La Roche-en-Ardenne, Belgium
- Hôtel des Ardennes, J. Tacheny, proprietaire.
Jules Tacheny (1870 to 1920), owner of the Grand Hótel des Ardennes in Laroche 1896 to 1909. Tacheny decorated his hôtel with tapestries from the historic Gobelin tapestry factory in Paris. Tacheny was in partnership with postcard publisher Joseph Bellot (born 1848) from 1896 until Bellot’s death in 1900. Both feature in the FOMU Directory of Belgian Photographers.
One of Tacheny’s friends was Reverend M. A. Perk, Marie Adrien Perk (23 April 1834 to 15 December 1916), a Dutch theologian, pastor and writer . In the summer of 1879, Perk stayed in La Roche there for a few days with his wife and children. It featured in his 1882 travel guide In the Belgian Ardennes. On Tacheny’s initiative, in gratitude for the increase in tourism resulting from this mention, a monument to Perk was erected in 1912 in the form of a wooden bench around a piece of natural stone, in which a text from the French version of the travel guide was engraved.
Tacheny published cards of the hotel into the divided-back era when they were produced by Nels in detachable books. Tacheny was still a hotel owner in Laroche when he died.
Not to be confused with: Jules Tacheny (born in Mettet on 28 April 1907 and died in Floreffe on 16 July 1984) a Belgian motorcycle speed rider who broke 41 world records after whom the stadium in his place of birth is named.
Sources: wiki; FOMU Directory of Belgian Photographers; Couperus at Van Deyssel a chronic confrontation in reflections, letters and notes Thesis of Karel Alfons Petrus Reijnders
Tachochrom Company Berlin
New York & Philadelphia
- Tachochrom Co Berlin, New York, Philadelphia Pa with blackboard & easel logo
Seem to have specialised in views of Pennsylvania and Poland and actor/model postcards. Many of the Pa views seem to have been postally used in 1907 while the Polish ones have divided backs.
Taddei, Ferrara, Italy
- Edit. A. Soati Tip. Taddei, Ferrara H.e.S. D.
Taddei, printer, publisher and bookshop, 43 Corso Martiri Della Liberta, Ferrara. Ferrara is a city and comune in northern Italy 44 kilometres (27 miles) northeast of Bologna.
The Taddei publishing house started business in 1840 when Domenico Taddei, having taken over the old Pomatelli printing house in 1838, began printing and publishing under his own name. In 1883, when Domenico died, his son Antonio and his sons succeeded him though it was directed between 1893 and 96 by Giuseppe Montanari (later self-publisher in Faenza). By 1897 Antonio Soati was involved in the business and it became Taddei & Soati. They were at 31 Piazza della Pace (now Piazza Savonarola) under the San Marco arcades. This card names Soati as publisher and Taddei as printer. H e S D may indicate the German editor Heinrich & Schlesier of Dresden who undoubtedly worked in the Italian market and presumably actually produced the card.
Soati was already experienced as administrator of the competing Bresciani company. He started the process of transformation of the old artisan printing house into a small and refined literary publishing house, on the model of the Florentine ones such as Vallardi.
This process made the business one of the most important publishing houses and bookshops in Ferrara of the twentieth century; In 1914, Graziadio Neppi, engineer and freelance university professor from Ferrara, bought the publishing house to allow his son Alberto (1890 to 1965) to carry out the publishing activity under the name Taddei Publishing Company and the acronym STET. With his brother Giulio (1878 to 1961), Alberto developed the educational and scholastic sector and accentuated its literary vocation. Alberto transformed the publishing house into a hotbed of new talents, publishing the work of Italian poets and foreign writers including Guy de Maupassant and Oscar Wilde. Other than this golden period, the staple was books about Ferrara which were a feature from 1843 to 1926.
Sources: Casa editrice Taddei; Istituto di Storia Contemporanea: Editoria
Jean-Baptiste Talabot, Paris
- J. B. T.
Jean-Baptiste Talabot, printer and publisher, Rueil. Rueil-Malmaison is a commune in the western suburbs of Paris 12.6 kilometres (8 miles) from the centre. Talabot’s early productions related to Lourdes, the Catholic place of pilgrimage. As well as postcards, he designed gold and silver medals and pious images as early as 1896.
By 1917 Talabot was based at the Bazar des Variétés, rue Sainte Catherine in Bordeaux. Here he produced floral postcards with a speech bubble left blank – master postcards on which one could print the name of any place or institution.
