry of the steamship Jura to the port at Neuchâtel in 1897, no doubt assisted by having a studio opposite the port. Chiffelle was the author of many numbered postcards of the city.

Source: Photo CH

Chisholm Brothers

Portland, Maine, USA

  • Chisholm Bros., Portland, Me.

Chisholm Brothers, Portland, Maine. Hugh Joseph Chisholm (2 May 1847 to 1 July 1912) was born in Ontario, to parents of Scottish ancestry. When his father’s death made it necessary for him to leave school to help support the family, he found employment in Toronto as a newsboy distributing newspapers to passengers on the Grand Trunk Railway and steamboats, where he made friends with Thomas Edison, who was a newsboy on a nearby line.

An entrepreneur from an early age, by the time he was sixteen, he was able to buy out his former employer, hiring over two hundred newsboys to sell papers, magazines and books to railway and steamboat customers. In 1861 his brother joined him and formed the Chisholm Brothers, which distributed papers over much of Canada and the north-eastern United States. Chisholm Brothers began printing travel guides and founded a lithograph company in Portland, Maine, moving to half-tone photographs and then eventually, in 1888, to picture postcards. Chisholm became a US citizen and moved to Portland in the mid-1870s.

His early years as an entrepreneur in the news distribution business provided a foundation for later accomplishments in the pulp and paper industry. His founding and leadership of pulp and paper, fibre-ware, and light and power companies as well as banks and railways made him a dominant figure in Maine industry. His legacy went beyond his reputation as a capitalist, however; he created the first forest management program for International Paper Company and developed a planned community for the workers in his mills which was a model for the nation22. One of my German-made cards bears Greetings from the World’s Fair at St. Louis, Mo. 1904.

This card: Bar Harbor is a town on Mount Desert Island in Hancock County, Maine. Bar Harbor is a popular tourist destination in the Down East region of Maine and home to the College of the Atlantic, Jackson Laboratory, and MDI Biological Laboratory (Salisbury Cove village). Until a catastrophic fire in 1947, the town was a noted summer colony for the wealthy.

Chocolat Vinay.

  • Cartes postales Chocolat Vinay.

Société anonyme du chocolat Vinay, chocolate manufacturers, Ivry-sur-Seine was active between 1900 and 1959.

They were hugely active in marketing; they produced at least two series of 28 cards reproducing art work from major European museums and an album of French History to be completed by inserting stickers that came with the product.

Le Monde of 1 November 1955 reported that on complaints filed by many milk producers in the region, the Le Mans commercial court had declared the Maine Milk Company bankrupt. It soon appeared that that company was linked with Vinay and the Société à Responsabilité Immobilière et Financière du Parc, both headquartered in Ivry-sur-Seine at 45 Rue Gabriel-Peri under general president Jean Morael. The Le Mans commercial court therefore ordered the extension of the first bankruptcy to these two companies. The report continued:

It is still difficult to quantify the liabilities of these three cases. But that of the Maine Milk Company, whose activity continues to avoid the massive layoffs of staff, would reach several hundred million. Its director, Mr. Guy Morael, brother of the general president of the two other companies, was imprisoned on the charge of fraudulent bankruptcy.

George Fyffe Christie

  • GF in an open oval TRADE MARK above quartered shield: L.G THE “PREMIER” SERIES
  • GF in an open oval forming the first letter of Christie
  • GF in an open oval forming the first letter of Christie
Popular Songs Illustrated was published by William Lyon as part of his Premier Series.

George Fyffe Christie was a freelance commercial artist who drew humorous postcards, not least for William Lyon in the undivided back era. He had a long career during which he also wrote and illustrated children’s books. He was living in the English town of Bushey, Hertfordshire when met and married an English girl, Ethel and, in 1918, when their son, later the figurative artist and mural painter Fyffe Christie, was born. Around 1930 Ethel died and the family moved back to Glasgow’s Pollokshields district. Christie had some commercial success with his creation of the cartoon strip Scottikin O’ the Bulletin in the popular Glasgow newspaper The Bulletin but he struggled financially through the years of the recession and discouraged his son’s artistic ambition23. He later worked for the American-style comics published in Scotland by Cartoon Art Productions, including Razzle-Dazzle (1946-47) and G-Boy Comics (1947)24. Whether he is the Captain G.F.Christie of whom the Imperial War Museum have a WWI army portrait25, must be an imponderable at this stage but the period fits. There is another of his cartoons in the page about Wm Ritchie.

S Civiletti

  • S. Civiletti signature in corner of painting with C extending under the rest of the surname.

S. Civiletti, artist, Sicily. Reber of Palermo (qv) published topographical photocards and paintings of Sicily signed S. Civiletti. Neither of the famous Sicilian sculptors of this family had this initial and it is not clear who the artist was.

This card: The Orto Botanico di Palermo (Palermo Botanical Garden) is both a botanical garden and a research and educational institution of the Department of Botany of the University of Palermo. The garden lies within the city of Palermo, Italy at 10 m (33 ft) above sea-level. It covers about 0.12 km2 (30 acres) on top of red soil that has evolved on a limestone tuff substratum. Source: wikipedia: Orto Botanico di Palermo

Ellen H. Clapsaddle


Ellen Hattie Clapsaddle (8 January 1865 to 7 January 1934) was an American illustrator and commercial artist in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. She is recognized as the most prolific souvenir/postcard and greeting card artist of her era.

