Directory P

C.P. Company, Glasgow.

  • C.P. Co. GLASGOW.

Specialised early on in patriotic greetings postcards against tartan background. In the divided-back era, the company published topographical photocards of central Scotland.

Pallis & Kotzias, Athens1

  • P & C Athenes
  • P & C Athenes KN

Pallis & Kotzias, stationers, 8 Ermou Street, Athens. The history of Athens’ most famous paper shop begins in 1870, when Athanasios Pallis founded the company “Pallis”, a cartographic company, a paper shop and a printing shop in the centre of Athens. Ten years later, in 1880, Pallis co-operated with Georgios Kotzias and the company was renamed accordingly. Their collaboration lasted until 1925. Post-war, the company introduced seasonal items becoming a prestigious grocery store. The KN logo indicates that it was produced by Knackstedt & Naether (qv)2.

Enrico Panighetti, Milan, Italy

  • Enrico Panighetti, Edit. – Milano

Enrico Panighetti, publisher, Milan published cards of unsigned paintings of Milan. His successors published photocards of locations as far as the Greek islands into the 1930s .

Fred Pansing

New York Harbor At Night This card was published by the Illustrated Post Card Company of New York

Fred Pansing (1844 to 1912) was born in Bremen, Germany and went to sea aged 16. Five years later, he settled in Hoboken, New York, working for a time in his brother’s grocery, but always sketching ships and interested in becoming an artist although there is no record of formal art training. Prints of ships were greatly in demand as the era of sail made its transition to the age of steam travel, and Pansing became a successful printmaker for the American Lithographic Company and Knapp & Co. With his technical understanding and artistic skill, he was able to create portraits of steamships, sailing ships, tugs, and paddlewheelers which were widely reproduced as chromolithographs. He also created marine illustrations for Harper’s Weekly, and collaborated with Charles Parsons and Milton Burns, two of America’s foremost marine illustrators and printers. Pansing painted ships of the Fall River and other steamboat lines, his most famous being a series of eighteen portraits of the fleet of the Nantasket Beach Steamboat Company. He occasionally painted in oils, but his oil paintings are rare. Pansing was manager of the Arts Club of Jersey City from 1910 to 1911 and a member of the Hoboken Sketch Club. His many pictures of steamships were used for advertising posters, postcards and travel souvenirs.

In his 1911 painting Olympic/Titanic/Britannic Pansing included a larger compliment of lifeboats than these vessels eventually had.

Paquebots De L’Etat Belge

  • PAQUEBOTS DE L’ETAT BELGE LIGNE OSTENDE-DOUVRES Abord du paquebot: Princesse Henriette P.J. Clays

In 1846, the Belgian State Steamship Company already had ships of 14 knots, an enormous speed for the time.

Before the brutal ultimatum of 2 August 1914, Belgium had no military navy. She had, however, under the flag of the State, a core of liners, whose millions of passengers crossed the Channel on the Ostend-Dover route.  In 1914, the company owned ten steamers 300 to 360 feet long, including five paddle ships of 21 to 22 knots and five turbine ships of more than 24 knots. The first bore the names of Princess Henriette, Léopold II, Marie-Henriette, Rapide, Princesse Clémentine; the others, of very recent construction, were: Princess Elisabeth , Jan Breydel , Pieter De Coninck , the City of Liège and the Stad Antwerpen .

These cards also came with address-side in red with a ten centime stamp. Both stamps came pre-printed with the option of ruling out Sunday delivery, which the sender of my card exercised by scoring out the tab at the bottom of the stamp. The card was re-issued with different vessel names.

Ethel Parkinson

  • E PARKINSON

Mary Ethel Parkinson (1868 to 1957), painter and illustrator. Born in Hull, about 1880 her family moved to Greenwich, South East London, and, in about 1900, she began to work for CW Faulkner & Co for whom she worked for many years. Faulkner’s connections allowed syndication of her work by Munk of Vienna as early as 1904 and by Dondorf of Germany. Much of her work featured children and/or Holland. Her enthusiasm dwindled after the death of Charles Faulkner in 19153.

Pascalis, Moss & Company, London

  • P.M.& Co, London
  • P.M.& Co, L.
  • Pascalis Moss & Co., Photocolor London Views. P.M.& Co.

Pascalis, Moss & Co was the partnership between C.H. Pascalis and Henry Moss. They were early in the field and, by 1900, were operating from 4 & 5, Mason’s Avenue, Basinghall Street, London EC where they imported picture postcards from many European countries4. Their 1901 French Actresses series were the first cards posed by actresses sold in the UK5. Kirchner cards were so popular that they described them as their chief line. They were listed as Fine Art publishers in James Clegg’s 1903 Clegg’s International Directory of the World’s Book Trade6 but in the Autumn of 1902, Mr Pascalis had left the company and it become Henry Moss & Company (qv). Pascalis Moss thus become one of the first significant names in postcards to disappear.

The Pathe Cinematograph Company Limited

  • The PATHE Cinematograph Co Ld – LONDON – W-C

In 1896 Charles Pathé (1863 to 1957) established the Societe Pathe Freres company which became one of the biggest film production companies the industry has seen. Pathé was a pioneer in the birth of newsreel footage, which in turn became the forerunner of documentary films. The British branch published undivided-backs of stills from the Pathé-Frères’ 1902 film La Vie et Passion de Notre Seigneur Jésus-Christ.

James Patrick, Edinburgh

  • “Castle” Series7 Post Cards COPYRIGHT PHOTO BY JAMES PATRICK
  • CASTLE SERIES8 POSTCARDS COPYRIGHT PHOTO BY JAMES PATRICK.

James Patrick belonged to a family well-known in fine art, postcard and photographic publishing in Fife and Edinburgh9. In 1898 James was the President of the Edinburgh Photographic Society which had been instituted in 1861. He is listed at 75 Comiston Road in the Edinburgh Post Office Directories for 1898 to 190010.

John Patrick & Sons, listed as landscape photographers at 52 Comiston Road, Edinburgh became John Patrick in the 1900 to 1901 directory, suggesting that between the two directories, this was the point at which the son struck out on his own account. A large signed photograph of golfer Tom Morris snr., was photographed by James Patrick and published by George Stewart, also of Edinburgh, with a Certificate of Authenticity11.

Leonard Patten

  • Leonard Patten

Harry Leonard Batty Patten (1867 to 1947) was active as a painter, etcher and illustrator from the 1880’s. He came from Bournemouth, and as a young man made a large drawing of that town as seen from a boat offshore. He is listed as an exhibitor in the Royal Academy Summer Exhibition catalogue for 1889. Patten worked for a number of magazines including the Illustrated London News and the Daily Telegraph12. He produced posters for Southern Railways in the 1930s.

