Directory R

E. Rabus, Paris

  • E. R., Paris
This fine photograph did not need the added glitter.

E. Rabus, photographer, 108 rue Amelot, Paris, Xie published numbered topographical photo-cards of Paris into the divided-back back era. In 1919 he advertised Photographie rotative au bromure d’argent (Rotary photography with silver bromide).

Ettore Ragozino, Naples, Italy

  • Edit. E. Ragozino, Galleria Umberto – Napoli
  • E. Ragozino, Galleria Umberto – Napoli
  • E. Ragozino, Edit. – Napoli
  • E. Ragozino, Editore – Napoli.

Ettore Ragozino was one of the foremost stamp dealers in Italy and was located in Naples. Between September 1895 and at least November 1901, he published the journal Stamp Trading … a quarterly journal that simply deals with stamps. He also had shops in Naples for the sale of postcards, both wholesale and retail, the latter at the Galleria Umberto I. Sr Ragozino was recorded in the London Philatelist for 1898 as a visitor to that year’s Philatelic Exhibition in Turin. He published books of photographs of Naples and area up to 1930. He published the works of leading photographers Caggiano and Esposito. My card of a painting of a castle at Naples was printed by Armanino Brothers of Genoa (qv) while artist-painted images of a young Neapolitan woman were jointly published with Stengel. Other cards were jointly published with Benzo brothers of Cassine (qv).

Galleria Umberto I is a public shopping gallery in Naples built between 1887 and 1891. It is located directly across from the San Carlo opera house.


This card: Posillipo is a residential quarter of Naples in southern Italy, located along the northern coast of the Gulf of Naples. In September of 1897, shortly after leaving Britain, Oscar Wilde moved with Alfred Douglas to Naples, where they lived at the Villa Giudice at 37 via Posillipo. Even though Wilde travelled under a pseudonym, his presence in the city was well-known and he did nothing to hide it. He spent time with Douglas in one club or another where young men hung out, but also where the literati gathered, so Wilde might find translators for his works. Wilde and Douglas lived at Villa Giudice for a few months surrounded by scandal until they were separated by their respective families under various financial threats. The threats worked; Douglas was forced to return home in early December 1897. Wilde moved to a cheap hotel at 31 via S. Lucia. He tried to have some of his works produced in Naples but without success. He efforts to find translators also failed. He left Naples in February 1898 and went to Paris, where he died destitute. Source: Naples: Life, Death & Miracles

Dulio Raineri, Milan, Italy

  • Dulio Raineri – Milano
  • Dulio Raineri, Ed – Milano

Dulio Raineri published many photo-cards of Milan some in embossed framing. One of mine also has a monogram of A bisected by L in the corner of the photograph, possibly a reference to Aristophot of Leipzig (qv).

Oscar Rangnitt

  • O. Rangnitt, foto C. N:s Lj., Sthlm

Oscar Rangnitt (5 August 1874 to 1908) photographer, 12 Kullagatan, Helsingborg was in business from 1898 when he took over Robert Axelsson’s studio. As well as studio portraits, Rangnitt recorded local new buildings and events. Later, the business was Rangnitt & Holmqvist, Kullagatan 12

The photographer Nina Maria Johansson was probably employed by Rangnitt before she established her own studio on 1 May 1907.

This card was made by Carl Nilssons Ljustrycksanstalt in Stockholm.

Ferdinand Ranot

  • F. Ranot

Ferdinand Coenraets (1860 to 1939) Belgian painter, draftsman, watercolorist. Conraets worked under the pseudonyms Carlo and Ferdinand Ranot. As Ranot, he illustrated and designed postcards notably the series La Belgique pittoresque. Edition Artistique published by Goffart of Brussels (qv).


Rathe & Fehlmann

Basel, Switzerland

  • Rathe & Fehlmann, Basel

Rathe & Fehlmann, Basel published Gruss Aus cards before the turn of the century and local artist-drawn and photo-cards into the divided-back era. They also combined the two by producing photographs framed in elaborately drawn surrounds.

Karl Raupp

  • K Raupp

Karl Raupp (1837 to 1918) German painter. Raupp was a professor at the Kunstgewerbeschule in Nuremberg and at the Kunstakademie in Munich. He led the artists’ colony on Frauenwörth Island in Chiemsee, a freshwater lake in Bavaria, to its second height in the 1870s. The colony was well-known throughout the international art scene, attracting both European and even American artists. Raupp, nicknamed Chiemsee-Raupp, imbued his scenes of the lake with a theatrical pathos. His 1888 painting Chased by the Storm was much reproduced in postcards while the 1898 painting Chiemsee decorated the Berlin Reichstag building.

Source: Kotte Autographs

Thomas Daniel Ravenscroft

Cape Town

  • Photo by T.D. Ravenscroft, Rondebosch on the photo side and, on the reverse, P.S. & Co., Box 1205, Cape Town
  • Photo by T.D. Ravenscroft, Rondebosch on the photo side and, on the reverse,

Photographer Thomas Daniel Ravenscroft (1851 to 1948) had a studio at Rondebosch, Cape Town. According to the Ravenscroft family website he started taking photographs in the late 1800s. During the first decade of the 20th century he was commissioned by the Cape Government to take photographs of all towns in Southern Africa, including Rhodesia. He later opened a photographic studio in Riebeek Street, Malmesbury, producing postcards. In the 1930s he moved to Hermanuspieterusfontein (now called Hermanus) where he opened a studio. He died there in 1948. His postcards were published by Paul Schaefer & Company (qv).

Source: The Ravenscroft Family in Southern Africa from 1924

Alberto Reber, Palermo, Sicily, Italy

  • Libreria: A. REBER – PALERMO

Alberto Reber, bookseller and publisher, 358 Cassaro, Palermo. At the beginning of the 20th century the heart of the city was the Cassaro and the Via Maqueda, and along these two roads there were a considerable number of bookshops including the Reber International Bookshop. Alberto Reber bought the bookshop from Carlo Clausen, a bookseller publisher in Turin in 18978. Reber published books between at least 1899 and 1912. In 1935 Reber’s was one of two international bookshops in Palermo. He published topographical photocards and paintings of the island signed S. Civiletti (qv). Neither of the famous Sicilian sculptors of this family had this initial and it is not clear who the artist was.

John J. Redmond

  • J J Redmond

John J. Redmond, (1856 to 1929) artist active and resident in the US and Switzerland. Redmond exhibited with the New York Salmagundi Club. Maurice Reymond printed a series of cards of artwork by JJ Redmond for Vouga & Company, Geneva

Regel & Krug, Leipzig, Germany

  • R. & K.

Regel & Krug, Leipzig Printer & Publisher, 57 Kohlgartenstrasse (1895, 1898), then 13-15 Leipzig-Reudnitz, Comeniusstrasse (1907).

Friedrich Louis Georg Regel and Sylvester Richard Krug were in business together from 1 September 1894 until about 1921 and the business was thereafter run by Krug alone until 1931 or 1933. In 1907 they did photographic printing by the mile and had 2 letterpresses and 8 lithographic presses. They started off as typical chromolitho printers, used collotype process for some time, then concentrated on Autochrom process (their own process was Heliochrome) and added photographic printing. A major picture manufacturer of topographical as well as subject cards, by 1907, R&K had moved into their own 4-storey building at Comeniustrasse. The earlier topographical-card output was more and more replaced by greeting/subject cards. From 260 workers in 1913, the workforce dropped to 90 people by the mid 1920s.

Regent Publishing Company Ltd. London

  • Published by The Regent Publishing Co., Ltd.. London, N.W.

The Regent Publishing Company Limited, 310 Euston Road, London, was founded by Robert Ferdinand Hunger, and the business entered the postcard market in 1905. The original card series were called the Prince Regent and had the mark R.F.H. London. The company published both real photograph postcards, some of which were hand-coloured, and artist postcards.

Carl Reichert

  • C. Reichert. 1892

Carl Reichert (27 August 1836 to 5 April 1918) was an Austrian painter, especially of landscapes and animals. Viennese-born Reichert trained in art in Graz. His career as an animal painter took off when the Princess Klaudine Teck recommended him to the Austrian imperial court on the strength of a picture of her two pointers.

Source: wikipedia: Carl Reichert

Reichner Brothers, Boston, USA

  • Reichner Brothers Bee logo with wording Reichner Bros Leipzig Munchen Boston in it and Pat U.S. 608044 Made in Germany Sole Publishers of the United States.

Printing company 1906 to 1914 of 564 Washington St, Boston, Münich and Leipzig, they published view cards of Boston some with gilding added. In 1908, they published good quality cards of the major fire that had devastated Chelsea, Massachusetts. In 1910 they published In the Future, views of several New England towns showing actual streets imagined with cars, monorails and the like.

Source: Glorialana; Postcard History Series: Chelsea Gerard W. Brown, (Arcadia Publishing 6 August 2004)

Reiner & Lippacher

Munich, Germany.

  • Verlag v. Reiner & Lippacher, Munchen.
  • monogram of R & L written across a much larger M in a circle

Reiner & Lippacher, Court publishers, Munich, published local topographic photo and Gruss aus cards and New Year 1899 greetings cards. In 1906 the company sued a former bookbinder in Vaduz, the capital of Lichenstein for 520.69 Marks. In August 1915, the business was in correspondence with the Aktien paper factory of Regensburg. In 1923 the business was at 62 Schwanthalerstrasse. In 1937 Reiner & Lippacher GmbH’s paper and stationery shop also sold prayer books and picture books.