Clapsaddle started by giving art lessons in her home in South Columbia. At the same time she created her own landscapes and was commissioned to paint portraits of families in Richfield Springs. She also submitted her work to publishers in New York City and became a recognized commercial artist. She was a freelance artist and her illustrations were often used in advertising and on porcelain goods, calendars, paper fans, trade and greeting cards.

Clapsaddle spent some years in Germany, funded by the International Art Publishing Company, and then returned to New York well before her mother’s death in 1905. It is said that she established the Wolf Company backed by the Wolf brothers—a full subsidiary of the International Art Publishing Company of New York City. She was the first and only female souvenir postcard artist of the era to establish her own enterprise. She was the sole artist and designer for this company.

Clapsaddle’s greatest success was in the development of her artwork into single-faced cards that could be kept as souvenirs or mailed as postcards and she specialized in designing illustrations specifically for that purpose. Artistic designs had become highly prized particularly during the peak of production of the golden age of postcards (1898 to 1915) for their great marketing possibilities. Clapsaddle is credited with over 3000 designs in the souvenir post card field.

At that time, few women were even employed as full-time illustrators. For 8 years she and the Wolf brothers enjoyed their success and there seemed to be no limit to the growth potential in the souvenir/postcard industry. Nevertheless, confidence in the boom and high return in profits in this specialized area of commercial art during this boom period, led her and her partners to invest heavily in the years that followed in many Germany engraving and publishing firms. She returned once again to Germany to work with the engravers and publishers they used because they had the best printing plants.

Source: wikipedia; a different history in the article on the International Art Company (qv).

further reading: There is a complete guide to Ellen Clapsaddle postcards available: Ellen H. Clapsaddle Signed Post Cards: An Illustrated Reference Guide, Ellen H. Budd, 194pp., 1989. Contact the author Ellen Budd 6910 Tenderfoot Lane, Cincinnati Ohio 45249-1041 USA Link

Paul Jean Clays

Paul Jean Clays (27 November 1819 to 10 February 1900) Belgian artist best known for his marine paintings.

Clays left school early, without telling anyone why he left or where he was headed, and immediately pursued his desire to become a sailor. He approached some boat men who were hospitable towards him and took him on as an apprentice sailor. In his years on the sea he learned not only the perils of the life of a sailor but also developed an extreme sensitivity and the exact feeling for colours of sea and sky in calm and storm.

In 1856 he relocated from Brussels to Antwerp at which point he became the official painter of the banks of the Scheldt. Unfortunately, there were few resources and artists for him in Antwerp and he had to sell his work at drastically low prices.  To  become financially sufficient, he was forced to become a sailor once again. He worked on a government ship that traveled across the North Sea. His artwork for the Belgian State Steamship Company may also owe something to this connection.

He became one of the most esteemed marine painters of his time, and his work is found in great galleries of the world.

Clément Tournier & Company, Geneva

  • C. T. & Cie. à G
  • Clement, Tournier & Cie., Geneve

Clément Tournier & Company, hardware store and postcard publishers Geneva. Émile Clément and Marius Tournier’s cards included a numbered series of local topographical photocards, sentimental cards posed by child models and art nouveau floral studies26.

This card: mouettes – seagulls. The Geneva Mouettes are also a network of four lake lines (M1 to M4) navigating on Lake Geneva, more precisely in the harbour of Geneva. Operated by the Société des Mouettes Genevoises Navigation SA (SMGN) founded on 1st March 1897, they represent, cumulatively, 4.3 km of lines operating all year round since 2004 .

Clifton & Co., Mumbai

  • Clifton Co.
  • Clifton & Co
  • Clifton & Co, Bombay

Clifton & Co Photography Studio of Bombay, and noted publisher of postcards was established by Harry Clifton Soundy (1863-1922)in 1896 or 1897. From 1889 to 1894 he was a manager of Bourne & Shepherd’s Bombay studios at 19 Esplanade Road and in 1895 he left Bourne’s to set up in partnership with Charles Schulz, another employee of Bourne and Shepherd. However, this partnership did not last long and by 1897, Soundy was trading on his own account as Clifton & Co, from a studio in Meadows Street, Bombay. The studio was the venue for daily screenings of silent films from 1897. Showing signs of expansion, on 23 January 1900 he advertised in the Times of India to buy a new or second-hand collotype printing press. The Postcards for which Clifton & Co are possibly best known are the subject of an advertisement in the Times of India of 12 Oct 1901: Pictorial Indian Post Cards: 24 new subjects now ready. Indian views size 10 by 8, Rs5 per dozen. Clifton & Co, Photographers27.

Paul Couadou, Toulon, France

  • Couadou, phot., Toulon-sur-Mer

Paul Couadou, (1863 to 1929) photographer, 18 rue de Lorgues, Toulon on the Mediterranean coast of south-eastern France.

Couadou’s interest in the French colonies can be dated at least to the taking of a portrait of Lieutenant Orsat, who died in French Sudan published in L’Illustration in 1891

He seems to have had a workshop in Antananarivo the capital and largest city of Madagascar from 1898, and to have joined forces with the postcard publisher L. Blion to publish his photos under the title Couadou Photo Toulon-sur-Mer – Blion – Andohado – Antananarivo. Blion, based on Place Jean-Laborde there, was a hairdresser as well as publisher.

Couadou published a numbered series of photocards of the people of Madagascar from his Toulon studio during the undivided-back era though many of his photos were published as postcards for Madagascar. They were sepia or black and white and captioned in French. Couadou also published the work of other photographers including Edgard Imbert, one of the most prolific photographers of French colonisation in Madagascar and Indochina.
Couadou also worked in Indochina where he also published postcards.