Vaughan T. Paul

Penzance, Cornwall, England

  • Vaugham13 T. Paul’s series, Penzance

Vaughan Thornton Paul, photographer and postcard publisher, Morrab Studio, Penzance. Paul published local topographical and ethnographic images, particularly of the fishing industry. In 1909 Paul was present at the burial at sea off Penzance of John Davidson the Scottish poet who pioneered a new idiom and subject matter for twentieth-century verse14. Paul was also present at the first flights over Penzance on the evening of Saturday 23 July, 1910. The pilot was the renowned Claude Grahame-White whose purpose was to fly over the three fleets assembled in the bay where they were expected to be informally reviewed by the recently-crowned King George V. It was his intention to show the vulnerability of the Navy to aerial attack. Paul, then working for The Daily Mirror, supported him in this15. In 1915 Paul photographed the wreck French ship Olympe near the Lizard.

Paul Suess AG, Dresden, Germany

  • Edition “Trianon”
  • Edition “Trianon” P.M. Phot.
  • P.S a D ERIKA
  • P.S. a D
  • “ERIKA”

Paul Suess116 AG117, a joint-stock company from 1896 to early 1915. Suess used several rented facilities and by the mid 1890’s had his own factory at 23 Blasewitzer Street, Dresden. In 1901 he moved into an existing factory site in Muegeln/Heidenau at 21 Bismarckstrasse. Paul Suess started with 10 people. In 1907 they had 12 huge litho presses and employed 550 workers. By 1911 there were 725 workers and employees. Early cards up to about 1903-04 show the word “ERIKA” set in capitals. “Erika” stood for heather118. They published some cards with the same numbers under the badge Edition “Trianon”119. Their British details were: Paul Suss A. G., 73, Golden Lane, London, E.G., Christmas Card Publishers. Controller: John W. Woodthorpe, 1, Leadenhall Street, E.G. 20th March, 1916.

Paulton Brothers

Wolverhampton, England

This photograph of a man riding a horse over an elephant seems rather late for a divided back.

Paulton Brothers, Printers, Wolverhampton. Albert Henry Paulton (born 1867) set up a printing business with his brothers Charles (born 17 April 1865) and Frederick. It was at Wheeler’s Fold in 1892 and, by 1896, at 44 Berry Street nearby. At one stage they had two premises in Berry Street. A programme they printed in 1907 gave their address as Heath Town a district less than a couple of miles east of the city centre.

Paultons produced on a large scale. They printed Wolves programmes and other literature including at least four sets of collectable football cards featuring local team Wolverhampton Wanderers. Albert held shares and was a director of the club for a while. He also was a town alderman and the licensee of the Molyneux Hotel throughout WWI.

Paultons produced the free souvenir programme for the first cycle race been London and Holyhead which took place on 9 June 1951 as part of the Festival of Britain.

An owner of this card used it as a memo before visiting the garage.

Désiré Pavia

Tunis & Bizerte, Tunisia

  • Désiré Pavia, Phot.-edit., Bizerte

Désiré Pavia, (born 187416) photographer and postcard publisher, Tunis & Bizerte. In 1890, Pavia’s uncle, photographer Francisco Soler (qv) transferred his studio from Oran, Algeria to Avenue de France, Tunis. In the same year, Oran-born Pavia moved to Tunisia. In 1900 Pavia joined his uncle. They were joined by Pavia’s brother Adrien and the brothers took over the workshop mostly selling views and types of Tunisia, succeeding to the business in 1908. From 1902, they published postcards, Pavia from Bizerte, a coastal town 66 kilometres north-west of the capital. The Pavia brothers produced a report on the Moussac family stud farm in 1915. They photographed official ceremonies in Tunisia until 193017.

Gilbert Morris Payne

  • G M Payne

Gilbert Morris “Bertie” Payne (1879 to 1947) was born in Cardiff and by 1901 had moved to London where he carried out his work. He was a prolific artist and cartoonist and one of a family of artists, all of whom considered him to be the most gifted. He was the older brother of A. B. Payne, who created the comic strip Pip, Squeak and Wilfred in the Daily Mirror. Their father, Joseph, was a cabinet maker. Payne produced many humorous paintings that were published as postcards by Gale & Polden. Sailors chasing the fair sex seems to have been a recurrent theme. In the early 1900s he drew comics including Lot-o’-Fun, Comic Cuts, Puck, Jester and Wonder. He also illustrated story papers, including Chums and Boys of Our Empire, and drew cartoons for Punch18. He also produced more serious work of a topical nature for The Army Graphic, Autocar, The Motor, and many other publications19.

G. B. Pedrocchi

Buenos Aires, Argentina

  • G. B. Pedrocchi – Editor – Buenos Aires – Berlin

A postcard publisher of Italian origin, Pedrocci published photographs by H.G. Olds (qv). In 1912 Pedrocchi moved with his family back to Italy where he died in 1930. His son Federico became a well known comic book artist and writer in Italy21.

The Pencarbon Company Limited, Leicester, England

  • The Pencarbon Co., Ltd., Leicester

The Pencarbon Company Limited, carbon-paper makers, 184 London Road, Leicester. Carbon paper seems to have been simultaneously invented in about 1806 by an Englishman named Ralph Wedgwood and Italian Pellegrino Turri. In 1902 and 1903, the company advertised:

The most time-saving invention of recent years. The simple act of writing produces a perfect copy. No Water No Brush No Work No Time No Mess No Press! Any Ink! Almost any Paper! Use your own letter paper or memo;.

This excerpt from The Optical Lantern and Cinematograph Journal of 1905 may help explain their success:

A Useful Letter Copying Book for Lanternists. — The Pencarbon Company, Ltd … has sent us one of their Pencarbon Copy Books, which we find exceedingly useful and handy to use. Letter paper is inserted under the patent holder which is supplied with every book, and is ready for use. The letter to be copied is written in the ordinary way with pen and ink. After writing and removing the paper a perfect copy is found. Unlike ordinary carbon copying books, there is nothing on the back of the original to show that the letter has been copied, and the original letter is sent, the carbon copy being retained for reference. We can heartily recommend lanternists to use this system, which we much prefer to using a press and book with leaves that have to be damped. It is cleaner, handier, and very much less expensive.