Anton Reinhardt

Chur, Grisons, Switzerland

  • Verlag von Ant. Reinhardt, Phot., Chur

Rudolf Anton Reinhardt (8 November 1866 to 16 April 1919) grew up in Chur and was trained as a photographer in the Salzborn studio. Over the years, he opened three photo shops: two in Chur and one in St. Moritz. In October 1893 he worked as a hiking photographer in Samedan. Reinhardt was famous for his portraits. He documented buildings and regular services for the Albula and Chur-Arosa railways. After his death from flu in 1919, his wife, Elisabeth Cos, with whom he had five children, had to sell his property. The studio on Grabenstrasse was taken over by Walter Zurlinden and later by Georg Reinhardt, the one in the Welschdörfli went to photographer Götz, and the one in St. Moritz was continued by nephew Andreas Pedrett. Mrs Reinhardt seems not to have been anything to do with the widow in the next entry who was some hundreds of kilometres away.

Source: FotoCH

A. Reinhardt’s widow

Riesa, Saxony, Germany

  • Verlag v. A. verw. Reinhardt, Riesa

Published photographic topographicals into WWI. Riesa is a town in the district of Meißen in the Free State of Saxony, Germany. It is located on the Elbe River, about 40 km northwest of Dresden.

Reinicke & Rubin

Magdeburg, Germany

  • Reinicke & Rubin, Magdeburg. 1904
  • logo of RR in a castle with two turrets
  • Platino-M. Reinicke & Rubin Magdeburg logo of RR in a castle with two turrets
  • Orig. di Fr. Reincke, Dresden 04

Reinicke & Rubin, printers and publishers, Magdeburg. Heinrich Carl Johannes Rubin was born in Lubeck and died age 51 on 30 August 1928 at Dresden17. In 1900 he was advertising under his own name as a printer of postcards. Meantime, the postcard publishers Lithografische Kunstanstalt18 Reinicke & Rubin that bore his name and which had been established since 1897, was declared insolvent. In its place came Kunst-Institut19 Reinicke & Rubin also in 1900. The original R&R were printers as well as publishers so it may be that Rubin was a printer who kept his publishing activities separate when the business was re-formed20. The earlier business used a logo of RR in a castle with two turrets. At least from 1904, the later enterprise added a date after their name. They published photo-cards of all of Germany and beyond. All their cards were numbered.

F A C M Reisch

Merano, Tyrol, Italy

  • n. d. Acquarell n. d. Natur v. F. A. C. M. Reisch, Meran
  • Nach dem Acquarell von F. A. C. M. Reisch, Meran.

Franz August Carl Maria Reisch, (5 January 1862 to about 1942), artist, Merano. When this card was produced, Meran was part of the Austrian Empire. After WWI, and the division of Tyrol, it became Merano.

On 16 June 1901 the Innsbrucker Nachrichten newspaper reported that …a new sheet of Tyrolean landscape pictures by FACM Reisch is on display in the Groß art and music store. We see Kitzbühel with the “Wilder Kaiser” in a very happy combination.

In the divided-back era, cards of Reisch’s portrait of Andreas Hofer appeared. Hofer (22 November 1767 to 20 February 1810) was a Tyrolean innkeeper and drover, who in 1809 became the leader of the Tyrolean Rebellion against the revolutionary Napoleonic invasion during the War of the Fifth Coalition. He was subsequently captured and executed. Hofer is still today venerated as a folk hero, freedom fighter and Austrian patriot.

In 1904 the German Tyrolean Alps Company Limited included work by Reisch in an exhibition Tyrol at the World Exhibition in St. Louis, USA.

Not to be confused with: Franz Anton Reisch (17 October 1863 to 6 January 1920) an Austrian businessman, local politician, tourism promoter and ski pioneer.

Reiser & Binder

Cairo and Alexandria, Egypt

  • Editeurs: Reiser & Binder, Photographes Le Caire et Alexandrie

Reiser & Binder, Photographers and publishers, Cairo and Alexandria. Andreas D. Reiser (1840 to 1898) was a German photographer active in Bucharest in late 1870s and early 1880s. During the 1881 coronation ceremonies, he helped Carol Szathmari to take pictures of the parade. Unfortunately, the day was a rainy one and all the pictures came quite pale and of low quality. Szathmari had to make lithographs from them in order to publish an album of that important event21. Thereafter, Reiser and a partner, Anton Binder, founded Reiser & Binder in Alexandria with another, smaller, studio in Cairo. They did general photography and portraiture and made photographic postcards of Egyptian antiquities and street scenes. Reiser left Egypt in the year of his death to return to Munich. The business was continued by his son Lucien who, as a sideline, also produced high quality risqué photographs of semi-nude young women. In the 1913 Egyptian Directory they were at 6 Rue Ancienne Bourse and Rue Gare de Ramleh in Alexandria. After war broke out in 1914, Reiser and Binder left Egypt and their studios closed22.

Reisinger & Company

Cologne, Germany

  • Reisinger & Co. Koln

Reisinger & Company, printers and art publishers, Cologne. Reisinger published colour chromo-lithography Gruss Aus cards of Cologne and German restaurants, hotels and guesthouses. Their undivided-backs included cards of the 1902 Industrial-Commercial German National Art Exhibition in Düsseldorf.

During the currency of the Gruss aus card, the business was transferred to Ludwig Meister.

The Religious Tract Society

separate entry

Charles A Reuter, Geneva

  • Ch. A. Reuter

Charles Reuter (born 1833) draughtsman and artist. Reuter helped design the relief model of 1850 Geneva completed in 1896. This was the first 3D reconstruction of a historic city. Watercolourist Reuter had painted many of the buildings before their demolition23. Corbaz and Company (qv) published postcards of his drawings of buildings. Reuter’s brother Edmond Georges Reuter was Professor at the School of Applied Art, South Kensington Museum, London between 1870 and 189524.

Émile Reutlinger

  • Reutlinger Paris
  • Reutlinger

Émile Auguste Reutlinger25 (27 August 1825 to 9 August 1907) German photographer. Reutlinger was born in Karlsruhe in a family of German Jews. In 1848 he emigrated, initially to the US. In 1860, he married in the Peruvian capital Lima, about four months after the birth of his son Léopold. In 1870 Reutlinger returned to Europe with his family, first to Stuttgart and then to Paris. After 1870, he began working with his brother Carl, who ran a prestigious photography studio at 21 Boulevard Montmartre, Paris. At first he became his business partner but he learned to photograph there. At that time he began to call himself Émile26. The brothers had dealerships for Germany with New Photographic Society (qv) in Berlin-Steglitz, for France with Société Industrielle de Photographie (qv) and for the UK with The Rotary Photographic Company (below) in London.

Maurice Reymond & Company, Geneva, Switzerland

John J. Redmond, (1856 to 1929) artist active and resident in the US and Switzerland, exhibited with the New York Salmagundi Club

Maurice Reymond & Company, printer and publisher, 8 Quai de Saint-Jean, Geneva.

In 1893, Reymond acquired Imprimerie Jules-Guillaume Fick which dates back to the De Tournes who arrived in Geneva in 1585 from Lyon. He published in Geneva University theses and a weekly review called the Literary Week under both names.

Between 1898 and 1903 Reymond published Les Archives de l ‘ Imprimerie : Collection of, Typography and Related Arts and Professions.

He launched La revue Maurice. Journal illustre pour tous in January 1900. Number 11 included “Nansen at the North Pole” (illustrated), an “unpublished” travelogue, borrowed from the notes of Jonansen, the lieutenant of the illustrious explorer despite Nansen having retired from such adventuring without having reached the Pole. By 1907, the revue Maurice had changed hands and title and was now la revue Verte.

Reymond printed a series of cards of artwork by JJ Redmond (above) for Vouga & Company (qv), Geneva.

At the end of the 18th century architect George Rawlinson of Matlock Bath (1734 to 1823) who is associated with a number of local building projects between 1777 and 1790 undertook the rebuilding and enlarging in exuberant Gothick style of the Manor at Bonsall which was later re-named The Study.
At the end of 1870 a large canted bay was added and today the bay is all that survives; in 1927 the house was left empty, during which time it mysteriously caught fire. The successor building, Study Farm, run by the third generation of the Allsop family, incorporates the bay.

Source: The Study, Bonsall Country Images Magazine 9 November 2013 Alastair Plant

E. Reynaud

Chambery, Savoie, France.

  • Lib.-Edit. E. Reynaud, Chambery.

E. Reynaud, bookshop, stationer and publisher, 12 Portiques, Chambéry, the prefecture of the Savoie departement. Other than some costume images he credited to H. Perla and J Montaz, Reynaud appears to have taken the photographs he published as numbered topographicals and ethnographicals of the Savoie. If so, he undertook some adventurous mountain-work to get dramatic images of the Alps into Italy which he published into the divided-back era.

The Rhode Island News Company

Providence, RI, USA.

  • Published by The Rhode Island News Company, Providence R. I., Leipzig, Dresden with three-leaf ANC NY clover logo surmounted by POLYCHROME banner
Fall River Golf Club was founded in 1898. This is their first club house, completed in October 1902. It burned down in July 1909.

The Rhode Island News Company, publisher and book & news distributer, 113 & 115 Westminster Street, Providence, already in business by 1882. By 1884, the company was distributing the American Machinist journal. In 1891 the Company published The History of the Providence Stage 1762-1891 by George O Willard. They also published the 1895 Rhode Island School Report for the Rhode Island Board Of Education. In 1895-6 the company employed book-keepers, carriers, cashiers, packers, errand boys, sales men and women in a staff totalling 37, about half being sales staff.

In 1900 their manager John W Tillinghast was petitioning Congress in relation to postal matters including a petition against the passage of the Loud bill. The bill sought to reform second-class postage and make it more expensive to send serials containing the trashiest kind of literature that are a menace to society. It was talked out.

In 1937 the company was distributing Life magazine. In the 1940s and 1950s, by which time they were at 54 Hope Street, they published The American News of Books A Monthly Estimate of Demand for Forthcoming Books.