In 1908 Couadou’s work featured in the Materials, processes and products part of the photography section of the Franco-British Exposition in London.

Source: Photogaphes de l’ocean Indien (1840 – 1944)

Wilfrid Coates

Sunderland, England


Wilfrid Coates, bookseller, picture-framer, fancy goods and fine art dealer, 25 Fawcett Street, Sunderland. In July 1901, Coates was also advertising a Library in connection with Mudie’s Lending Library.

On 23 August 1928, Coates and George James Milburn gave public notice that their partnership as booksellers, stationers and dealers in fine arts, at 25, Fawcett Street, under the style of WILFRID COATES, had been dissolved and that Mr Milburn would continue the business.

G. Cocci, Florence, Italy


Publishers in Florence since at least 1875 under the name Galletti and Cocci printers publishers. Published calendario postales between at least 1880 and 188428.Published the Yearbook of the University of Florence for the academic years 1925 to 197129. In a reference to La tragedia italiana del Cinquecento by F. Neri that they published in 1904 they are referred to as Galletti-Cocci which may resonate with the wording of my card.

Cohn-Donnay & Company, Brussels

  • Cohn-Donnay & Cie, Rotterdam-Brussel-Luik.

German Berthold Cohn-Donnay moved to Belgium in 1902 to open major shops in Brussels and Liege. In 1902 he commissioned from Brussels architect Paul Hamesse a new facade for his forthcoming shop at 44 Rue Neuve, Brussels. A poster designed by Andre Blandin advertised openings of Grand Magazins in Brussels in October 1902 and in Liege (Luik in Dutch) in 1903, for which the same architect designed a building at Rue de l’Université.

In 1904 Hamesse also remodelled the house at 316 Rue Royale in the nearby Saint-Josse-ten-Noode district. Although his exterior changes were limited to a massive balcony, there is no doubt that the new interiors are among the most remarkable in Brussels; their details include the billiard room’s stained glass windows with yellow tones, the glazed roof light with geometric patterns and the staircase with Japanese-inspired woodwork. Most of the furniture is still present. The ground floor was completely redesigned: it consists of a concierge’s room, stalls for horses and storerooms. The architect made the most of the sloping site by designing a ramp suitable for carriages leading to the basement and to carriage storage areas underneath the mansion’s back garden.

There seems to be nothing available about any trading Cohn-Donnay may have done in Belgium but postcards were an essential of any retail establishment of note.

Cole & Hull, Winterset, Iowa, USA

  • Cole & Hull, Pub.
Carnegie Public Library Winterset, Iowa.

Clarence Adrian Cole (17 December 1855 to 25 August 1929) was for 30 years a successful book and jewellery seller at Winterset, Iowa.

In 1898, C.A. Cole, as he was generally known, planned to build a new two-story building with a second floor suite of five offices for the law firm of Dabney, Cooper, & Mayer. In June 1898, when the cellar for the Cole Building was under excavation and a drain was being dug along the alley and across Court Avenue, a heavy rain washed everything away. By the end of July, construction had begun again and workers were ready to enclose the building. The cast-iron storefront and upper joists were in place, and G.W. Garner had installed a hot water heater and plumbing for gas. By September 1898, the building was completed and the law firm had moved in. However, Cole and S.J. Gilpin, the next door neighbour to the south, became involved in a legal controversy over a window in the upper story of the Cole building that overlooked Gilpin’s premises. Gilpin felt that Cole’s window was placed in such “a way to interfere with the privacy of his family”. Cole’s store occupied the ground floor from 1899.

The Weekly Jewelers’ Circular of 3 November 1909 noted that Mr. Hull of Cole & Hull, Winterset, Iowa had attended a trade fair in Chicago that week. This card was in postal use in 1909.

Cole left Winterset for Florida about 20 years before his death and established in Lakeland, Florida in 1912. In both states he was in partnership with Mr Hull and they operated several jewellery stores in Florida. About 1924, when his health failed, Cole sold out to his nephew, R. H. Cole, and retired from active business. Mr. Hull disposed of his interest four years later to H. E. Cole. A.C. Cole was a lifelong member of the Methodist Church and for some years was a member of the official board of the First Church. He took all degrees in both the York and Scottish Rite branches of freemasonry.

Sources: Cole Building; Cole Obituary

Charles Collas

Cognac, Charente, France

  • CCCC in a clover logo30

Charles Edmund Collas, (15 January, 1866 to 23 May 1947) bookseller, photographer-publisher, printer and postcard publisher of Cognac, Charente where a street has been named after him. Collas was legitimated in 1869 by his parent’s marriage. In 1893 he gave up employment in Paris and moved to Cognac, where he opened a bookstore in the rue Neuve Saint-Martin and became active as a photographer. In 1900 he established a printing works employing about 10031. Collas’ main activity was printing books for others but he also produced postcards, both local topographicals and photo-cards of children in costumes that circulated throughout France and beyond. Particularly during 1903, sales of the series with babies and children were fantastic. He also published a photo-album, The Cognac vineyard, Excursions through the Charente vineyards. In 1904 Collas granted Fernand Fleury, a graduate photographer, exclusive use of his logo in Paris32.