Source: Jean-Baptiste Talabot Un bonjour de l’Aviation Militaire d’Étampes carte postale, 1917;
Denver, Colorado, USA
- H.H. TAMMEN, DENVER My card of Indian Papoose also has, within the image: Copyright 1903 By H.H. TAMMEN
Harry Heye Tammen (6 March 1856 to 1924), a maker of souvenirs based in Denver, born in Baltimore, Maryland, the son of a German immigrant pharmacist. With his partner Charles A. Stuart he worked as a Denver bartender in 1880 and, in 1881, they established the firm of H.H. Tammen & Company, also H.H. Tammen Curio Company. The company specialized in rodeo, National Park and western items. They focused on creating souvenir mineralogical curiosities of Colorado, but also sold photography (some by William Henry Jackson), silver souvenir spoons, and the like. The company also sold colourized prints and postcards shot by different photographers and became Colorado’s largest postcard publisher. In 1895, Tammen and Frederick G. Bonfils became co-owners of the Denver Post. Tammen held the position of co-editor until his death. He was apparently behind the controversial decision of Buffalo Bill’s family to bury him in Denver instead of his hometown of Cody, Wyoming. The H.H. Tammen Curio Company was in business until 1953, and possibly as late as 19621.
D.B.Taraporevala Sons & Company, Mumbai
- D.B.Taraporevala Sons & Co., Bombay
D.B. Taraporevala Sons & Company, a Parsee2-run bookshop and publishers that published books between 1891 and 2008. Listed at Meadow Street, Fort, Post, Bombay in 1906 International Directory of Second-hand Booksellers. The bookshop clearly has iconic status in Indian literature3. DB Taraporevala Sons & Company Private Limited was incorporated on 4 March 1947 and is still involved in Publishing. Taraporewala Aquarium in Mumbai (1951) was named after philanthropist D B Taraporewala who donated 200,000 rupees towards the construction.
Dimitri Tarazi and André Terzis
- Dimitri Tarazi & Fils
- Dimitri Tarazi & Fils, Beyrouth-Damas-Jerusalem.
- Dimitri, Tarazi & Fils, Beyrouth, Damas, Jerusalem.
- Andre Tersis et Fils, Beyrouth et Jerusalem
Dimitri Tarazi and his younger brother André Terzis were in business together at least by 1888 when they were advertising as trading in a souk in Beirut before parting in 1894. Both brothers and their sons published early postcards on Lebanon, Syria and Palestine. In 1899 Dmitri Tarazi and sons opened The Oriental Museum Factory and Depositary of Silks, embroideries and artistic furniture in Damascus. Their divided-backs bore to be from Beyrouth, Damascus and Jerusalem. Maison Tarazi is still in business in Lebanon.
Alphonse Taride, Paris
- A. Taride Paris
Alphonse Taride, publisher 18-20, boulevard de Saint-Denis, Paris specialised in maps, tourist guides, histories, and pocket plans of France. He seems to have been a son of one of Jules and Alphonse Taride, the founders of the business that published maps from 1850 into the 1980s. From 1852, Taride published walking itineraries, a metro map and school maps. In the 1880s he published prints of officers of the French and Russian armies. From 1895 he published motoring and cycling maps, expanding in the mid-1930s to Europe and North Africa. Postcards included the 1900 Paris Exposition in respect of which he also published a Photographic Album. After WW2. the business declined until the 1970s, when it was producing only Paris guides and maps of the world4.
Béziers, Hérault, France
Victor Albin Félix Tarniquet (20 April 1855 to 20 June 1931) photographer, Béziers. Son of a merchant, Tarniquet was born in Béziers where he returned after military service with the 83rd line regiment. In 1896 he took over the Béziers branch of the Toulouse photographer Provost at 53 boulevard de Strasbourg. Later he was at 43 boulevard de la Liberté then 25 allées Paul-Riquet, trading as Photographie Sainte-Anne from 1900 to 1903. Tarniquet specialised in artistic effects and wrote a practical guide to enamelling photographs for the London Journal Photographic News, A Weekly Record of the Progress of Photography, in August 1890.
In August 1900 composer Gabriel Fauré was in Béziers to conduct the premier Prométhée a lyrical tragedy in three acts. Tarniquet photographed a rehearsal in which we see Fauré standing in front of the choristers shading themselves under their parasols. His carte de cabinet of the studio shot of the composer lists Tarniquet’s awards in competition from Montpelier in 1885 to the first exposition of the Paris Photo Club in 1894. This is rare evidence of Tarniquet’s work as a portrait painter because he was above all a trader who offered general supplies for photography. As well as musical performances, he also photographed bullfights which remain popular locally. These images he sold as postcards. He faded from view as a photographer before the end of the first decade of the 20th century.
Tarniquet published undivided-back cards with the wording Cliché F TARNIQUET, BEZIERS. My card of Avignon nearly 160 kilometres away is labelled F.T. Editeur may, accordingly, relate to someone else.