By 1911 Pencarbon had clearly become a byeword for its product

(a) The police-station officer shall prepare the Despatch of required number of copies of the Hue and Cry notices notices, by pencarbon paper and despatch them to the stations, etc.,
mentioned in their lists.

THE BENGAL POLICE MANUAL, 1911

The company also traded in Europe, Australia and South Africa:

The ZANETIC BRAND of TYPECARBON is the supreme embodiment of all the practical excellencies required by business houses. For general commercial use it’s easily the most economical. Samples of this and other grades on application to the Makers THE PENCARBON CO, LTD., Zanetic Works, Duncan Road, Leicester, England, who make the celebrated Zanetic Penduplicating Paper. Any dealer can supply

South Africa Mining and Engineering Journal ^The Only Weekly Mining Paper in the Continent of Africa. JOHANNESBURG, TRANSVAAL, SATURDAY 4 October 1919.

The edition of the Paris Journal of 29 June 1919 announcing the signing at Versailles of the peace treaty ending WWI also carried an advertisment for Zanetic carbon paper.

The company commissioned local topographical photocards from Stengel of Dresden. This one was postally used in November 1902.

Perkins, Son & Venimore

Lewisham, London

  • P.S.& V. Lewisham

Perkins, Son & Venimore, photographers, 10 Weardale Road & Lee High Road, Lewisham. William Perkins, William Wood Perkins & Andrew Venimore were well-respected photographers in SE London.

Ernest Peters, Cape Town

  • E. Peters, Cape Town

South African photographer Ernest Peters had a studio at 3 Castle Street listed in the 1902 Voters Roll of Cape Town. He produced a cabinet card of actor musician Auguste van Biene (16 May 1849 to 23 January 1913) as an art photo. Van Biene toured to South Africa towards the end of his life. Peters was also credited with a photograph of the University of Cape Town second rugby team in 1935. He published topographical postcards of South Africa which were presumably his own photographs.

Petit Parisien

  • Collection du PETIT PARISIEN

Le Petit Parisien was a prominent French newspaper during the French Third Republic, published between 1876 and 1944. In 1889 it introduced pictures through an illustrated supplement22. During the Second World War it was the official voice of the Vichy regime and it didn’t survive its collaboration. My card is of a monochrome photograph of Parisian landmarks forming a numbered series running from 1 into double figures which was also published as divided backs. There are also similarly-numbered series on divided-backs of coloured images of glamorous female models including L’EVENTAIL JAPONAIS23 and L’EVENTAIL LOUIS XV and, in a black and white photographic series, NOS AVIATEURS and comic and patriotic series.

Hermann Petzsch

Waldheim, Saxony, Germany

  • Verlag von Hermann Petzsch, Waldheim i. S.

Franz Hermann Petzsch (died by 1936) trained as a bookbinder and then went on an eight-year hike, which he spent in the towns of Pulsnitz, Meissen, Spandau and Gera. In September 1887 he started his own business at 13 Schloßstraße, Waldheim.

The business extended to paper by Mey & Edlich, fashion accessories and leatherware. Petzsch’s local topographical photocards were elaborately framed by decorations and embellishments.

Jacobo Peuser

Buenos Aires, Argentina

  • J. PEUSER BS. AS.
This card bears greetings for 1903. Felicitas Guerrero (1846 to 1872) came from a wealthy middle-class family of 11 children. Her father was of Andalusian origin and her mother of German ancestry. Felicitas was considered the most beautiful woman in Argentina. At 18, she was married against her will to a very rich man 32 years older than her. He died in 1870 after having two children with her. Her beauty and money interested suitors, one of whom, on rejection shot and killed her in 1872. The reaction was so strong in Buenos Aires that her parents had this church built by Ernesto Bunge in 1876. Iglesia Santa Felicitas is ranked 220 of 870 things to do in Buenos Aires on tripadvisor.

Jacobo Peuser, (born 28 November 1843), printer, publisher and card retailer. German-born Peuser arrived in Argentina in 1855, aged 12 and worked in graphics workshops as a youngster. In April 1867 he opened a small bookshop in Buenos Aires. Such was his passion for graphic arts that the following year he purchased larger premises and his business continued to grow. From 28 February 1875 he published the German Argentine Weekly, the first newspaper written in that language to appear in the country. The same year, he with others proposed the first Industrial Exhibition which opened in Buenos Aires in 1877. That year, he moved his establishment to 98 San Martín Street24. By the 1890s, book publishing, book-binding and colour lithographic printing were the primary business activities and several medals had been won. In 1896 he printed Map of the telegraphic lines of the Argentine Republic for Pedro Lopez. The business was involved in the importation of foreign-manufactured playing cards into Argentina from the 1920s to the 50s25.

T. Pfaff, Neuchatel, Switzerland

  • Edit. T. Pfaff, Neuchatel, (Suisse)

In the Feuille D’Avis de Neuchatel newspaper of 4 November 1905 Mr. and Mrs. T. Pfaff of The Rochettes, 11 Rolling Stone Passage, Neuchatel advertised To those who doubt, to those who suffer, to those who seek the Truth Interviews on Modern Spiritualism Monday and Thursday of each week… Private tutorials, on request on other days. These interviews are free. It’s clear from this how Pfaff spent his money. There is clue as to how he made it in the words horlogerie soignée26 included after his name on a card of A Engelberg recently for sale27. Hermann Pfaff & Cie of 7 Place Purry Neuchatel advertised his watch repair shop and jewellery shop up to seven times in a number of editions of the local paper in 190228 and for many years thereafter. On 26 January 1928, the same journal devoted nearly a column to the arrest of one of the burglars of the Pfaff jewelery shop29. On 30 April 1942 the Swiss Clockmakers Federation recorded that Longines marked the fact that three of the watchmakers present at the festival including Pfaff had been customers for 50 years30. Around 1952 Collet in Geneva made a Sterling silver coffee box for Pfaff31. Like other local Swiss publishers, his cards seem to have been produced for him by JPN.

Philadelphia Postalcard Company

Philadelphia, PA, USA

  • PHILA POST CARD CO in or below the image and in the yoke of the bell logo on the address side.
  • Philadelphia Postalcard Co., Philadelphia, Pa. and bell logo as above;
  • Philadelphia Postalcard Co., Philadelphia, Pa.
  • logo on the address side: eagle in flight with arrows in one claw and flowering plant in the other.