Frédéric Colle

Dinant, Namur, Belgium

  • Edit. F. Colle, Dinant

Frédéric Colle, rue de la Station, Dinant, published topographical photocards of Belgium into the divided-back era. When the Germans invaded Dinant in August 1914, Colle took refuge with his aunt, Ms Goulière, at Place Saint-Nicolas.

This card: The Capuchin convent of Dinant was a religious house built at the beginning of the 17th century for the Capuchin Friars Minor . Built on the left bank of the Meuse, upstream from the Faubourg Saint-Médard, the convent was confiscated in 1797 as national property by the French revolutionary power, and the Capuchins were expelled. Serving as a hospice, then hospital for the Sisters of Saint Vincent de Paul from 1838 to 1957, it was acquired by the town of Dinant , which set up its municipal services there in 2010. Convent and church are listed. Source: wikipedia

The Collectors’ Publishing Company

London E.C.

  • The Collectors’ Publishing Co., Imperial Buildings, London E.C.
This appears to be Pendennis Castle near Falmouth in Cornwall but that belief hasn’t helped me identify the photographer Knowles.

The Collectors’ Publishing Company, 42 Imperial Buildings, Ludgate Circus, London, EC. Edmund W Richardson edited The Picture Postcard Magazine of Philately, Travel & Art which started in 1900 and in 1902 became The Picture Postcard and Collectors’ Chronicle. It was the first magazine devoted to postcards and advertised as THE BRIGHTEST AND BEST OF THE TWOPENNY MONTHLIES. The company took over the publishing from the fifth issue until it ceased in 1907.

It appears that Richardson was behind The Collectors’ Publishing Company, who were in 101 Fleet Street in February 1902 and again in 1907. To assist readers of the magazine, the company acted as agents for the postcards of many publishers, and for special issues of a short-lived nature. This card of a photograph by Knowles may be one of them. The company published cards of its own, notably photocards of London’s suburban and satelite towns into the divided-back era.

The Colombo Apothecaries Company Limited, Sri Lanka

  • The Colombo Apothecaries Co., Ltd.

The Colombo Apothecaries Company Limited was a mercantile concern established in 1883 by W. M. Smith and James Smith Finlay in the De Soysa Buildings, Slave Island, Colombo. In 1887 it moved into a small store at the junction of York and Prince’s Street. In 1889 an oilman’s store and a wine and spirits department was added. The store continued to grow. Later, stationery, china, fancy goods, photography and photographic supplies, electro-plated ware and boats and shoes were added. A further extension took in drapery, outfitting, hardware, toys, games and athletic goods. The company took the name Colombo Apothecaries Company in 1892. An outfitters, tailors and shoemakers branch employed 300 people in Baillie Street. The chairman in 1907 was Sir W. W. Mitchell, the general manager was C. Davidson. In the early 1890s the photographic studio was moved to more suitable quarters at Kandy, where climatic influences are more propitious for high class photographic work than in Colombo. At this studio thousands of views were produced and sent to all parts of the world. They include representations of the famous Buried Cities of Ceylon, concerning which the company published a catalogue. At the Colombo store, facilities including a dark-room and an electric job-printing department were provided for the use of amateurs, passengers and others, and a large stock of photographic materials kept33.

Columbia Polytechnic Institute for the Blind


In 1900, two blind men from Connecticut, Francis R. Cleveland and H.R.W. Miles, founded the Columbia Polytechnic Institute for the Blind in a small building in Northwest Washington, D.C. Now called Columbia Lighthouse for the Blind, the organization has changed its location, size and scope over the years. Its overall mission, however, has remained the same – to help people of all ages in the Maryland, D.C. and Virginia region overcome the challenges of blindness or vision loss and enable them to remain independent, active and productive. Early funds were invested in a printing plant, which would become a source of income for the organisation as well as provide employment for people who were blind. A monthly magazine was published but by 1918, both the printing and the magazine were discontinued34.

Combridge & Company, Mumbai

  • Combridge & Co., Bombay

Messrs. Combridge & Company, booksellers and publishers, Madras and Bombay. Messrs. A. .J. Combridge & Co., Bombay were listed as Agents for the Sale of Government Publications in the 1911 Census of North-West Frontier. They stamped their name into books they sold in blue ink: A.J. Combridge & Co. New and old booksellers. Bombay.

Luca Comerio, Milan, Italy


Fortunato Luca Comerio (19 November 1878 to 5 July 1940) was a Italian photographer, early photo-journalist and a pioneer of the Italian film industry. Comerio took his first important photograph in 1894 of the King of Italy, Umberto I, on an official visit to Como which earned him the King’s thanks. Just twenty years old, with his numerous photographs, Comerio courageously documented, at the risk of his life, the popular riots that broke out in Milan in May 1898. He worked from his studio in via Serbelloni. In 1918 he filmed the entrance of the cavalrymen to Trento and the moment when the tricolour flag was raised in the city. The large amount of material he shot during the conflict allowed Comerio to produce a feature film. Comerio created films from the early years of the century up to the end of the 1920s35 after which he was unemployed. He spent the last years of his life in poverty and solitude with his second wife36. A street in Milan now bears his name.

Comic Card Co,

Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA

  • a logo in which a man with a Dachshund dog holds up a giant letter C which serves as the first letter of the words Comic Card Co. Under the logo are the words MINNEAPOLIS MINN

Comic Card Co Minneapolis published topographicals of the US Great Lakes states. A search of several Minneapolis City Directories for 1905-1907 did not find any listings of this company.