THE ONLY BOOK WHOLESALER IN THE STATE OF RHODE ISLAND SERVING: Libraries, Schools and Institutions in this area for nearly a century We carry books from all publishers LIBERAL DISCOUNT We carry a complete line of SCHOOL SUPPLIES – OFFICE SUPPLIES- STATIONERY Visit our show rooms Monday through Friday 8:00A.M. to 4:30P.M. The Rhode Island News Company Division of The American News Co., Inc. 55 Hope Street, Providence, R. I.

Advertisement in the Bulletin of the Rhode Island Library Association May 1962

By 1975 Edward G. O’Brien of Warwick, R.I. had retired as manager of the company.

The company’s undivided backs were tinted photocards of New England. Their designation as being of Leipzig and Dresden suggests that they were by then already part of the American News Company. They published topographical photocards into the divided-back era.

O. F. Ribeiro, Hongkong.

  • Sold by O. F. Ribeiro, Hongkong.

O. F. Ribeiro, PO Box 25B, Hongkong published undivided-backs, many of them Hong Kong buildings. Ribeiro’s ethnographicals had a gruesome tone, one including heads and bodies of Chinese pirates lying on the water’s edge after decapitation.

Of Portuguese origin, Ribeiros were a well-known Macanese family who can trace their ancestry back ten generations to the first members of their Chinese family who became Catholics in Macau in 1704. Ribeiros have now been settled in Hong Kong for four generations.

This card: In these bamboo cages, the victim’s neck was secured in stocks. The floor of the cage was sometimes removed, leaving the victim suspended from the stocks around his or her neck. Source:

B B Rich, Portland, Oregon, USA

The addition of glitter can hardly have been necessary.

B B Rich and his brother Si opened the first Rich’s Cigar Store on SW 2nd Avenue in downtown Portland in 1894. The brothers were succeeded by Jesse Rich, the son of Si and then by employee Tom Moran and his family. As well as tobacco and smokers’ requisites, the store sold newspapers, magazines, sweets and postcards. From the late 1880s to about 1920, The Oregon Artist Eliza Barchus sold many works through the BB Rich cigar and tobacco concession at the Portland Hotel.

Rich was the Official Stationer of the Lewis and Clark Centennial Exposition in 1905 and published Official Mailing Cards. says This event was single-handedly responsible for the production of 450 different post cards. Beautiful European-produced lithographs made up the bulk of these post cards. Also produced at the fair were leather, wood, copper and aluminum post cards.

This card: The Lewis and Clark Centennial and American Pacific Exposition and Oriental Fair, was a worldwide exposition held in Portland, Oregon, United States in 1905 to celebrate the centennial of the Lewis and Clark Expedition. Also known as the Corps of Discovery Expedition, this was the United States expedition from August 1803, to September 1806 to cross the newly acquired western portion of the country after the Louisiana Purchase.

While not officially considered a World’s Fair by the Bureau of International Expositions, it is often informally described as such; the exposition attracted both exhibits and visitors from around the world. During the exposition’s four-month run, it attracted over 1.6 million visitors, and featured exhibits from 21 countries. Portland grew from 161,000 to 270,000 residents between 1905 and 1910, a spurt that has been attributed to the exposition.

Sited in the middle of Guild’s Lake on a peninsula, The US Government building was the fair’s largest edifice, covering over 70,000 square feet. The US Government building was flanked by two 200 foot colonnades, clearly referencing a Roman temple. The architect was Washington, DC based federal architect James Knox Taylor. The colonnade is comprised of Ionic columns and the ornate balustrade has an entablature inscribed with the fair’s motto, Westward the Course of Empire Takes It’s Way. The federal presence on the highly visible peninsula in the middle of Guild’s Lake symbolized the accomplishment of Thomas Jefferson’s early 19th century dream of a coast to coast American Republic.

Sources: wikipedia; Young Architect; Rich’s Cigar Store

Richard, St. Petersburg, Russia

  • Editeur R. L. , St. Petersbourg
Although labeled Types russes, this image is more suggestive of the gallery art that was a major part of the business

Richard Publishing House, St. Petersburg issued many sorts of postcards, photo portraits of artists of St. Petersburg theatres, ethnographics, urban views, interiors of the Imperial Hermitage and a large series devoted to the events of the Russian-Japanese war.

Both undivided-backs cards issued with the name Richard and with the initials RL had French as a second language. As a high proportion of postcard publishers in Imperial Russia were foreigners, the choice of French as the second language of his cards may be significant.

The collector Pierpaolo Vicki suggested that the founder of the publishing house “Richard” was a St. Petersburg German Richard Lutherman: First there were cards with the initials “RL” (Richard Lutherman) or “RLP” (Richard Lutherman, Petersburg), then with the name Richard (Richard) Lutherman (Luttermann), and then the company received the official name “Richard”, which was subsequently Russified. The most likely version of the French sound of the publisher’s name is that R. R. Lutherman owned a factory and warehouse of French flowers and greenery. The company collaborated with the printing houses of R. Golike and A. Wilborg.

The publisher issued black and white bromo silver cards from paintings of the Russian Museum. Similar postcards were issued from the paintings of the Tretyakov Gallery in Moscow. Coloured art postcards began by 1906.

Cards issued in the name Richard also used this format of address side.

H.S. Richardson

Concord, Massachussets, USA


Horatio Stillman Richardson (1846 to 1922) pharmacist, corner Thoreau and Main Streets, Concord. Richardson established his pharmacy on the Mill Dam in 1883.

A learned and experienced pharmacist, Horatio Stillman Richardson met with success as a drugstore owner and operator both in Cambridge and in Concord, Massachusetts, where for twoscore years he was thus employed. His enterprise came to be regarded as one of the best known and most reliable concerns of its kind in his section. While at the head of his drugstore, Mr. Richardson also made significant purchases of land which soon established him as one of the substantial men of the town…An Independent in politics, Mr. Richardson took an intelligent interest in public affairs but never sought office. He was a member of the Corinthian Lodge, Free and Accepted Masons, of Concord, and the Masonic Club. His religious affiliation was with the Unitarian church.

Middlesex County and its people; a history by Edwin P Conklin (1927)

In 1890 Richardson built a fine house at 277 Main Street with a separate carriage house.

Richelieu & Ontario Navigation Company

Sorel, Quebec, Canada.

  • The Valentine & Sons‘ Publishing Co., Ltd. Montreal and Toronto Printed in Great Britain Published by The Canada Railway News Coy., Ltd., Toronto, and R. & O. Navigation Coy.

The Richelieu & Ontario Navigation Company was founded in 1845, by Mr. Sincennes, with headquarters at Sorel, and was called the Richelieu. The one steamer with which they commenced business was called by the same name. They ran daily mail steamers between Toronto, Quebec, the Saguenay and intermediate Ports. Solid expansion followed such that by 1889, the R&O boasted of being the principal shipping company engaged in the navigation of the inland waters of Canada with complete control on the River St. Lawrence and Lake Ontario, from Toronto to the Saguenay.

The routes of the elegant, commodious and comfortable Palace Steamers of the Richelieu and Ontario Navigation Company are undoubtedly amongst the most popular and enjoyable voyages of travel in the World! The desire to see the wonders and beauties of the Niagara, St. Lawrence and Saguenay Rivers enlarges as their charm and pleasures become more and more known, and while the Company naturally aim by the publication of their Guide to describe and popularize the panorama of enchanting scenery their steamers ply to and from, they can but realize that they are also joining in making our fair Canada generally more known, and, as a consequence, more sought after.

R. & O. Navigation Coy New Official Guide and Summer Excursion Book 1889

Valentines published cards for R&O on its own and with The Canada Railway News Company. Arthur Strauss also put their initials to cards featuring stops along their routes.

In 1913, R&O were incorporated with a number of other steamship enterprises into the Canada Steamship Lines Limited which still trades.

This card: Heart Island is an island in the Town of Alexandria within the Saint Lawrence River, along the northern border of the U.S. state of New York, in Jefferson County. The island is one of Thousand Islands archipelago, which stretches from New York State to Canada. Heart Island is home to Boldt Castle, which is open to the public as a tourist attraction. The castle was built by George Boldt, a New York hotelier credited with coining the phrase “The customer is always right.” Boldt built the castle for his wife but she died in 1904 before it was completed and it has never been occupied. Source: wikipedia: Heart Island; press connects

Richter & Company, Naples, Italy

  • Richter & Co., Napoli
  • [149] Ediz. Artistica RICHTER & Co. NAPOLI
Carignano is a comune (municipality) in the Metropolitan City of Turin in the Italian region Piedmont, located about 20 kilometres (12 mi) south of Turin.

Richter & Co was established in 1842 by a Swiss printer, to produce chromolithographs in Naples. After the unification of Italy, Richter became a supplier to the royal household, specializing in several areas including the printing of bank notes. Around the turn of the century the young artist Mario Borgoni started doing graphic work for the company. By the end of the 19th century Richter was printing promotional items for commercial ventures. Some clients were hotels and soon Richter was designing and printing all sorts of paper items for the burgeoning Italian hotel industry including photographic postcards promoting them. The first hotel labels were issued in 1900. By 1906 Mario Borgoni had become Richter’s artistic director and the company was managing the graphic image of hotels all over Italy. Borgoni’s Liberty style as applied by him to hotel labels established a trend that reigned supreme until the advent of the Deco style. It meant success for Richter & Co who were soon selling their design to hotels in most European countries, North Africa and the Middle East, the Far East, and even the Americas. Richter’s work for Egyptian hotels is particularly noteworthy. He produced the card illustrating the directory entries for Giuseppe and Lucia Morgano and Hotel de Napoli (qv).