Philadelphia Postalcard Co, publishers and importers of all kinds of souvenir post cards, advertising novelties and printed things. Initially at 729 Filbert Street, in 1909 they were at 1034 Arch Street with Bell and Keystone telephones. Their Cable Address was Evandoug Philadelphia32. Local photographer Frank Burd took over the company in the late 20th century and published Philadelphia Illustrated in 1989, a Deluxe Souvenir Book of 116 Photographs.

R. Phillips, Peebles, Scotland.

  • R. Phillips, Peebles.

In 1889 Robert Phillips of Peebles Old Town was listed in the linen and woollen trade33. In the 1900 Edinburgh and South of Scotland Trades’ Directory Robert Phillips was listed under Fancy Repositories at 11 High Street.

Edwin Grattan Phillipse

  • Phillipse Photo
  • [Photo, Phillipse.
  • PHILLIPSE PHOTO

Edwin Grattan Phillipse worked as a photographer at High Street, Ilfracombe in September 189634. Phillipse is credited for the photographs on undivided cards published by Twiss and Ingram Clark & Company (qv) in Ilfracombe. Grattan Phillipse KSI35 produced divided backs from Royal Kingsley Studios, Ilfracombe. Other divided backs bore to be published by Phillipse & Lees, Ilfracombe. This was a partnership between Phillipse and Ernest Harold Lees, as photographers and fine art publishers at 46, High Street and 12 The Promenade, Ilfracombe. The partnership was dissolved from 31 December 1920. Phillipse continued the business on his own account.

Photo & Art Postal Card Company, New York

  • PHOTO & ART P Cd CO., N.Y.

Photo & Art Postal Card Company, 444 Broadway, New York, a publisher of view-cards depicting the mid-Atlantic region with a predominance of scenes from greater New York and Long Island. Their early cards were printed in tinted halftones and their later cards as black & white collotypes36. Some of their cards are marked CT Photochrom, an indication they were produced by by Curt Teich (qv).

Photochrom Company Limited, London and Tunbridge Wells

  • bear logo Photochrom Co., Ltd., London
  • Photochrom written in corner of picture

Photochrom Company Limited, London originated in Switzerland and was registered in December 1896. It quickly expanded by acquiring two English postcard companies and a well-equipped factory in Tunbridge Wells. Photographer Carl Norman, the principal of one of the acquisitions, became technical manager, living in Tunbridge Wells, until 190837. By 1900, view-cards of most towns in Britain were on sale and, by 1906, they claimed to hold a quarter of a million negatives. Picture Postcard Annual 2020 records a card postmarked 29 March 1902. At the 1905 Earl’s Court Postcard Exhibition Photochrom cards won a gold and two silver medals. Many current events were featured including the arrest of Mrs Pankhurst in 190838. Perhaps their most famous series was the Celesque series. This was a type of early offset-lithographic postcard. They were untypical for their time, printed in a distinctive red yellow and blue palette39. They also published special commissions for railway companies including a fine series of places on the routes of the Midland Railway for that company. Divided-back versions of the cards featured in the North British & Midland Railway stand at the Scottish National Exhibition in Edinburgh in 190840.

Photoelectrotype Engraving Company

New York

  • PHOTO-ELECTROTYPE ENGRAVING COMPANY N.Y.

Photoelectrotype Engraving Company, New York published Private Mailing Cards of photographs some of which credit Loeffler (qv). The Ornithologists’ and Oologists41‘ semi-annual of 1889 carried an advertisement by the PHOTOELECTRIC ENGRAVING COMPANY, Snow Building, SYRACUSE, N. Y. H. A. CARHART, Manager offering A LARGE NUMBER OF BIRD-CUTS ON HAND. SEND FOR LIST. Printing and Electrotyping to Order.

Photoglob Company

Zurich, Switzerland

  • EDITION PHOTOGLOB Co. ZURICH
  • EDITION PHOTOGLOB CO. ZÜRICH
  • P.Z.

Founded on 1 June 1889 under the name Photochrom & Company, Zurich as a sales company of art institute Orell Füssli AG, the name Photoglob was adopted on 27 September 1895 when they merged with Schröder & Co. to become a limited company in Zurich with share capital CHF 2 million and headquarters at 3 Bärengasse42. Orell Füssli had developed a process called photochromy which allowed Photoglob to publish photographic cards in a brilliant colour that proved highly popular. Photoglob used a globe logo with the letters PZ in it43. In Spain they used the letters PZ. They continue in business as publishers of Swiss topographical cards. Another of their cards here.

Photographie des Arts

Lausanne, Switzerland

  • Photographie des Arts, Lausanne

Photographie des Arts, 8 Place Bel-Air, Lausanne. Photographer Simon Pittier published postcards under the name of Photography of the Arts in Nyon VD44 from around 1890 and Lausanne VD around 190245. He published local topographicals into the divided-back era. Many of his cards were photographs of historical monuments, churches and castles taken between 1904 and 190746.

The Phototype Co, Mumbai, India

  • The Phototype Co, Bombay
  • The Phototype Coy. Bombay.

A postcard industry quickly established in India once the market had been opened up for privately published postcards. Every major city had one or more publishing company, and many of these were Indian owned. These companies also sold their cards in the wider region. Bombay had Clifton and Co. (qv), as well as the Phototype Company and Ravi Varma Press. Phototype’s postcards were printed in Germany and Luxembourg47. The company had wide-ranging interests including naughty women and women at their toilet. These not only served the Anglo-Indian community and tourists, but catered for the Indian market as well with cards of religious stories48.

Max Pichler

Schwetzingen, Baden-Württemberg, Germany

  • Verlag von Max Pichler, Schwetzingen.

Max Pichler, stationer, printer and publisher, 9 Mannheimer Strasse, Schwetzingen. In 1880 Pichler founded the Schwetzinger Zeitung, the town’s first newspaper which in 1882 he was editing, printing and publishing on his own. The Technoseum in Mannheim has his press. In 1897 Pichler printed and published The latest guide through the castle gardens in Schwetzingen with brief historical remarks and a plan of the garden by Otto Mechling, a publication still going twenty years later. In 1909 Flugsport magazine: aviation, ballooning, airships edited by Oskar Ursinus recorded that Pichler had patented an airship rudder in March that year, no doubt following up the success of the previous year’s patent of a device for station-by-station aviation using tethered balloons. Pichler published monochrome topographicals of the town, some in elaborate art nouveau framing. In 1900 he earned a silver medal in the Paris World Exhibition for a collection of postcards of the palace garden.