Comptoir Philatelique d’Egypte

Alexandria, Egypt

  • Comptoir Philatelique d’Egypte – Alexandrie. – cl37. Lékégian & C. VED
  • Comptoir Philathélique d’Egypte – Alexandrie.
  • Comptoir Philathélique d’Egypte – Alexandrie. Cliche Khardiache F. VED

Comptoir Philatelique d’Egypte, Alexandria published topographical and ethnographic photo-cards in the undivided back era. Some of the photographs were their own and some from others such as Gabriel Lekegian (qv) F. Khardiache (qv) and Paul Dittrich (qv).

In 1901 they published (in French38) a Catalogue & Current Price List Of Postage Stamps and Stationery Of Egypt & Egyptian Sudan, French Post Offices In Alexandria and Port-Said and All Other Foreign Offices Of The Levant by Edgard Papasian … 1902-1903.

Victor Ernult-Doncq of Brussels supplied their photocards of Egypt.

Comptoir de Phototipie,

Neuchatel, Switzerland

  • C.P.N.

Comptoir de Phototypie, publishers of books and postcards, 13 rue Pourtalès,39 Neuchatel. In 1897 they published books of photographic view-cards. Later, under the name Phototypie-Neuchatel, they published Collection de 50 Paysages Suisses, a box of postcards showing Swiss landscapes. Their cards were numbered tinted and monochrome photographs. Their books and 1900 calendars were strongly promoted in the educational press40. The company appears to have been publishing books in association with A. Schlachter of Paris and Koehler of Leipzig between the late 19th century and 1930. In November 1897 they advertised Nice housing to rent immediately or for next Christmas, comprising 5 rooms, veranda, garden and outbuildings on Advantageous conditions.

This card would be complementary for guests of the Grand Hôtel of Russia and the Continent, which was located at the corner of the Mont-Blanc quay opposite the Hôtel des Bergues. It was demolished in 1968. This card was franked in the ambulant post office on the train that left Geneva for Zürich 2 minutes before 1 am on 23 June 1904 and arrived at Zürich at 6.36 am. Villars-sur-Ollon, commonly referred to as Villars, is a village in Switzerland in the canton of Vaud, part of the municipality of Ollon. The 1878 edition of Harper’s Hand-Books For Travelers In Europe And The East advised that a pleasant excursion should be made to Villard, a trip offering magnificent views of the valley; a one-horse carriage could be hired from the Hotel Grand Muveran for 15 francs for three hours. Source: ambulant post office

A. Confalone and Company

Naples, Italy


A. Confalone and company, printers and publishers, Naples. In 1903 Confalone and P. Beccarini published Professor Luigi Fischetti’s book Pompeii as it was and Pompeii is featuring his recreations of Pompei (116 pages for 5 lira). Architect Fischetti was a professor at Naples University. Confalone also published his book in German. Confalone published images from the book as postcards. In 1919 Confalone lithographed R. Galiero’s book on Calvizzano a municipality in Naples.

C. Contini, Naples, Italy

  • C. Contini – Napoli

C. Contini, Naples, published local tinted topographical photocards and concertina photobooks of places as far away as Capri. They reproduced fine art in the divided-back era.

Charles E Cope

Kittatinny Hotel, Delaware Water Gap, USA


Charles E. Cope (born 28 December 1852 hotel proprietor, Atlantic City, and the at the Delaware Water Gap. The Delaware Water Gap is a water gap on the border of the U.S. states of New Jersey and Pennsylvania where the Delaware River cuts through a large ridge of the Appalachian Mountains.

At the age of twenty years Charles Cope left his father’s cranberry farm and took up the butchering trade whereafter he conducted a meat market for some years. Selling out his business he moved into the hotel business. His father died leaving him his partially-developed cranberry farm with debts. Needing money to develop the property, Cope went to Atlantic City and engaged in the hotel business. In three or four years cranberries were produced by the carload, and a large income was provided for the widowed mother and her children. Cope then deeded the property over to his mother, and continued the hotel business at Atlantic City and the Water Gap. By 1905 Cope had reduced his holding to the Jackson Hotel at Atlantic City and the Kittatinny House. Cope was a member of various Masonic Lodges.

The Kittatinny, first of the resort hotels at Delaware Water Gap, opened its still-unfinished premises in 1832 to a capacity 25 guests. By the end of the Civil War, the hotel had expanded to accommodate more than 250 vacationers. The Kittatinny had a ballroom, a bar and evening entertainment, and a basement kitchen with a stream running through it. From its riverside veranda 180 feet above the Delaware, guests could command a view of the famous scenery and the many nature-based amusements of the time: constructed trails, fishing and boating on the river and lakes, and moonlight cruises aboard steamboat Kittatinny.

The Kittatinny is commandingly situated, the elevation of the hotel is high, directly overlooking the Delaware River flowing below in majestic grandeur, and the mountain and river views from every bedroom in the house are magnificent.

The Kittatinny DELAWARE WATER GAP, PA. LARGEST MOST MODERN AND THE LEADING HOTEL. COOLEST LOCATION. Derives the full benefit of the breezes caused by the “Gap’s” formation. Table supplied from hotel’s farm. American plan; also a la carte. Orchestra, social diversions. Write for booklet showing hotel, Kittatinny Park scenes, official auto maps. Livery, garage, saddle homes. Kittatinny coach meets all trains. G. FRANK COPE.