Ernesto Richter, Rome

  • E. Richter – Roma
  • E. Richter – V. S. Giovanni 85 – Roma.
  • Ernesto Richter, Roma Via Serpenti 170
  • Ernesto Richter, Via Serpenti 170 – Roma.

Ernesto Richter, publisher, Rome. Studio at 85 Via di S. Giovanni and later also produced undivided-backs at 170 Via [dei] Serpenti27. In the 1920s Richter published books of photographs of Rome and its surroundings with explanations in four languages. In the 1930s he published Ricordo di Roma28, a book of photographs by Cesare Capello and Vatican City, a book of 257 Photographs and other illustrations in monochrome and colour. Many of his cards were images of people in traditional costume or topographical. Some of mine are monochrome reproductions of art work in Siena Cathedral. Allan Ceen suggests he may himself have taken some of the photographs he sold.

G. Ricordi & Company, Milan, Italy


G. Ricordi & Company, lithographic works (officine), Milan. Founded in 1808, Casa Ricordi was an Italian publisher primarily of classical music and opera. In the 1870s, the publishing company opened an in-house lithography shop to print materials promoting its opera and sheet music business. the printmaking shop quickly became a leading lithographer in Italy and, by 1895, it started to create posters for outside companies like Campari, the Italian film industry, the Milan newspaper Corriere della Sera, and the Mele Department store of Naples. The poster art in Italy was almost single-handedly developed by Ricordi. Between 1895 and 1914 Adolfo Hohenstein led a group of artists including Aleardo Villa, Marcello Dudovich, Leopoldo Metlicovitz, and Franz Laskoff. They were the fathers of modern Italian poster design and brought world class art nouveau (known as Stile Liberty) to Italy.

Source: The Ross Art Group

M Rieder, Los Angeles, California

  • M Rieder, Los Angeles, California
  • M. Rieder, Publ., Los Angeles, Cal.
  • M. Rieder, Publ., Los Angeles, Cal. and Leipzig.

M Rieder, publisher, Los Angeles, California. On 3 September 1905 the Los Angeles Herald reported that 90% of the postcards sold in South California were by Rieder from his retail, wholesale and mail order business in the cards and view books at 234 New High street. Rieder published numbered series of tinted topographicals of California. He also published Picturesque Southern California, a book that is composed of thirty large coloured views; also his large book of Los Angeles29. The San Francisco earthquake of 1906 was a major earthquake that struck San Francisco and the coast of Northern California. Devastating fires broke out in the city and lasted for several days. As a result of the quake and fires, about 3,000 people died and over 80 percent of San Francisco was destroyed30. Soon after the disaster Rieder published San Francisco, the Doomed City. Earthquake and fire, April 18, 1906, a pre-disaster panorama of the city made up of 22 black-and-white photographic panels extending to 46 x 6 inches. It consists of a series of captioned photographs of San Francisco, especially street scenes and images of buildings destroyed during the earthquake.

The stamp is a mis-perforated offset

John William Righton. Newbury

  • Righton’s Series

John William Righton, photographer at 42 Northbrook Street, Newbury in the 1901 census and Oues, Porchester Road, Newbury in 1911.31 Righton produced an 1895 album of photographs of Highclere Castle in Hampshire. He was the author of the 1900 book Newbury and Neighbourhood. Righton was an active Wesleyan Methodist in Newbury and the Oxford District. In July 1901 Righton attended the Wesleyan Conference held at Newcastle upon Tyne, as a representative from the Synod of Oxford District. Whilst there, he learned that future Conferences would have an official photographer. In 1904, Righton attended the Sheffield Wesleyan Conference and produced some fifty different picture postcards. These featured Wesleyan churches in the city, the recently opened Cliff College, and some Gospel Cars. In 1906, Righton produced a series of 50 bromide informal photographs of personalities attending the Nottingham Wesleyan Conference. A series relating to Methodist Children’s Homes and Orphanages had also been produced by this time32.

Samuel Rimathé

Buenos Aires, Argentina

  • Neg. de S. Rimathé

Samuel Rimathé, Swiss photographer, Buenos Aires, Argentina. On 31 August 1888, 25-year-old Rimathé landed at Buenos Aires from Southampton aboard the English ship the Neva. He declared himself as a photographer in his entry card and had with him his own photographic equipment which he advertised for sale two years later. However, by August 1890 the young Rimathé was installed in his own premises at 151 Libertad Street. In June 1891, Rimathé published a newspaper advertisement soliciting a photographic printer, with the encouragement …useless to appear if you are not competent. Rimathe developed an extremely prolific photographic practice which was commercial and agricultural rather than the more usual portraiture. He also travelled across the country in search of scenery and people to photograph33. Rimathé’s contribution to Argentine visual history is indisputable, noted for his ability to observe and the quality of its work, both in their technical aspects and their compositions34. Manuel Casanova (qv) chose a photograph of Rimathe’s for the first postcard he published.

P T Rinaldi, Lima, Peru

  • Imprenta Rinaldi-Lima, Peru

P T Rinaldi, printer, Lima, Peru. In 1879 P T Rinaldi produced the lithographs for Fuentes’ work War with Chile. In 1909 the business of Rinaldi Hermanos35 was established and by 1918 it had 12 employees36.

James Ring

Greymouth, South Island, New Zealand

  • Ring, Photo

James Ring (6 April 1856 to 19 July 1939). Although born in Camberwell, then in Surrey, England, Ring started work in America with the firm of Allen and Rowell, a prominent and technically-adventurous Boston portrait studio, which specialised in the 1870s in the permanent, beautiful, but ultimately unprofitable carbon print.

Ring sailed for New Zealand on the Pleione on 1 April 1879, arriving on 16 July at Wellington, where he set up a studio. However, his constitution proved incompatible with Wellington’s climate; A laconic note on the final page of his entertaining shipboard diary states that he arrived in Greymouth a town on the west coast of New Zealand’s South Island on 2 November that year, attended church on the 3rd and took Sunday school the same evening. He was to be associated with St John’s Presbyterian Church in Greymouth for over 50 years.

In Greymouth he re-established himself as a photographer. Although his fortunes would rest on portrait commissions, Ring was alert to the many opportunities that the West Coast afforded the enterprising photographer. In the new colony, photography created and satisfied a demand for images of the unfamiliar and spectacular, and for evidence of colonial industry and success. Ring built up an extensive catalogue of outdoor photographs. The spectacular West Coast scenery, the gold industry and the frontier settlements were all captured by his camera. From his studio on Mawhera Quay he was able to record the frequent shipwrecks and floods that were to mark Greymouth’s history. In January 1906 he accompanied Richard Seddon, New Zealand’s longest serving premier, on his last tour of the West Coast. On 26 January 1906, shortly after the west coast visit had finished, Seddon received a death threat in a postcard. He died of a heart attack some months later.

Ring’s business acumen equalled his output. He advertised extensively, claiming to have ‘1,000 photographs alone of West Coast scenes’, and offering, in 1890, to send ‘A series of 52 views, post free, to all parts of the World, for £2 12s.’ His images were marketed as individual prints or bound into ready-made albums, and in both formats are found in collections throughout New Zealand and elsewhere. At the height of his success he employed eight assistants and maintained portrait studios in Greymouth, Hokitika and Reefton.

Ring’s business continued to flourish after the turn of the century. After a studio fire, in which a number of his negatives were lost, he amalgamated in 1924 with L. A. Inkster, the business continuing as Ring and Inkster until his retirement in 1929. Ring had married Kate Maria Vinsen, a milliner, at Greymouth on 17 April 1882. They had six children, one of whom, Claude, followed his father into photography. James Ring died at Greymouth survived by his wife and four children. The body of work Ring compiled over 50 years was instrumental in defining the beauty and power of the West Coast.

Sources: Dictionary of New Zealand Biography; Vivienne Morrell

This card: Lake Kaniere is a glacial lake located on the West Coast of New Zealand’s South Island, nearly 200 m deep and surrounded on three sides by mountains and mature rimu forest. It is regarded by many as the most beautiful of the West Coast lakes, and is a popular tourist and leisure destination. Wikipedia

Hokitika is a town in the West Coast region of New Zealand’s South Island, 40 kilometres south of Greymouth, and close to the mouth of the Hokitika River. It is the seat and largest town in the Westland District.

William Ritchie & Sons Limited, Edinburgh

  • RELIABLE WR & S [in shield] SERIES
  • WR & S [in shield]
  • WR & S EDINBORO “REAL WR & S [in shield] PHOTO”

William Ritchie & Sons Limited37. When he was 19, William Ritchie (1824 to 3 September 1900) opened his bookshop The Edinburgh Bible Warehouse in St Andrew’s Square. Later his business centred on a warehouse at 16 Elder Street that had such a wide range of stock that he was known as Wullie A’thing. In 1857 he became a member of the Photographic Society of Scotland. In 1865 he became a member of the Edinburgh Photographic Society38 which had been formed in 1861 as a result of dissatisfaction with the Scottish club39. The business was carried on by his sons after his death and they had certainly entered the card market by July 1901 when my card of Holyrood Palace, Edinburgh was posted. The company was an affiliate of the American News Company (qv) during the first two decades of the twentieth century. They published artist-signed postcards of watercolors in their Waterette series that the American News Company printed using tricolor printing40.

A guide to identifying their undivided-backs is here

Ritter & Klöden

Nürnberg, Bavaria, Germany


Ritter & Klöden, chromolithographic art institute, Nürnberg produced a lot of stylish advertising materials over a good number of years; As early as 1890 they produced an advertisement for a bottled water supplier 75 km south west of Budapest. They published a twenty page brochure for the1896 Nuremberg Bavarian State Exhibition. R & K produced the official festival postcard for the Eighth Bavarian Song Festival in Passau on 16 to 18 July 1898, an official pictorial card with a pre-printed stamp. In 1911 they published A Walk Through The Mayfarth Cider Processing Plant by Ph Mayfarth. In 1913 they produced a poster advertising the Rothenburg Horse Market. During WWI they published posters for the Bavarian Old Collection Society encouraging recycling.