Source: Schwetzingen: Stadt und Leute Frank-Uwe Betz 2001

Pictorial Stationery Company Limited, London

  • PEACOCK BRAND TRADE MARK in bird illustration between the words POST and CARD.
  • PEACOCK BRAND TRADE MARK in bird illustration between the words POST and CARD. AUTOCHROMCOLOUR PHOTO) POSTCARD.PICTORIAL STATIONERY CO. LTD. LONDON

Pictorial Stationery Company Limited was founded in 1897 and moved to 23 Moorfields, London in 1902. A publisher of postcards and other lithographic printed materials, the company was expressly started to introduce novel and artistic postcards … into England. Once they began printing standard-sized cards in 1902 they were issued under a variety of different trade names. They published postcards under many names (including Peacock (qv)) until 190849. Picture Postcard Annual 2020 records court-size cards from 8 August 1897 and a Peacock card postmarked 29 March 1901. Their Autochrom series were of tinted halftones. Other types of cards included Pictorcrom, Black Frame, Stylochrom, Platino Photo, and Platino-Frosted. Most of these cards depicted views with some of them being artist-drawn50.

A guide to Peacock Brand cards is here.

Picture Postcard Company Limited, London

  • Picture Postcard Co., Ltd., 6 Drapers Gardens, London, E.C.

Picture Postcard Company Limited, postcard publishers, 6 Drapers Gardens, London, E.C. This short-lived company, operated for two years 1899 to 1901 producing court and then standard size cards is best known for a series of advertising cards for railway companies, with views of places served by the company.

Pictorial Post-Card Company, Ottawa, Canada

  • Picture Post Card Co., Ottawa

Picture Post Card Co., Ottawa. In 1904, the journal Bookseller &. Stationer reported that The Pictorial Post-Card Co., of Ottawa, has sent samples of their Imperial series of cards. The productions are of high grade both in the matter of illustrations and printing, and are on good stock. The Imperial Series are numbered topographicals and identify the publisher as above. Although the company had a factory in Ottawa, these cards bore the trade mark of Hartmann (qv). The journal went on to describe the company as one of the most enterprising of the Canadian makers of pictorial cards. Its specialty is high-class collotype work, and its range covers several hundred subjects, comprising the best views of Quebec, Montreal. Ottawa, Toronto, and other leading Canadian cities; scenes at Ste. Anne de Beaupre, and typical subjects. Special sets of shooting, fishing and sporting scenes are in preparation. This company also carries imported lines of colored fancy postcards and Christmas postcards, as well as a range of postcard albums and display stands. Their trade for June has been brisk. One order booked called for 200,000 cards, a splendid sale for this country.

Francesco Pineider, Florence, Italy

  • Francesco Pineider Edit. Firenze

Francesco Pineider opened his first shop in 1774 producing exclusive hand-engraved personalized paper. Pineider soon became the stationer of choice for the European bourgeoisie who appreciated the uniqueness of its products and asked for made-to-order visiting cards and writing paper with elegant embossed characters, coats of arms and escutcheons engraved in gold, using a technique perfected by Renaissance goldsmiths. They are still in business selling up-market paper and pens without a mention of postcards51. In 1906 Pineider published a guide to Florence which sold for one lira52. His addresses at that stage were Piazza della Signoria and Via Cerretani, Palazzo Arcivescovile – a row of shops in the Archbishop’s Palace. Their postcards included reproductions of artworks in the Uffizi and the National Museum.

Gaston Piprot, Paris

  • solid 5-point star in the corner of the photograph and on the address side beside a series number

Gaston Piprot (1866 to 1921) French photographer, industrialist, publisher of illustrated postcards, creator of the star brand53. Piprot printed and published many of Professor Stebbing’s (qv) theatrical portraits under his Etoile or Star branding. The term Emaillographie on some of his cards refers to a process of Piprot’s that seems to have been a glacé, or glaze applied to the surface of the print to add depth and brilliance to the colour54. He published a series of posed photographs by Henri Manuel (qv) under the title Napoleon Intime. In 1923 Piprot was président of the Chambre syndicale de la carte postale of the Société Française De Photographie55.

Pistolesi Printing House, Rome

  • Tip56 Pistoles

Pistolesi printing company, Rome. In the middle of the nineteenth century Erasmo Pistolesi (1770 to 1860) wrote, published and printed a guide to the Vatican in several volumes. In 1900 published Mia Madre by L Montanari. The new road Largo Erasmo Pistolesi is located in the Cap Roma area57. The company’s poscards were monochrom photographs of Rome.

Ernest Pittier

Annecy, Haute-Savoie, France.

  • Pittier, Phot.-edit. Annecy
  • PP above A Pittier, Phot.-edit. Annecy
Mont Sagerou is a mountain about 100 kilometers south of Bern in Switzerland. Dents du Midi are mountain range about a hundred kilometers south of Bern.

Ernest Edmond Constant Pittier (6 August 1866 to 5 May 1953) photographer, publisher of photographs and postcards. In 1897 he succeeded his father, photographer and photo editor Auguste Pittier in his business at the Quai de la Tournette in Annecy. There he worked in collaboration with his mother, Julie Chanel, and his second wife Berthe Barbey. In 1910 he transferred the studio to 38 rue des Marquisats, Annecy. In 1922 Pittier left Annecy. The departmental archives of Haute-Savoie hold 2722 Pittier postcards published between 1899 and 1922 from shots taken between 1890 and 1909 by Auguste and Ernest58.

P. J. Plant, Washington D.C.

  • P.J.PLANT WASHINGTON D.C.

P.J.Plant, Washington D.C. Card publisher known for humorous montage images most notable perhaps for the address side which by lowered the words POST CARD to create a space which was marked THE SPACE ABOVE IS RESERVED FOR POSTMARK59. This layout echoed the official one-cent postal card issued in March 1902 with a vignette of President McKinley in lieu of President Jefferson’s portrait.

Plâté & Company

Colombo, Sri Lanka

  • Plâté & Co
  • A.W.A. Platé & Co.

Plâté & Company60, photographers founded in 1890 by A. W. A. and Clara Plâté in a small studio in the Bristol Hotel, Colombo. In 1892 they moved to larger premises in Colpetty, Colombo. In 1907 Arnold Wright61 wrote that the Colpetty studio and office practically represent the headquarters of the firm, and here are located extensive work-rooms, dark-rooms, show-rooms and other adjuncts to a photographic establishment, in addition to the spacious studio, reckoned to be one of the finest in the east. The firm became a limited private company in 1900 and the business was enlarged to concentrate on supplying photographic apparatus and material. In 1907 the firm had an annual output of half a million postcards. They probably took over the stock of Skeen and Company. They are still trading62.