Brooklyn Daily Eagle, 30 June 1908

The booklet referred to may be Kittatinny, Delaware Water Gap, Monroe County, Pa: Open From May 1st to November a 26 page publication by Cope reprinted in 2018

Source Bucks County PA Gen Web

Antonio Coppola, Naples, Italy

  • A Coppola [stylised signature within the painting with the A and C intertwined]

Antonio Coppola (1850 to c.1902) artist, Naples painted landscapes for postcards in chromolithographs for various Neapolitan printers such as Richter & Co (qv) E. Ragozino (qv) and Fabio Bicchieral Editore. He may have varied his signature for different clients – sometimes it looks more like Coppolo41 or J Coppola.

John Corah and Son

Loughborough, England


John Corah and Son, printers, Wood Gate Works, Loughborough. Corah went on to publish divided-back real photocards. An invoice issued by the company described them as Printers, Lithographers, Account Book Makers to the Laundry Trades42. In 1911 Corah copyrighted a photograph of girl holding white tea cloth taken by Frank Nield who had a studio at High Street, Loughborough43. In 1934 the firm published Bygone Loughborough by H W Cook. Their postcards were photocards of the locality.

Corbaz & Company

Lausanne, Switzerland

  • Corbaz & Cie, Lausanne

DH Corbaz and Company, publishers, Lausanne. In 1907 they merged with others to form Société de la Feuille d’Avis et des Imprimeries Réunies44. Corbaz published the Swiss Military Journal was from its foundation in 1856 to 1861 and 1893 to the merger after which it was continued by the new enterprise. Corbaz’ books online date between 1869 and 1905.

This card: This card was provided for the use of guests of the Grand Hôtel de Russie et Continental located at the corner of the Quai du Mont-Blanc opposite the Hôtel des Bergues.

James Fazy, the creator of modern Geneva was rewarded for services rendered with a parcel of the most expensive land in Geneva. The residence he had built there around 1855-56 was a splendid building, the first in a series of about twenty in total, making up the Square du Mont-Blanc, a prestigious real estate complex. The installation of a gaming house, the Circle of Foreigners in the building sparked a scandal which led to the closure of the establishment in 1864. Riddled with debt, James Fazy had to dispose of the property which allowed the Grand Hôtel de Russie et Continental to open in September 1869. For many years it was owned by Charles Rathgeb. The hotel was demolished in 1968. Of the establishment, only two sphinxes, of pink marble with plump breasts, remain today, guardians of the rue du Mont-Blanc. Source: Geneve en ZigZag

Cormault and Papeghin, Paris

  • J. Cormault et E. Papeghin. edit. Paris AP
  • AP in a circle

24 Rue des Petites-Écuries Paris. Listed as publishing postcards of the 1900 Paris Exposition Universelle Internationale under the name Cormault-Papeghin45. Also at times Papeghin et Cormault and E Papeghin. Used initials A.P. and AP in a circle, the latter commonly seen on photocards of Italy such as the works of Venice watercolourist Trevisan. Published books of postcards of Paris up to 1930.

Carlo Cotini, Naples, Italy

  • Edit. C. Cotini, Via Chiaia, 63 – Napoli

Carlo Cotini, 63 Via Chiaia, Naples published topographical photocards of the Naples and Pompei area into the divided-back era. His subject-matter included the artwork and exhibits in the local museums. He also published ethnographical, sepia cards of Fabbrica di Maccheroni showing the making of macaroni and a herb seller with his stock on a donkey.

In 1912, Italy seized Rhodes from the Ottomans during the Italo-Turkish War. Rhodes and the rest of the Dodecanese Islands were assigned to Italy in the Treaty of Ouchy. Turkey ceded them officially to Italy with the 1923 Treaty of Lausanne. In 1947, Rhodes and the other Dodecanese were united with Greece. Cotini published a card of a photograph of Turkish prisoners marching towards the Castro Castle atop the Megalo Chorio mountain in Rhodes.

Alexis Couturier

Toulon, Provence, France

  • A Couturier, phot. éd. Toulon

Hyacinthe Alexis Charles Gabriel Couturier, (born 16 December 1867) photographer and publisher, Toulon. Toulon-born Couturier was the son of a pharmacist accountant of maritime hospitals. He trained as a photographer with Alexandre Bougault who was a witness at his wedding on 29 April 1893. In December 1894, Couturier set up on his own at 14, rue de l’Arsenal. On 1 March 1907 his business was put into judicial liquidation by the Commercial Court of Toulon.

Couturier published postcards of photographs of Toulon printed for him by Royer (qv) of Nancy. His Marine Francaise and Marine Militaire Francaise series were numbered photocards of ships.

Not to be confused with: La Marine Française was also the name of a book of nautical Illustrations by Leon Couturier and Frederic Montenard published by Hachette in 1893. Leon Couturier (29 December 1842 to 21 December 1935) was a French painter in the naturalistic style, who specialized in maritime and military subjects. From 1880, he devoted himself almost exclusively to painting the ships and sailors of the French Navy, which earned him official recognition. He was appointed a “Peintre de la Marine” in 1890 and awarded the Légion d’honneur in 1897. Later, he sketched French soldiers of World War I. Towards the end of his life, he abandoned naval subjects in favour of fishing and fishermen. He exhibited regularly at the Salon. Whether there is more than coincidence here is difficult to say; the postcard publisher was a photographer in Toulon while Leon was an artist with no apparent link to that place.