In 1924 Richard Hecht acquired the Ritter & Klöden and a little later the Stollenwerk & Spier lithography institute, both in the Gostenhof district. He continued the business’s success in the production of advertising posters for well-known brands and employed more than 200 people. However, he and his wife suffered the common fate of well-to-do Jewish entrepreneurs under National Socialism and were threatened, boycotted and effectively expropriated. In 1941 they emigrated to New York via Lisbon.

This card: Watercolours of Germany by the artist Bilse featured in a series of cards published by Novitas Hamburg and printed by R & K, sometimes with the artist’s name and more often with just a monogram of initials.

Robbins Brothers

Boston, Massachusets, USA

  • Robbins Bros., Publishers, Boston, Mass., and Germany

Robbins Brothers, publishers, Boston a publisher of Easter cards and New England topographicals in tinted halftone. They distributed many of their cards through the Metropolitan News Company (qv)41. Their cards were printed in Germany.

Georg Röbcke, Freiburg, Germany

  • G. Röbcke, Kunstverlag, Freiburg i. B

Karl Louis Georg Röbcke (7 August 1863 to 27 February 1941) was a German photographer. In 1885 Röbcke came to Freiburg, where he initially worked as assistant to photographer Christof Clare. At the start of 1896, he took over the business which became Photographic Art and Publishing Georg Röbcke. Röbcke also worked as a documentary photographer for the city of Freiburg and for the municipal collections in Freiburg. His numerous pictures of the city are in the Freiburg archives and were of great use after the destruction of WWII. His son Hermann, who had been working in his father’s business since 1926, continued to run the business until 195942.

Fortuné Robaudy, Nice, France

  • F.R. Cannes
  • Robaudy, Edit. Cannes

Fortuné43 Robaudy was born on 27 March 1841 in Nice, the son of a locksmith. He first worked in the Visconti bookshop in Nice. He established his own book and stationery shop in February 1865. In January 1874, he acquired the lithographic company Moreau and bought two new lithographic presses a few months later44. In 1884 Robaudy founded Le Littoral, a daily political, literary and world Journal of Cannes and the Grasse area45. He published Cote d’Azur & Littoral46 an album of 64 views with scenic black and white photos of popular travel spots in France with captions in French, English and German. In 1909 he published a History of Cannes by Henri-Charles Thierry de Ville d’Avray47.

This card: The Île Saint-Honorat is the second largest of the Lérins Islands, about a mile off shore from the French Riviera town Cannes. The island is approximately 1.5 kilometres in length (East to West) and 400 meters wide. Since the fifth century, the island has been home to a community of monks.

Rees C. Roberts, Ambler, Pa, USA

  • Published by Rees C. Roberts, Apothecary, Ambler, Pa.
Trinity Memorial Church, Ambler, Pa

At the north east corner of Butler Avenue and Main Street, the Rees C. Roberts apothecary was a familiar landmark in Ambler from 1894 to 1921 when it was replaced by Brenneman and Brady’s Drug Store.

The Pharmaceutical Era journal of 17 February 1887 reported that American Druggist Syndicate members, numbering at least 500 met in convention the first four days of the week of January 22d in the new A.D.S. building in Long Island City, N. Y. “The Future of A.D.S.” by Rees C. Roberts of Ambler, Penn., was a paper advocating stronger co-operation. “Mr. Roberts is a firm believer in the co-operation or association system of buying and pointed out how the druggist member of A.D.S. could gain both ways by steady and persistent patronizing of the company.”

On 9 April 1914 the Ambler Gazette reported that “Rees C. Roberts and J. E. Underwood, of Ambler, have been named by the Washington party as two of the conferees from Montgomery county to meet the Bucks county conferees to recommend a candidate for the congressional nomination. These two Ambler men were also appointed on a committee from the Third legislative district to wait upon Franklin W. Moyer, of Souderton, with a view of inducing him to be a candidate for the legislature from this district. The committee visited Mr. Moyer Friday evening and secured his assent to be a candidate for the offlce.”

“FAGGED-OUT: WOMEN Will Find Help in This Letter, Overworked, ran down, “fagged out” women who feel as though they could hardly drag about, should profit by Mrs. Brill’s experience. She says: “I was in a very ‘weak, run-down condition. Life was not worth living. I could not sleep, was very nervous, stomach bad, and was not able to work. “I consulted with one or two physicians, without benefit. I read of Vinol helping some one In a similar condition so I began to take it, and it simply did wonders for me. I gained in weight and I am now in better health and stronger than ever. I can not find words enough to praise Vinol.”—Mrs. W. H. Brill, Racine, Wis. Thousands of women and men who were formerly weak and sickly owe their present rugged health to the wonderful strength-creating effects of Vinol. We guarantee Vinol to build you up and make you strong. If it does not we give back your money. P. S.—For rough, scaly skin, try our Saxo Salve. We guarantee it, Rees C. Roberts, Ambler, Pa

Ambler Gazette, 9 April 1914

The same edition of the local paper announced an opening at Roberts’ drug store for a young man at least 16 years of age to learn the drug business and:

The daintiest Easter novelty this year Is a miniature Easter bonnet in a conventional hat box. These are on sale at Roberts’ drug store and cost 25c. Following his annual custom, Rees C. Roberts, apothecary, will give a five cent chocolate Easter egg to each of the first 200 customers on Saturday next.

Roberts (born 27 November 1870) was a member, and may have been Chairman, of the first Troop Committee when the first Ambler Boy Scout Troop was chartered on 17 May 1915.

Roberts was a delegate to the Progressive Convention at Chicago, Illinois, in 1916. When the movement started to form a Theodore Roosevelt Division for service in the World War he promptly volunteered, and when the idea had to be abandoned, he was commissioned a first lieutenant by the Governor and recruited and organised a platoon of infantry at Ambler which combined with the Norristown platoon to form Company I, First Infantry, Pennsylvania Reserve Militia. Roberts also served as special enrolling agent of the Recruiting Service, United States Shipping Board, during the war. He was treasurer of the Ambler Branch, American Red Cross. He was affiliated with Lodge No. 308, Free and Accepted Masons, and a Shriner, and a communicant and trustee of the First Presbyterian Church of Ambler.

In January 1919 Roberts paid a graceful tribute to tha memory of the late Theodore Roosevelt. The Butler avenue window of the pharmacy was gracefully draped with an American flag, a very striking photograph of the deceased ex-presldent placed in the ceatre. and over the corner of the frame was placed a wreath of green.

New tooth pastes come and go but Peredixo tooth paste continues to be the best whitener that is made. Harmless to the smallest child. 25 cents at Roberts’ drug store

Ambler Gazette, 16 January 1919

Th. W. Roitham, Austria

  • Verlag; Th. W. Roitham.

Th. W. Roitham published this card of Traunfall im Salzkammergut. The Salzkammergut is a resort area stretching from the city of Salzburg eastwards along the Alpine Foreland and the Northern Limestone Alps to the peaks of the Dachstein Mountains. The main river of the region is the Traun, a tributary of the Danube.

Romans Photographic Company

Puget Sound, Washington, USA

  • Romans

William P Romans (died 13 July 1954 aged 84) photographer. Born in Columbus, Ohio, Romans went to California as a young man and fought in the Spanish-American War of 1898 as a sergeant in the Signals Corp. On demobilisation, he set up as a professional photographer.

Asahel Curtis (1874 to 1941) was born in Minnesota and moved to the Puget Sound area of Washington State in 1888. His older brother, Edward S. Curtis, opened a photo studio in Seattle in 1892, and Asahel began working there in 1895. He went to the Klondike in 1897 to take photographs for the studio. Differences over credit for this work later led to a break with his brother. By 1901 Asahel Curtis had joined with Romans to form the Curtis & Romans studio. After a brief period in San Francisco and Tacoma, working sometimes as a photoengraver, Curtis returned to Seattle as a newspaper photographer. From about 1907 to 1911, he worked for Romans Photographic Company, becoming president and manager. A partnership with Walter Miller as Curtis & Miller lasted for several years before Curtis returned to the Romans Photographic Company.

After the disastrous fire of 1889, Seattle’s tallest building and first steel-framed skyscraper was constructed. The Alaska Building, built in 1903 to 1904 at the southeast corner of 2nd Avenue and Cherry Street, rose fourteen stories high. Romans took photographs of the progress of the construction between May and September 1904.

Seattle Mail and Herald of 17 December 1904 alone included Romans photographs of A Siwash Home, a battleship launch, probably the Battleship Nebraska which was launched on 7 October 1904, and a canoe on Cedar Lake. In 1907 the company copyrighted In the heart of the Olympics, a 9 plate panorama gelatin silver photographic print 6 x 62 inches of the Olympic mountain range in Washington State.

A postcard published by H.H. Stratton of Chattanooga, Tennessee shows Romans’ photograph of the Great White Fleet’s sailors parading in Seattle on 26 May 1908. The Great White Fleet was the popular nickname for the group of United States Navy battleships which completed a journey around the globe from 16 December 1907 to 22 February 1909 by order of President Theodore Roosevelt. Its mission was to make friendly courtesy visits to numerous countries while displaying new U.S. naval power to the world. The second leg of the voyage was from San Francisco to Puget Sound and back. On 23 May 1908 the 16 battleships of the Great White Fleet steamed into the Puget Sound where they separated to visit six Washington state ports including Seattle.