E. Plathen & Company, Edinburgh

  • E. Plathen & Co.

Listed in the Edinburgh Post Office Directory for 1898 to 1899 as illustrated postcard publishers at 1 Broughton Place Edinburgh – the only such listing63. Next year they were at 19 East Trinity Road.

The Platinachrome Company

New York

  • The Platinachrome Co. N.Y. P in sun logo

In addition to local topographicals, Platinachrome’s cards often featured contemporary culture; In 1905 they published a colour halftone postcard of a scene from Kirke La Shelle’s production of Paul Armstrong’s play Heir to the Hoorah which was then touring, after having played in New York. In 1907, they produced scenes from the stage productions of The Belle of Mayfair and Brewster’s Millions. Also in the divided-back era, the company produced a series of cards by artist Earl Christy each featuring one or a pair of female fans/cheerleaders for a particular American College football team. They also joined in the trend for state and national loyalties to be illustrated by images of the fair sex. Their countries series was drawn by G. Howard Hilder.

Franz Plentl Sons, Graz, Austria

  • PLENTL MARY MILL GRAZ-CAIRO

Franz Plentl Sons were founded in Graz in 1838 as a paper-goods factory, later commercial printers64 before expanding to fashion accessories. The mill was called “Mary Mill” after the founder’s wife Maria65. Plentl were to the fore in the introduction of embossed visitor cards. In 1907, they were at 12 Traungauergasse and the publishers of one of the 78 newspapers then published in Styria. My elegantly-designed cards were clearly published for Egyptian market but front and back are pure Austria of the turn of the century. One of them credits BACHMANN for the photograph.

Ploy & Müller, Linz, Austria

  • Ploy & Müller, Linz a D
Linz is the capital city of Upper Austria and third-largest city in Austria. It is located in the country’s northern part, on the Danube 30 kilometres (19 miles) south of the Czech border. From 1945 to 1955, Linz was divided, with the city north of the Danube occupied by the Soviets and to the south of it by the Americans. This card shows the Danube dividing the city.

Ploy & Müller was a paper-trading institution on Linz’s main square, which closed in 2003 after 125 years. In 1914 Ploy & Müller were at 9 Schmidtorstraße. Peter (13 October 1941 to 21 June 2017) and Helga Hermann ran the shop for many years.

F. W. Poecker, New Jersey, USA.

  • F. W. Poecker, Stationer

Frederick William Poecker, Stationer, Upper Montclair, New Jersey, published photocards of Montclair N.J. In 1909, Poecker was one of the prominent dealers from whom the Brooklyn Daily Eagle newspaper could be obtained. On 20 October 1904 the New York Times reported from Montclair under the heading ACCUSED OF KILLING CHILD.; Young Montclair Girl Arrested — Tired of Being Nurse, Police Say that Alice Klingenberg, fourteen years old, the sister of Mrs. William Poecker, who conducts a newspaper and stationery store at Upper Montclair, was arrested here to-night, and will be arraigned in court to-morrow as a suspicious person. On 21 October, the San Francisco Call reported that Mrs Poecker had left her six week old daughter in her sister’s care to let her take charge of the store during the noon hour while he went home for dinner. Unsurprisingly, Alice was not a member of the household in the 1910 census though their father and two surviving daughters were.

Eduardo Polack, Lima, Peru.

  • Eduardo Polack, Lima (Peru).

Julio Eduardo Polack-Schneider66 (1870 to 1936), photographer, had a small novelty and postage stamp shop in Lima on Calle de Los Huérfanos. He is best known for his photographs of Lima which were coloured in Germany and many printed as postcards. He was associated with G. Morgenroth, whose company also published Polack-Schneider’s photographs as postcards67.

C.F. Pollard

Lynn, Massachussets, USA

  • PUB. BY C.F. POLLARD LYNN
Lynn is the 9th largest municipality in Massachusetts and the largest city in Essex County. More than one-quarter of the town’s land is covered by the Lynn Woods Reservation, which takes up much of the land in the northwestern part of the city.

C.F. Pollard (born 1864) photographer, art dealer, 48 Central Square, Lynn. Pollard advertised prints from negatives as ideal Christmas presents. Californian-born Pollard was still living in Lynn in 1940.

Homer M Pollock

  • HM Pollock

Homer M Pollock, (March 1864 to 10 March 1917) artist, known for his work in about 1900 for the White City Art Company of Chicago and his Annie Oakley portraits and postcards. Pollock was also known for his lithographs of Western ladies in the American West during the early 1900’s. Pollock died at Rochester, Olmsted County, Minnesota68. My card of his artwork bears to be COPYRIGHT 1905 J. TULLY.

Giuseppe Polozzi

  • Photografia G Polozzi

Giuseppe Polozzi (May 10, 1847 to July 29, 193269), photographer, Viterbo and Perugia. Polozzi won a first class medal in the 1878 Exposition at Viterbo – one of his home towns70. He appears to have used his artistic photographic skills in publishing a reproduction of St Thomas Aquinas’ Album in 188071. In the Viterbo Journal of 31 August 1878 Polozzi announced the transfer of his photo studio to 11 Via Cavour on the second floor of the photographic establishment of Rempicci & Company72.

Polygraphischen Institut

Zurich, Switzerland

  • Polygr. Institut Zurich
The Gotthard Tunnel (German: Gotthardtunnel, Italian: Galleria del San Gottardo) is an approximately 15-kilometre-long (9.3 mi) railway tunnel and forms the summit of the Gotthard Railway in Switzerland. It connects Göschenen with Airolo and was the first tunnel through the Saint-Gotthard Massif in order to bypass the St Gotthard Pass. It is built as one double-track, standard gauge tunnel. When opened in 1882, the Gotthard Tunnel was the longest tunnel in the world.

Before polygraph referred to lie detectors, it was a duplicating device that produced a copy of a piece of writing simultaneously with the creation of the original, using pens and ink, now more commonly referred to a pantograph. A more likely inspiration for the name is the use of the term for an author who writes on a variety of different subjects.

Polygraphic Institute, Zurich published a Commemorative Paper for the opening of the Swiss National Museum in Zurich on June 25, 1898 by H. Angst and others. Later that year, it published a fundraising anthology for the Zurich Nurses School. The turn-of-the-century illustrated periodical Switzerland was printed in the Institute’s premises.

It seems possible that this was an imprint of the Zurich printers Brunner & Hauser.