Sources: wikipedia; Portrait Sepia

M M Couvée,

Den Haag, Netherlands

  • M. M. COUVÉE

Marinus Mattheus Couvee (28 May 1861 to 23 April 1922) photographer and bookseller. In 1856 Couvée opened a bookshop on the Lange Poten in The Hague. His son, apparently of the same name, continued this business after his departure to Oegstgeest. In 1918 it was located at 4 Parkstraat. In the same period, they seem to have operated as photographers both of royalty and current events as well as studio portraits of which they produced bromide prints.

William ​Cowin & Company

Douglas, Isle of Man

  • ​Cowin’s Series

William Cowin & Company, fancy goods and general draper, 6 Victoria Street, and at the Star Bazaar, 13, Duke street, Prospecthil and Victoria Pier, Douglas.

Advertising in The Isle of Man Weekly Times of Saturday 28 July 1883, Cowin attributed the reasonableness of the prices of his tourist ware to working the department in connection with our drapery, thereby saving rent and many incidental expenses.

Cowin published The Photographic Series Album Views of The Isle of Man. His postcards were local topographical photo-cards produced for him by Valentines of Dundee.

In about 1928, an advertising photo for the Star Bazaar shows fancy goods and souvenirs including crested china for sale from his Victoria Pier which were demolished in 1961.

This format is indicative of Valentines of Dundee

Aurelio Craffonara

Craffonara A46

Aurelio Craffonara47 (1875 to 1945) was an Italian watercolourist, illustrator and caricaturist. He started a successful career as an illustrator in satirical magazines under the pseudonym Lelo when he was about twenty. He did the art work for posters, postcards and dozens of books for children. As an illustrator he worked very successfully with watercolour painting in numerous national and international exhibitions. The major shipping line Navigazione Generale Italiana used his work in their promotional postcards and posters. Craffonara also decorated exhibition halls including the industrial one in Genoa in 1901 and the Rome one in 1911. From 1915 he was Professor of Merit of the Ligustica Academy of Fine Arts. He exhibited as far as London, Cape Town and Cairo48.

John Critien, Valetta, Malta

  • J Critien, 34 Strada Reale, Malta
  • J Critien, Malta, 34 Strada Reale.

John Critien, living at 34 Strada Reale, Valletta, on the 1895 electoral list49. Republic Street, formerly Kingsway and Strada Reale, stretches throughout the length of Valletta from the City Entrance (formerly City Gate, Kingsgate, Porta San Giorgio) to Fort St. Elmo. It is the main street of the city50.

William Crolard

Cancale, Brittany, France

  • Collection Crolard, Cancale

William Joseph Marie Crolard, (15 June 1871 to 1942), photographer, and painter-photographer, Place de L’Eglise, Cancale. Crolard’s father Victor continued to trade in photography and souvenirs in the same town after his son was established in his own right. Crolard left Cancale for Lorient in December 1907. He was mobilized on 3 March 1915 and finished the war with the 62nd Infantry Regiment51. After the war, Crolard and his son René, bought an art photography studio (Maison Chabrier) in Alençon where he died. In January 1927, his older son, Albert, took over the Alençon business until 1936. Editions Germain Fils (qv) of Saint-Malo published cards of his photographs. Thousands of photographs by various members of the family are in the archives of the City of Lorient52.

Giovanni Crupi, Taormina, Sicily

  • Fotographia Artistica-Crupi, Via Teatro Greco.

Giovanni Crupi, photographer, Via Teatro Greco, Taormina. Crupi, a man of refined, shy and introverted ways but a brilliant and keen innovator, he is credited with originating Sicilian artistic photography. Crupi was elected a city councillor on 9 November 1889. He lived in the splendid Villa Mon Repos, now a hotel. There he was part of the glamorous society that wintered in the mild climate of Taormina. He was especially devoted to the entourage of the Latvian baroness Stempel, whose lady-in-waiting he married. Crupi opened his Artistic Photography studio in 1885 in via Teatro Greco with a branch in Piazza Duomo. Crupi devoted his whole life to artistic photography, anthropological types, trades, period costumes of the Sicily of time. His photos create distinct atmospheres of the Mediterranean and include views of the archaeological sites of Taormina, Syracuse and Agrigento. From 1901 to 1910, while Crupi was in Heliopolis, Egypt after the collapse of his finances53, the Taormina photo lab continued its activity thanks to his nephew Francesco Galifi54.

Joseph Cumbo, Gibraltar

  • J. Cumbo, Gibraltar
  • V. & J. C. Gibraltar

The 1901 Register Of Inhabitants in Gibraltar show Joseph Cumbo as aged 31 and born in Malta. He was employed as an engine-driver. He lived at 13 Waterport Street with five others. He was single and had the family relationship of nephew – presumably living with an aunt. The 1911 register shows Joseph/Jose Cumbo now aged 41 and living at no 3 Castle Street in the Dockyard District. By this time he was married and head of a household of four. His occupation was listed as read and write55. Undivided photocards were also published under the names Cumbo & Montegriffo and Montegriffo & Cumbo (qv).