On 19 October 1908 Romans wrote to Curtis from a photographic expedition in North Yakima recording delays caused by rain but reporting that he had selected a spot in Sunnyside for a tower to be built in order to take a panoramic photograph of the area. Romans also said: Wednesday I hope to get my last orchard views, had that set for today but orchard was so wet they could not put the pickers to work and we need a crowd of them for these views.

In 1920 Romans sold up and moved to E1124 Nora, Yakima. His company became the Asahel Curtis Photo Co., under which name it operated until Curtis’ death. Romans was a life member of Goodale Masonic Lodge 372 of Columbus and a member of York Rite Masons, Chapter 21 at Yakima.

Sources: Asahel Curtis Photo Company Photographs University of Washington Libraries; Great White Fleet wikipedia;

This Card: Puget Sound is a sound of the Pacific Northwest, an inlet of the Pacific Ocean, and part of the Salish Sea. It is located along the north-western coast of the state of Washington.

Arturo was a brand of the Eastman Kodak Company‘s silver chloride photo paper with a pre-printed postcard back. Source: Dumbarton Oaks

Martin Rommel and Company

Stuttgart, Germany

Farbenlichtdruck48 v. Martin Rommel & Co., Hofkunstanstalt49, Stuttgart

The Martin Rommel & Co. Hofkunstanstalt50 was established in 1870, a printing works with twenty-two employees and six steam presses, turning out collotype prints in one or more colours, principally for German and Austrian publishers. They also exported to England and Belgium.”51. As well as postcards, the company published books of collotypes of artwork.

Rommler & Jonas

Dresden, Germany

  • Römmler & Jonas, Dresden
  • R. & J. D.
  • Dr. von R. & J. in D. Verlag A. Lax, Hildesheim
Vierwaldstatter, Lake Lucerne, a lake in central Switzerland and the fourth largest in the country.

The Römmler & Jonas Kunstdruckanstalt52 was established in 1871 to make cabinet cards by the photographer Emil Römmler and the bookkeeper Leopold Erasmus Jonas. The company occupied different addresses in Dresden and employed numerous photographers, who took pictures of many other cities in Europe and beyond from which they produced collotypes and postcards53.

The Royal Saxon Court Photographers, Römmler & Jonas (Emil Römmler), possess twenty collotype steam presses, and are perhaps the largest house in this particular branch. The staff varies from 80 to 110, according to the season. The branch chiefly cultivated is monochrome collotype, varied adaptabilities of the process being continually forthcoming. The firm also publishes several thousand views.

The British Lithographer Volume IV No. 19 October-November 1894

Romo y Füssel, Madrid

  • Romo y Fussel, Libreria.-Madrid. -FOT H. Y M.-M

Romo y Fussel, international bookshop, Calle de Espoz y Mina and 5 Calle de Alcalá, Madrid. Arno Füssel was Swiss, and Adrián Romo, French. The shop sold literary and scientific works in Spanish and foreign languages.

The store sold official cards and undivided-backs. Their early pictorial cards were commissioned from Hauser and Menet who started their General Series in 1897. The bookstore commissioned cards of nineteen towns, standard H&M postcards with the bookstore mark like this one. Later, in the 20th century, the bookstore was the publisher of at least four postcards by Cánovas del Castillo.

The bookstore kept the Romo y Füssel name between 1891 and 1904, when it was continued by Romo who published books. After his death, his sons Luis and Enrique followed with the International Bookshop name. Fussel went into partnership with Metze.

Sources: The Toledo business of Romo and Füssel J. Monroy; LA IMPLANTACIÓN DE LA LIBERÍA ALEMANA EN ESPAÑA E HISPANOMÉRICA DE 1850 A 1900 Álvaro Ceballos Viro • Göttingen

This card: Diego Rodríguez de Silva y Velázquez (c. 6 June 1599 to 6 August 1660) was a Spanish painter, the leading artist in the court of King Philip IV and of the Spanish Golden Age. Velázquez’s paintings of Aesop and Menippus (both c. 1636 to 1638) portray ancient writers in the guise of portraits of beggars.

Röpke & Woortman

Hamburg, Germany


Röpke & Woortman, art-publishing house, 4 Dornbusch, Hamburg.

In 1897 the firm acted as agents for Rosenblatt of Frankfurt on Main in the publication of commemorative picture-cards for the Hamburg General Horticultural Exhibition that year. In 1898 they published a card of the State banquet held in Kiel on 24 March to commemorate the Schleswig-Holstein uprising in 1848. Both Schleswig and Holstein had been ruled through institutions separate from the rest of the Danish Kingdom. On 27 March 1848, Frederick VII of Denmark announced to the people of Schleswig the promulgation of a liberal constitution under which the duchy, while preserving its local autonomy, would become an integral part of Denmark. This led to an open uprising by Schleswig-Holstein’s large German majority in support of independence from Denmark and of close association with the German Confederation. The military intervention of the Kingdom of Prussia supported the uprising: the Prussian army drove Denmark’s troops from Schleswig and Holstein, beginning the First Schleswig War (1848–51), which ended in a Danish victory at Idstedt; with the London Protocol the international community agreed on the Duchies’ status.

The firm published local topographicals including hold-to-lights into the divided-back era. In 1901 they published an anti-semitic cartoon Greetings from the Jewish Stock Exchange, a reference to a street market in Hamburg.

Robert Rosauer

Buenos Aires, Argentina.

  • Editor R. Rosauer, Rivadavia 571, Bs Aires.
  • Editor R. Rosauer, Rivadavia 522. Neg. S.F.A. de Afdos.

Robert (Roberto) Rosauer, (died 1940) 571 Rivadavia, Buenos Aires. Austrian Rosauer emigrated to Buenos Aires, in the late nineteenth century and founded the publishing house Casa Editora de R. Rosauer55 at calle Rivadavia. Almost all early South American postcard publishers were European immigrants. In Buenos Aires the main editors were Rosauer and the German Peuser and the Italian Fumagalli56. Rosauer published books and, from 1901, real photographic view postcards of Argentina which were printed in Germany by Alphons Adolph, the royal Bavarian court photographer in Passau. Researchers working in Argentina brought their photographs of gauchos, Indians, and landscapes to Rosauer, who sold the resultant postcards to help fund their expeditions. Photojournalist Harry Grant Olds (qv) provided images for Roberto Rosauer57. In 1902, the company advertised 100 different postcards with views of Argentina at $1 to $5 a dozen. Rosauer provided most of the illustrations for The Argentine Republic Its Physical Features, History, Fauna, Flora, Geology, Literature & Commerce by A. Stuart Pennington58. Rosauer was also a philatelist and owned a shop, Casa Filatélica, at 522 calle Rivadavia59. In April 1930 Chile Filatelico offered his stock of stamps for sale.

The Rose Company

Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States


The Rose Company of Philadelphia manufactured and distributed postcards early in the 20th century. Their range of subjects included historical, holidays, actresses, patriotic and comic, the last often marking the right of women to propose in leap years. In 1906-07 Rose produced Histrionic Series, two beautiful 3-image sets, one of opera personalities and one of actors. They are made of quality heavy stock with gold edges. The opera cards can be distinguished from the actor cards by the inclusion of a bar of music in the centre of the card. Both sets have facsimile signatures. These cards are difficult to find and command a high price.

In midsummer of 1908 Rose started to produce an ornate format that featured a Carl Horner portrait photo of major league baseball player postcards. It appears that this series of postcards ended in the Autumn 1909 and the short period of availability is a significant factor in the scarcity of these postcards.

In early 1909, no doubt based on the popularity of these postcards, Rose created an ingenious method of marketing this baseball format without a picture printed on it as a do-it-yourself baseball postcard. Prior to printing, the picture area of the card is punched out to a diameter 1/8-inch less than the inside diameter and concentric with the gold wreath. This creates a round opening in the card with what will appear as a white ring inside the wreath after the printing and embossing processes are complete. Next, a thin postcard size overlay leaf printed with the Rose address format on the back is attached to the top of the back of the card. This allows the user to flip the leaf up to paste a picture on the card where it would be seen through the punched out hole; finally the leaf is sealed to the card to complete the homemade baseball postcard. Rose baseball theme format postcards were thus modified to allow anyone to make-your-own baseball postcards.

In 1907 to 1909, Rose placed advertisements in magazines for their vast postcard line advising interested parties to buy from wholesalers (jobbers). Jobbers handled the distribution of these postcards by supplying retailers nationwide. One of them, the Tower Manufacturing and Novelty Company of New York, advertised Rose Company baseball player postcards in The American Stationer of 15 August 1908 in the name of JB Fisher, manager of their postcard department without reference to Rose.

In 1909 the Rose company gave evidence to Tariff Hearings before the United States Congress Committee on Ways and Means in support of increased tariffs on European postcard imports.

According to the US Corporates website Rose Company is a Fictitious Names from Philadelphia. The company status is Active. Rose Company has Pennsylvania company registration number 2442000 . It was created on 9th April 1921. In 1929 Harry M Rose as assignor to the company patented an easel.

Source: sports collectors digest

Not to be confused with: the Rose Group founded by Harry Rose in 1985 with the purchase of five Roy Roger’s restaurants from Marriott Corporation.

Paul Rose

Gartz on the Oder, Germany.

  • Photogr. u Verl60. Paul Rose, Photograph, Gartz a O.

Paul Rose, Photographer, Gartz on the Oder, published monochrome view-cards of Gartz and divided-back cards into the 1930s. Gartz is a town in the Uckermark district of Brandenburg, Germany. It is located on the West bank of the Oder River, about 20 km south of Szczecin (Stettin).

Adolf A Rosenblatt Frankfurt a/M.