M.L.C. Pool, Alkmaar, Netherlands

  • M.L.C. Pool, Boek-en Kunsthandel

M.L.C. Pool, Alkmaar, Netherlands, book printer and bindery established by 188673. In 1895 Pool advertised in the Newspaper for the Book Trade the music of a military march composed in the local military school74. In 1915 Pool was on the board of the Alkmaar branch of the Union To Promote Public Education And School Attendance In The Netherlands75. In 1919 he was Secretary of the Alkmaar Association Against Alcohol Abuse76 and Treasurer of the local branch of the State Pension Association predecessor of ANBO the General Dutch Association for the Elderly formed on 9 September 1900 to campaign for universal retirement pensions for men77. In 1931 Pool was listed at residential property at 59 Rijksstraatweg78. My topographical card has a photograph in an artistically-embossed margin.

Victor Porcher, Paris

  • V.P. Paris
  • Collections des Galeries Modernes V.P. Paris
  • V.P.

Victor Porcher, postcard publisher, 67 rue des Archives in Paris and 18 Avenue Grand Chene in San Marino des Fosses79. Porcher published the work of many photographers of his time, including Tunisian ethnographicals and Eugène Atget’s series of 80 shots The little trades of Paris in 1903 to 04. Porcher produced a postcard for the use of passengers on the Orient Express80.

Postal Novelty Company

Milwaukie, Wisconsin, USA

  • Postal Novelty Co., Milwaukee, Wis

Postal Novelty Company, Milwaukie, Wisconsin published photo-cards of Milwaukee in frames with comic female cartoon figures standing beside them. My cartoon card includes a model of braces81 punning for hold-ups attached with a copyright for Robert Eddy in 1906. Under the heading HERE’S A LEMON the Bookseller and Stationer of Canada for January 1907 recorded that The Postal Novelty Co., 140 Garfield avenue, Milwaukee, announces a card with the new slang phrase “Here’s a Lemon.” This card has a genuine lemon attached to it. This is only one of the large variety of five retail novelty cards made by the firm which made the “Eddy” post card novelties famous. The firm offers special inducements to jobbers and have an exclusive sale proposition, which protects the jobber. The Postal Novelty Co. of Pittsburg, Pennsylvania advertised in the Cincinnati Enquirer of 28 February 1904: Each Card fitted with an article true to life Clever and Original Good Drawings Highly Colored Retail for 5c. & 10c. The company also advertised as being at Kansas City, Missouri and as state agents of Temple Texas.

E Pouteau, Paris

  • E.P.

In 1904, E Pouteau of Paris won a diploma in the Grand Concours de Photographie organised by Photo pêle-mêle pour tous, par tous: revue photographique illustrée a journal for amateur photographers. There is no sign of Pouteau having been in business and so the identification of him as having published posed photocards is rather speculative.

Hermann Poy, Dresden, Germany

  • Photochromiekarte Hermann Poy Dresden
Elbgrund is the German name for Labský důl, a small valley in the Czech Giant Mountains (Riesengebirge).

In 1894 The British Lithographer reported that recently-established printer Hermann Poy was working with two presses. In the 1890s he published photographs of Karlsbad (now Karlovy in the Czech Republic) and Dresden as leporello (concertina) albums. Poy published numbered photocards of Dresden and as far away as what is now the Czech Republic and Turkey from at least 1898 into the divided-back era. He also published cards of Odessa in what is now Ukraine for the Russian market.

Attilio Pozzoli, Milan, Italy

  • A. Pozzoli, Milano.

Attilio Pozzoli, Milan published photo-cards of Italy and Italian-speaking Switzerland. He also gave the address Milano-Lugano during the undivided-back period.

M A Proctor

Ilkley, Yorkshire, England

  • Proctor, Ilkley

M A Proctor, stationer, 6 The Grove, Ilkley.

A. Prosdocimi

  • A. Prosdocimi

Alberto Prosdocimi (also Prosdocini82) (9 September 1852 to 1925) Italian painter and manuscript illuminator. He painted views of Venice in pale and bright watercolors, often sold abroad. He studied painting at the Academia of Venice, but also trained in his father’s studio. He often painted in watercolour but, like his father, he was a respected manuscript illuminator, his work in this regard featuring in cards published by E. Sborgi. He enjoyed prestigious commissions and served as a tutor to royalty and the aristocracy83. After working in watercolours for a time, he specialized as a miniaturist.

Purger & Company

Munich, Germany

  • Purger & Co., Munchen, Photochromiekarte

Purger & Company was one of the influential publishers of postcards of the golden era of postcards84, a printing house based at 13 Mozartstraße, Munich. The founder of the company was most probably Adolf Purger. The company was known for the coloured postcards it produced at the beginning of the 20th century. The postcards were printed in three-colour chromolithography, a system called photochrome, with the indication Photochromiekarte. The company was printing not only postcards for their own account, but also for other companies such as A Farrugia of Corfu (qv), Tomas Sanz and J. Ferrary of Gibraltar (qv) and Valentin Hell in Tangiers (qv). Purger & Co. was active at least during the period 1899 to 1920 and produced cards from all around Europe and the Mediterranean basin in photo-chromolithography.

The Puritan Art Company

Lynn, Massachussets, USA

  • The Puritan Art Co., Lynn, Mass (Germany)

The Puritan Art Company, Lynn, published photographs of Lynn in the undivided-back era.

1 Πάλλης & Κοτζιάς Αθήνα 

2https://www.in.gr/2007/01/30/economy/kleinei-to-istoriko-biblioxartopwleio-pallis-sto-kentro-tis-athinas/

3Postcards from the Nursery Dawn & Peter Cope New Cavenish Books 2000 page 188

4Picture Postcards and their Publishers Anthony Byatt 1978 Golden Age Postcard Books page 196

5Pictures in the Post Richard Carline (1959 Gordon Fraser) p 60

6https://archive.org/stream/cleggsinternati00thomgoog#page/n116/mode/2up/search/pascalis

7“Castle” series were also published by George Stewart (qv)

8“Castle” series were also published by George Stewart (qv)

9 St Andrews The Postcard Collection Helen Cook; Amberley Publishing Limited, 15 Apr 2016

10https://www.nls.uk/family-history/directories/post-office/index.cfm?place=Edinburgh

11http://www.grahambuddauctions.co.uk/BidCat/detail.asp?SaleRef=GB01&LotRef=137

12http://www.cliffordhallpainter.com/early_life_memoir_3.html

13Seems to be a misreading of his signature by the printer.