Vincent B. Cumbo, Gibraltar

  • V. B. Cumbo, Gibraltar
  • V. B. C. Gibraltar
  • V. & J. C. Gibraltar

Vincent B. Cumbo (born 186956) photographer, 157 Main Street, Gibraltar57 – later Cumbo and Montegriffo (qv) – was one of the larger local publishers of souvenir photo-booklets and tinted collotype view-cards depicting Gibraltar and Tangiers. The company probably produced most of its postcards during the early 20th century although they continued to be sold long after that58. The Souvenir of Gibraltar Postcard Folder of 12 cards he published is widely dated about 1920. Cumbo took some photographs at the bullring portraying different bullfighting scenes between 1915 and 1920. My photocard of a Moorish Girl in Tangier with the initials V. & J. C. clearly indicates cooperation with his relative Joseph. In the 1901 Register Of Inhabitants in Gibraltar, Vincent Cumbo is listed as aged 42 and born in Malta. He was a self-employed dealer in Moorish Curiosities. He lived at 13 Waterport Street with five others. He was single and had the family relationship of nephew – presumably living with an aunt. By 1911 the number of adult Cumbos in Gibraltar had increased from 3 to 7. Vincent was now 52, married and the head of the household at 17 Church Street which was said to have 24 rooms. He was self-employed in the occupation read and write. There he is listed as Vincent V Cumbo. On one level, the difference of name and date of birth from the other information available makes the position unclear but it seems curious if they were different people.

This card: The Buena Vista barracks was constructed in the 1840s to the designs of Major General Sir John Thomas Jones; it was one of several that were built in the territory following a report that he produced on Gibraltar’s defences. Also known as the “Stone Block”, its simple design consisted of a single rectangular block with windows on each side, divided into two sections on each floor with three wide intercommunicating rooms in each section. It was used for many years by the Royal Gibraltar Regiment but was subsequently converted for commercial use as factory and storage units. Source: wikipedia

Samuel Cupples Envelope Company

longer article here

The Cynicus Publishing Co. Ltd., Tayport, Fife, Scotland

  • The Cynicus Publishing Co. Ltd., Tayport, Fife
  • Cynicus underlined signature within cartoon
  • The Cynicus Publishing Coy. Ltd.

Martin Anderson was born in Leuchars, in 1854. Anderson studied at Glasgow School of Art under Robert Greenlees, in Ingram Street Glasgow. On leaving he worked as a designer at a calico printer. In 1877 he began to provide small illustrations for serial stories in the short-running News of the Week. In 1878 his painting The Music Lesson was accepted for the Royal Scottish Academy’s annual exhibition. In 1879, age 24, he decided to move to London, to study art proper he explained in an 1894 interview in The Sketch. In 1880 he was invited to join John Leng and Co., the publisher of titles such as the Dundee Advertiser, the Evening Telegraph, Peoples Journal, and Peoples Friend, as its staff artist. Accepting the position, Anderson became the first such artist to be employed by any daily newspaper in Britain; until then, daily newspapers were un-illustrated. In 1881, as a freelance artist, he began contributing cartoons and illustrations to the comic weekly The Quiz, an imitation of the magazine Punch. For his illustrations in The Quiz he used the pseudonym bob, but in November 1887 he adopted a second pseudonym, that of Cynicus, and began to move away from the safe and trivial to the dangerous and powerful realm of politics. In 1891 he moved back to London in an attempt to get his work noticed, taking a shop in Drury Lane, with the sign Cynicus Publishing Company over its door and with prints of his cartoons displayed in its windows. In the late 1890s a new market for his products was quickly emerging – that of picture postcards. In 1898 Anderson began working for Blum & Degan where he designed court-sized postcards. In 1902, after the Post Office allowed divided back postcards, picture postcards became very popular and also began to be widely collected; Anderson decided to form his own company. The Cynicus Publishing Company was incorporated as a limited company and began publishing colour postcards by the second half of 1902. These appear to have been hand-coloured by colourists who were mostly girls or young people whose delicate constitutions have unfitted them for hard labour. Anderson’s card The Honeymoon depicting the happy couple in the throws of seasickness was deplored by The Picture Postcard Magazine: “A very unpleasant subject … utterly unfit for portraying on a postcard.”

Initially, the company did exceedingly well. However, by 1908 the mass-market popularity of postcards began to decline and the company suffered from dwindling profitability60.

Source: Pictures in the Post Richard Carline (1959 Gordon Fraser)

1Proféré? – uttered?





6The Artistic Postcard


8 The Postal Bag

9 Brussels, 1888


11 The Daily Newspaper in America, Volume 1 Alfred McClung Lee 2000

12 A biographical album of prominent Pennsylvanians 1888

13 Philadelphia’s Washington Square Bill Double











24 Alan Clark, Dictionary of British Comic Artists, Writers and Editors, British Library, 1998, page 39


26 Privat Livemont: entre tradition et modernité au cœur de l’Art nouveau, 1861-1936 Benoît Schoonbroodt, Lannoo Uitgeverij, 2007




30 filed on 12 June 1902 by Charles Collas for Ch. Collas and Cie collotype of art and industry







37 Cliché – photo

38 Catalogue & Prix-courant Des Timbres-poste Et Entiers D’Égypte & Du Soudan Égyptien, Des Bureaux de Poste Français À Alexandrie Et Port-Saïd, Ainsi Que de Tous Les Autres Bureaux Étrangers Du Levant. Rédigé Par M. Edgard Papasian … 1902-1903

39 Feuille D’Avis de Neuchatel newspaper of 22 November 1899


41 L’iconografia nella produzione a stampa della Richter & C. per il settore turistico tra il 1900 e il 1930 Ewa Kawamura Eikonicity 2016 vol 1 issue 1 page 147



44 file:///C:/Users/MB/Downloads/rms-001_1932_77__673_d.pdf


46 Signature with a stylised ff

47 His name is often rendered “Graffonara”, a term that appears in official catalogues and texts.












59 Pictures in the Post Richard Carline (1959 Gordon Fraser) page 27


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