  • Verlag & Druck Kunst Anstalt Rosenblatt Frankfurt a/M.
  • SCHUTZMARKE logo of woman reclining on couch shaped like a lion

Adolf A. Rosenblatt, printer, 18 Rossdorfer Straße, Frankfurt started business at the start of August 1878 and was joined in July 1881 by Isaak Rosenblatt. They specialized in the production of picture postcards and greeting cards by chromolithography. In July 1896 they produced viewcards of Frankfurt in co-operation with the Sali Wolff. Rosenblatt is best known for their wide range of (often embossed) border/passepartout cards, mostly leaves, fruit or shells with different local views inserted. While others had their chromolitho borders preprinted and then added the individual views by collotype or halftone printing processes, Rosenblatt did the complete picture side by chromolitho process only. By 1903 the domestic Germany market was resistant to the premium that such quality required and the firm turned to the US where Samuel Langsdorff of New York City became a major customer for whom a striking alligator border series was designed. Rosenblatt closed down by early 1909 as a result of US protective tariffs.

Rosenblatt was listed as a full member in the Report on the activities of the Frankfurt Samaritan Association for the 1908 financial year. The Association provided first aid and ambulance services.

interesting logo

Lorenzo Rosso, Buenos Aires

Lorenzo José Rosso (8 February 1871 to 10 July 1936) printer and publisher, 463 Belgrano Street, Buenos Aires. Rosso began work as a graphic artist in 1893. Four years later, he moved to a larger workshop and named his company Argentine Graphic Workshops by L. J. Rosso. In 1906 he started using the first three linotype machines in Argentina. Linotypes mechanise the process of composing a text to be printed. In 1911 he brought in the double press, with which he start printing newspapers and magazines. Rosso won awards in exhibitions in France, Turin, and San Francisco.

The architectural magnitude of Rosso’s building in the Caballito area, is testimony to his vast publishing house. In 1928 he founded the monthly publication the iconic bibliographic magazine La Literatura Argentina. In 1930 he was also publishing La Cultura Popular, Editorial América Unida, Editorial Latina, Magazine of Philosophy, Complete Works of Engineers and Martín Coronado, the official edition of the Penal Code and the General Bibliography of Argentina. He didn’t publish La Literatura Argentina to make money and it stopped within a year of his death .

  • taller grafico – graphic workshop


W Rössler

Kolkata, West Bengal, India

  • Made in Austria for W. Rössler, No. 30 Creek Row, Calcutta
  • Made in Austria for W. RÖSSLER, CALCUTTA

Austrian publisher and photographer Rossler, 30 Creek Row, Calcutta. Possibly as early as 1897 Rossler published a Greetings from India composite lithograph card. He published black and white photocards of Calcutta in court and standard size cards. The Creek Row address was on court cards.

Source: Paper Jewels

This addressee: Mid Kinmouth is a farm in Aberdeenshire. Mid Kinmouth is situated near to Drumlithie, where Miss Low collected her mail from the post office. This is a village in the Howe of the Mearns in southern Aberdeenshire, Scotland, situated seven miles south of Stonehaven in the parish of Glenbervie. Drumlithie is noted for its appearance in the classic Lewis Grassic Gibbon novel Sunset Song. For reasons that are not clear, this former weaving village is informally known by locals as “Skite”. Source: wikipedia: Drumlithie

Rotary Photographic Company Limited

London, E.C.

  • Rotary Photo Co. Ltd, E.C.

Some NPG (qv) machines installed at the British daughter company Rotary Photographic Company Limited were in use for over 60 years64. In June 1901, Rotary were the first British company to produce platino bromide postcards. The earliest postmark on one of their cards is dated 24 October 190165.

This company published half-size divided-back Midget Post Cards, mostly featuring female stars. Their Rotary Photographic Series Book Post Giant Card is 10.6 by 5.5 inches.

This card: Arthur Roberts (21 September 1852 to 27 February 1933) was an English comedian, music hall entertainer and actor. He was famous for portraying the pantomime dames and, later, for his comic characters and “gagging” in farces, burlesques and musical comedies. He is credited with coining the word spoof, presumably in its meaning as a humorous imitation of something in which its characteristic features are exaggerated for comic effect. The sender of this card describes him as the funniest actor I have ever seen. He makes people howl with laughter.

The Rotograph Company, New York.

  • The Rotograph Co., N.Y., City.
  • The Rotograph Co., N.Y. City. (Germany) and sun logo with SOL ART PRINTS round THE R CO
  • The Rotograph Co., New York City (Germany) and logo SOL ART PRINTS TRADE MARK with the initial S over a stylised sun
  • Copyright 1905 by the Rotograph Co.

The Rotograph Company manufactured postal view cards of American scenes from around 1904 to 1911. It was formed from the merger of the National Art Views Company (active 1902 to 1904), based in New York City, with the American branch of the Neue Photographische Gesellschaft (qv), founded in 1894, which apparently was the corporate parent. Arthur Schwartz, NPG’s president, directed overall operations from Berlin; the vice-president, Ludwig Knackstedt, supervised its factory in Hamburg; and the former proprietor of the National Art Views Company, Frederick Schang, became the general manager of Rotograph’s American operations.
According to a contemporary account in The American Stationer, in 1905 or very early 1906, Rotograph consolidated several offices and warehouses at 771 East 164th Street, 395 Broadway, and 3621 Third Avenue into a new facility in the Mercantile Building at 684 Broadway. In 1906 Rotograph published a series of photocards of the San Francisco earthquake by the SF Ruins Publishing Company

Chris’s Rotograph Project66 is dedicated to their cards. He cites an advertisement that they could have cards printed in Germany at the cost of nine dollars a thousand if at least 3,000 of any subject were ordered: We require good sharp photographs. the ad announced. It is very necessary when ordering colored cards to give the color scheme. The company promised delivery in three to five months.

In March 1911 the Bookseller, Newsdealer and Stationer reported: The Rotograph Co., well and favorably known to every dealer as makers of “Post Cards of Quality,” have recently been absorbed by the Illustrated Postal Card & Novelty Co., 520-524 West Forty-eighth street, New York, whose plant is now said to be the largest one in the United States devoted exclusively to the manufacture of postcards. The company’s archives were said to house more than two million photographic images, only a small percentage of which were ever printed as postcards. Some of their topographicals bore to be Handcolored. Their “ROTOGRAPH” SERIES of stage beauties included photographs of the prominent New York photographer B J Falk.

Rotophot, Berlin

  • RPH [monogram]
  • RPH [monogram in circle]

One of NPG’s two biggest competitors were the local Rotophot-Gesellschaft für photographische Industrie67 – Rotophot, Berlin.
The company was founded by Hans Kraemer on 8 January 1900 with the purpose of mass production of photographic reproductions. Kraemer, born in 1870 in Mannheim, came from a family of industrialists. He studied natural sciences, philosophy, history and cultural history in Berlin and Heidelberg. Kraemer produced silver bromide post cards in large numbers. The period around 1900 was a golden era for the publication of postcards of high technical quality. Rotophot cards of celebrities from many fields and daring erotic images were hugely popular. Parallel to the NPG, Rotophot expanded internationally. In 1902 Rotophot reached an arrangement whereby the photographs of British artists produced by Rotophot in Berlin, went through Giesen Bros & Company (qv) to the UK68. has a good guide to the various series issued and the different versions of their logo.

Jules Royer & Company

Nancy, France

  • Royer et Cie.,Imp., Nancy

Jules Royer and company, printer and manufacturer, Nancy. In 1868 Royer took over Vicaire’s lithography business and the end of the 19th century, was employing 250 people. They produced millions of cards-views of the French regions69. Another leading card producer, Albert Bergeret, had a job with Royer at one stage. Although it is said70 that Bergeret began on his own because Royer wasn’t interested in postcards, Royer published many undivided-backs including early aerial ones of the local brewery taken from an airship71. On 21 May 1899 Royer was authorized to demolish and build his existing factory in rue de la Salpêtrière, Nancy. The replacement by the architect Lucien Weissenburger was the first industrial building to adopt an Art Nouveau naturalistic decoration in key areas72. Royer’s catalogue, dating from around 1910, described the company as also at Gerardmer and featured embroidery figures and coats of arms for sheets, pillowcases, table linens and handkerchiefs73.

Rubelin, Izmir, Turkey

  • cliché74 RUBELIN

Rubelin, father and son, photographers, Rue Franque, Passage Psaro-Khan, Smyrne. Their cards were published by Laroche-Joubert & Cie (qv) Angoulême.

Max H. Rudmann, Cairo.

  • Au Carto-Sport, M. Rudmann & Fils, Le Caire
  • Au Carto-Sport, Max H. Rudmann, Le Caire.

Romanian75 Max Rudmann published postcards under the Carto-Sport branding in Cairo from at least 1905 continuing into the divided-back era. Pre-1906 cards have this imprint. They were followed by many cards with Cartosport in one word. A third version, found on cards with divided backs, reads Papeterie & Imprimerie Au Cartosport Max H. Rudmann, Cairo76. After Harari left Cairo in 1912, Rudmann bought the firm of Lichtenstern & Harari (qv).

This card of the pyramids was posted in Odessa in Russia to Miss Graham in County Durham in England for her post card collection.

Conrad Ruf

Freiburg im Breisgau, Baden-Württemberg, Germany

  • Original von C. Ruf, Hofphotograph, Freiburg i/B. C. Andelfinger & Cie, Kunstanstalt, Munchen

Conrad Ruf ( 27 August 1840 to 1922) was a photographer in Freiburg im Breisgau. Between 1871 and 1884 he ran his studio with the painter Alexander Dilger (1826 to 1906) under the name “Ruf & Dilger”. They were awarded the title Court Photographer (Hofphotograph) by the Grand Duke of Baden in 1881. From 1874 they were at 2 Ludwigstrasse, an address Ruf maintained beyond 1908 after the collaboration with Dilger ended. Around 1899 he began to use additional studio space at 5 Kaiserstraße (today Habsburgerstraße), where he had been living for a few years in a house built in 1886 by Friedrich Ploch.