14 John Davidson, First of the Moderns: A Literary Biography John Sloan, 1995, Clarendon Press page 285

15https://penwithlit.com/tag/penzance/

16http://aan.mmsh.univ-aix.fr/Pdf/AAN-1993-32_44.pdf

17http://photographesenoutremerafrique.blogspot.com/2009/11/soler-f-et-pavia-freres.html

18http://ukcomics.wikia.com/wiki/G._M._Payne_(1879-1947)

19https://bearalley.blogspot.com/2007/08/g-m-payne.html

20Picture Postcards and their Publishers Anthony Byatt 1978 Golden Age Postcard Books page 371

21https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Federico_Pedrocchi

22https://francearchives.fr/commemo/recueil-2013/39797

23The Japanese Fan

24http://www.revisionistas.com.ar/?p=20650/

25https://www.wopc.co.uk/argentina/peuser/index

26Smart Watches

27https://www.fr.ricardo.ch/acheter/collections-et-raretes/cartes-postales-suisse/obwald-et-nidwald/non-circulees/a-engelberg/v/an864710772/

28Feuille D’Avis de Neuchatel 4 August 1902

29http://doc.rero.ch/record/51857/files/1928-01-26.pdf

30http://doc.rero.ch/record/22612/files/19420430.pdf

31https://www.moinat.net/boite-cafe-argent-800-fabrique-par-collet-pour-pfaff-neuchatel-274gr-geneve-vers-1952-20eme-ref-13548-fr

32https://www.ebay.com/itm/Phila-Post-Card-Co-Philadelphia-PA-1909-Vintage-Letter-head-Billhead-RARE-/292542372020

33https://oro.open.ac.uk/54201/1/413822.pdf

34http://discovery.nationalarchives.gov.uk/details/r/C10488856?descriptiontype=Full&ref=COPY+1/426/541

35 Knight Companion of the Order of the Star of India.

36http://www.metropostcard.com/publishersp1.html

37https://www.flickr.com/photos/alwyn_ladell/sets/72157645169065109/

38Picture Postcards and their Publishers Anthony Byatt 1978 Golden Age Postcard Books page 200

39http://www.postcardmania.co.uk/postcard-publishers/photochrom-co-ltd/

40http://www.edinphoto.org.uk/1/1_around_edinburgh_-_exhibitions_edinburgh_1908_photochrom.htm

41 Oology is the branch of ornithology concerned with the study of birds’ eggs

42http://www.photoglob.ch/about-me/

43Photoglob Zurich

44 canton of Vaud in Switzerland.

45https://www.foto-ch.ch/?a=fotograph&id=23376&lang=fr

46http://www.cartophilie.ch/journal/janvier2018.pdf

47India by Design: Colonial History and Cultural Display University of California Press, 6 Nov 2007By Saloni Mathur page 115

48Indians in view The representation of British Indians in magic lantern presentations, films and on postcards, 1870–1915 Janna Adriana Siebenga

49http://postcards-of-the-past.co.uk/publishers.htm#pictorial

50http://www.metropostcard.com/publishersp2.html

51https://www.stilografica.it/products/pineider-pens

52https://tuttatoscana.net/2015/02/04/firenze-in-una-guida-pineider-del-1906-2/

53https://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gaston_Piprot

54http://redpoulaine1.rssing.com/chan-13209931/all_p176.html

55https://archive.org/details/bulletindelasoci310soci_0/page/130

President of the Postcard Chamber of the French Photographic Society.

56Tipografia – printing house

57http://nuove-strade.it/lazio/roma/largo-erasmo-pistolesi

58http://archives.hautesavoie.fr/accounts/mnesys_cg74/datas/medias/archives/archives_iconographiques/57Fi/Introduction_fonds_Pittier.pdf

59 Others, including M. Reider of Los Angeles, also used this format.

60https://quod.lib.umich.edu/t/tap/7977573.0004.105/–maintaining-the-photographic-legacy-of-ceylon?rgn=main;view=fulltext

61 Twentieth century impressions of Ceylon(London, 1907)

62 A Biographical Dictionary of 19th Century Photographers in South and South-East Asia John Falconer, British Library,

63No card held

64http://druckmuseum.elis-management.com/druck-steiermark.htm

65http://www.kleinezeitung.at/steiermark/graz/stadtspaziergang/5394680/Stadtspaziergang-Kaiserfeldgasse_Eine-Gasse-der-Geruhsamkeit

66 His father and mother’s first surnames

67https://www.doaks.org/research/library-archives/dumbarton-oaks-archives/collections/ephemera/names/eduardo-polack-schneider

68https://www.findagrave.com/memorial/54784940/homer-m_-pollock

69http://www.lacitta.eu/eventi/3925-mostra-di-150-vecchie-foto-originali-di-viterbo.html

70https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=GTneCwAAQBAJ&pg=SL24-PA411&lpg=SL24-PA411&dq=Fotografia+G+Polozzi&source=bl&ots=6w0bh1x-Oc&sig=tW-Z_R5_tMdfCDviRlaEGMCglIM&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwi69cnK0NjRAhVJOMAKHaJ0BmUQ6AEIIDAB#v=onepage&q=Fotografia%20G%20Polozzi&f=false

71https://www.amazon.com/Album-Tommaso-dAquino-Thomas-Aquinas/dp/B00IH1DJ9I

72http://www.lacitta.eu/eventi/3925-mostra-di-150-vecchie-foto-originali-di-viterbo.html

73https://ontdekjouwverhaal.nl/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/HNK-bld-75-cmpl.pdf

74 https://www.delpher.nl/nl/tijdschriften/view?coll=dts&identifier=dts%3A2446038%3Ampeg21%3A0005

75 https://adresboeken.archiefalkmaar.nl/issue/AVA/1915-01-01/edition/0/page/320?query=Haasbroek&sort=relevance

76https://adresboeken.archiefalkmaar.nl/issue/AVA/1919-01-01/edition/0/page/308

77 https://adresboeken.archiefalkmaar.nl/issue/AVA/1919-01-01/edition/0/page/310

78 https://adresboeken.archiefalkmaar.nl/issue/AVA/1931-01-01/edition/0/page/320?query=

79http://leonc.fr/cpa/WordPress/2009/03/28/editeur-v-p/

80 Dans le Wagon-Restaurant de la Compagnie Internationale des Wagons-lits et des Grands Express Européens Editeur : V. Porcher à Paris https://www.cparama.com/forum/la-cie-internationale-des-wagons-lits-t19788-20.html

81US: suspenders

82 Signature looks rather like Prosgocimi

83https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alberto_Prosdocimi

84https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Purger_%26_Co.#cite_note-6