Source: wikipedia


Chatillon-Coligny, Loiret, France

  • Ruet-Bourdet, imp. -lib. -edit., Chatillon-Coligny
  • Ruet-Bourdet, imp., Chatillon-Coligny – Cliche Sichler

Ruet-Bourdet, printer, publisher and bookshop of Chatillon-Coligny. Also known as Chatillon-sur-Loing, Chatillon-Coligny is a commune named after the last family to hold the Lordship.‎

Ruet-Bourdet published local topographical photocards. In 1908 Ruet-Bourdet published 2nd edition of advocate Eugène Tonnellier’s ‎ Historical Notes on Chatillon-sur-Loing (Loiret), its Lordship and its ancient religious institutions. The author was a member of the Historical and Archaeological Society of Gâtinais and former Mayor of Châtillon sur Loing.

This Card: Nogent-sur-Vernisson is a nearby commune in the Loiret department in north-central France about 140 km south of Paris. Pope Pius VII celebrated Mass while on his way to the coronation of Napoleon Bonaparte in 1804 in the town’s 12th-century Church of St Martin. The construction of the Castle du Buisson began in the second quarter of the 19th century. The main building was on two levels, joined in the second half of the century by the steeple. At the beginning of the 20th century, major expansion works were carried out and in 1940, the bell tower was destroyed. Source: Chateau du Buisson

Rumford Press, Concord, N.H.

Geo. C. Tilyou’s Beautiful Steeplechase Park, Coney Island, N.Y.

Concord  is the capital city of the U.S. state of New Hampshire and the seat of Merrimack County. The area that would become Concord was originally settled thousands of years ago by Abenaki Native Americans called the Pennacook. The area was first settled by Europeans in 1659 as Penacook, after the Abenaki word “pannukog” meaning “bend in the river,” referencing the steep bends of the Merrimack River through the area. On 9 February 1734, the town was incorporated as “Rumford”. It was renamed “Concord” in 1765 by Governor Benning Wentworth after a bitter boundary dispute between Rumford and the town of Bow; the city name was meant to reflect the new concord, or harmony, between the disputant towns. Citizens displaced by the resulting border adjustment were given land elsewhere as compensation.

The Rumford Press was founded in 1897 and expanded its facilities over the decades. By 1916 it had two buildings, a large mill-type building opposite the Concord Station of the Boston and Maine Railroad and a factory building in the town centre with a total of 150 employees. As well as books, the company printed fifty periodicals from all over the north east US.

On 21 September 1983 workers were told the company was shutting down, doomed by lagging business, a national economic downturn and other issues.

This card: Steeplechase Park was a 15-acre (6.1 ha) amusement park in Coney Island, Brooklyn, New York City. Steeplechase Park was created by entrepreneur George C. Tilyou (1862 to 1914) in 1897 and operated until 1964. It was the first of the three large amusement parks built on Coney Island, the other two being Luna Park (1903) and Dreamland (1904). Of the three, Steeplechase was the longest-lasting, running for 67 years.

All Tilyou’s amusements were clean and family-oriented because he was opposed to the rowdy elements that frequently went to Coney Island. He became a political reformer and, in 1893, helped to overthrow John Y. McKane, the infamous political boss who allowed Coney Island to become a corrupt haven for the type of crowd Tilyou disliked. Tilyou is said to have been the inventor of the hot dog.

Source: wikipedia: Steeplechase Park;

Russell Brothers

Superior, Wisconsin, USA.


Russell Brothers published monochrome and tinted topographical cards of Superior, Wisconsin produced for them by the owners of the logo on the reverse.

Not to be confused either with the circus or farm businesses or the photographers in Anniston, Alabama who published Special Southern Views.

This card; The Trade and Commerce Building at 916 Hammond Avenue, a Romanesque style, five-storey sandstone structure built in 1890 by Henry Minot, director of the Eastern Railway Co. of Minnesota, an affiliate of the Great Northern Railway Line. The walls are three feet thick at the base. It was designed by Clarence Johnston, a prominent St. Paul architect. It was built to house offices for the grain industry, but never did after Minot’s death shortly after construction. For the next few years, the building housed various offices, the court and the public library, but was never fully occupied. In 1904, the city of Superior bought the structure for use as city hall, paying only about half of the $115,000 it cost to construct. Source: Superior Telegram Maria Lockwood | Jul 24th 2020

John R Russell, Edinburgh

  • J.R.R.,E.
Bruce & Wallace statues Edinburgh Castle

John Ramsay Russell, (1849 to 6 April 1932) wholesale stationer and photographer, Edinburgh. Russell is listed in the Edinburgh & Leith Post Office Directory as a wholesale stationer at 25 North Bridge from 1901-02 until at least 191277, an address they shared with many other businesses including the Auditor of the Court of Session. I have postcards used in April & July 1903. Russell published a series of postcards of clergymen78 and view-cards of Edinburgh and the Highlands. His cards seem to have been produced by ETW Dennis (qv).

This card: Hordes of tourists pour through the gates at Edinburgh Castle every day. Most gaze ahead, their eyes fixed on the massive fortress looming before them as the stream of pedestrian traffic pushes forward. As they arrive at the gates, few stop to notice the statues positioned on either side of the main entryway.

Sir William Wallace and Robert the Bruce, two of Scotland’s most celebrated historical figures, stand guard outside the castle. Tinted a greenish-gray with age, the bronze men stare down upon the millions of tourists who enter Edinburgh’s famous attraction each year. The statues were erected outside the castle in 1929 making this card well beyond the undivided-back era.

Both men were prominent leaders during the First War of Scottish Independence, which began in 1296 and lasted for roughly three decades.

Sir William Wallace (the statue on the right), famously depicted in the film Braveheart, was among the first Scottish leaders to revolt against King Edward I of England. After winning the Battle of Stirling Bridge in 1297, he was knighted and named a Guardian of the Kingdom of Scotland. He continued fighting against the English reign until his capture and brutal execution in 1305.

Robert the Bruce declared himself King of Scots in 1306. He, like Wallace, fought valiantly during the war. However, unlike Wallace, Bruce had royal ambitions fueling his desire to free the Scots from English rule. After years of successful guerilla warfare, his battles and raids eventually led to the signing of the Treaty of Edinburgh–Northampton in 1328, which recognized Scottish independence under his rule—at least, until his death a few years later.


Thomas Alfred Rust, India.

  • T. A. RUST, Art Photographer, Allahabad, Mussoorie, Landour & Meerut

Thomas Alfred Rust (1825 to 16 April 1904) a professional photographer, who was patronised by the aristocracy. Rust was born in Stepney, London and at the age of 27 started his photography business. The first record of his professional activity dates from the 1860s. He was in partnership with Timothy Le Beau. Le Beau & Rust had two studios: in Bayswater Athenaeum and Westbourne Grove. The partnership was dissolved in October 1865 when they were listed as bankrupt. By 1869 Rust was working as an assistant to F.W. Baker in Calcutta. A year later he was running the Calcutta Photographic Company with W. T. Burgess and did so until 1874. In 1874 Rust opened five of his own studios in Allahabad, Mussoorie, Murree, Landour and Meerut. Rust’s images of the rich and famous brought him instant recognition, fame and soon he was a man of considerable means. He was also famous for tableau vivant79 images. Rust is buried in Kensington cemetery80. My cards of his photographs were printed by British Photoprint Co., London (qv).

1 Photographie rotative au bromure d’argent

2 Galleria Umberto I is a public shopping gallery in Naples built between 1887 and 1891. It is located directly across from the San Carlo opera house.

16 Verwitwete – widowed

17The Postcard Album no 29 page 4

18 Lithographic Art Institute

19 Art Institute

20 The Postcard Album no 27 page 8

21 A Physical and Moral Portrait of Balkan Vlachs in Historical Sources (IXth-XIIth Centuries) Despre Portretul Fizic Şi Moral Al Vlahilor Balcanici În Sursele Istorice (SECOLELE Ix-Xii) Ginel Lazăr, Monica Lazăr

22 Raden Dunbar



25 Actually Emil August Reutlinger



28 Souvenir of Rome

29 Los Angeles Herald, Volume 32, Number 337, 3 September 1905







36 file:///C:/Users/MB/Downloads/uba_ffyl_t_2006_832174%20(1).pdf

37Picture Postcards and their Publishers Anthony Byatt 1978 Golden Age Postcard Books page 232









46Edited by Jean Giletta (q.v.)

47 Histoire de Cannes Alain Ruggiero 2011 Editions Privat

48Colour collotype

49art gallery?

50High art establishment?

51 The British Lithographer Volume IV No. 19. October-November 1894

52 Art print shop


54 The British Lithographer Volume IV No. 19 October-November 1894

55Verlag von R. Rosauer

56 Visiones y visualizaciones: la nación en tarjetas postales sudamericanas a fines del siglo xix y comienzos del siglo xx Visions and visualizations: the nation in South American postcards at the end of nineteenth century and the beginning of the twentieth century Hinnerk Onken University of Cologne, Germany


58The invisible atlas. Archive stories around the exhibition “Stolen Souls – Postcards of Indians” (Buenos Aires, 2010)


60Photo and publication

61 On court size card

62 On standard size card



65Picture Postcard Annual 2020










75 or Hungarian – Remembering Cosmopolitan Egypt: Literature, Culture, and Empire Deborah Starr 25 Jun 2009 Routledge, page 6


77 house 9 Lonsdale Terrace until 1906 then Warrender Park Cresc.


79 living picture, one of the most popular forms of amateur performance and entertainment for the middle and upper classes during the nineteenth century.