Source: Photographers in France
Henry W Taunt, Oxford, England
- TAUNT & CO
Henry William Taunt, photographer and author, (14 June 1842 to 4 November 1922) Oxford. At the age of 14, Taunt became a general utility apprentice for photographer Edward Bracher. Three years later, he took a fateful boat trip along the River Thames, which began his lifelong fascination with the waterway. In 1863 Taunt married Miriam Jeffrey, but continued to enjoy the reputation of being a ladies’ man, often seen in the company of women other than his wife. In 1868 he opened his first studio, at 33 Cornmarket Street, and not surprisingly, specialized in the Thames and its surrounding landscape. His photographs distinguished themselves for their technical precision and their masterful aestheticism. Taunt’s thoughtful lens captured the beauty and mystery of the river unlike any other photographer of the time.
In 1872 Taunt published A New Map of the River Thames from Oxford to London, from Entirely New Surveys, Taken During the Summer of 1871: With a Guide, Giving Every Information Required by the Tourist, the Oarsman, and the Angler. The first edition was published to great acclaim. Each of the river’s 33 maps was painstakingly hand-coloured in blue. The widespread popularity of the volume led to a surge in mapbooks, brochures, and postcards featuring the Thames, and inspired humorist Jerome K. Jerome’s novel Three Men in a Boat. It was reprinted again in 1989.
To accommodate his growing business, Taunt moved his gallery from Cornmarket to a larger building on 9-10 Broad Street in 1874. Taunt was a prolific author: In 1880 Taunt & Company published The Story of Iffley Mill by Henry Taunt. In 1894 Henry W. Taunt & Company published Goring, Streatley, and the neighbourhood by Henry Taunt. In 1912 Taunt published his history of Oxford’s thousand years, The Millenary of Oxford. Its Story for a Thousand Years Concisely told and Illustrated. Taunt’s The Rollright Stones; the Stonehenge of Oxfordshire; With Some Account of the Ancient Druids and Sagas Rendered Into English, Illustrated With Camera and Pen was reprinted in 2018.
Taunt cut an impressive figure in a houseboat converted to a floating studio surmounted by the camera he used for river photography. In 1895 he was photographed in it near Oxford with a lady, probably his close friend Fanny Miles. Always happiest on the water, Taunt would occasionally move his operations onto the houseboat to be closer to his greatest source of inspiration. He was also active in his church, St Mary Magdalen, playing organ and leading the choir. Taunt was equally involved in civic affairs, campaigning vigorously for clean urban water and bitterly opposing electric trams. In 1889, he leased Canterbury House, dubbed ‘Rivera’ as an homage to the river, and it became an integral part of his personal and professional lives. This became his primary photographic and printing headquarters. Still riding the wave of success, Taunt was elected as a Fellow of the Royal Geographical Society. However, the following year, his professional fortunes took a nosedive when he was forced into bankruptcy when a verbal agreement on his Broad Street lease was reneged. When Taunt died, he had only five members of staff.
Source: Historic Camera
Further reading: Henry Taunt of Oxford: A Victorian Photographer Malcolm Graham, Oxford Illustrated Press, 1973
Curt Teich & Company
Chicago, Illinois, US
- MANUFACTURED BY CURT TEICH & CO., CHICAGO, ILL
- Curt Teich & Co., Printers, Chicago.
- Curt Teich & Co., Publishers, Chicago. logo of dragon holding a monogram of CT
- Curt Teich & Co., Chicago and St. Louis.
- CTCo monogram CHICAGO
Curt Otto Teich (1877 to 1974) who migrated to the United States from Lobenstein, Germany in 1896, founded the Curt Teich Company of Chicago which operated from 1898 to 1978 and was said to be the world’s largest printer of view and advertising postcards. At the peak of production, the company could print several million postcards in a single day though they also had cards made in Germany. The Company saved examples of every image they produced5.
The first series of cards printed by the Teich Company used numbers only and ranged from 1 – 14989 and were produced between 1900 and 19086. Teich photographers took pictures in more than 10,000 towns and cities in the U.S., Canada and 115 other countries. Their cards of the St Louis World Fair in 1904 gave their second place of business as that city. In 1982, the bulk of the collection — more than 350,000 images – was donated by the Teich family to a museum from where they were transferred to Newberry Library, Chicago in October 20167.
Fred. G. Temme, Orange, N.J., USA
- FRED. G. TEMME, PUBLISHER, ORANGE, N.J.
- Fred. G. Temme, 33 North Centre Street, Orange, N.Y.
Fred. G. Temme, printer, newspaper publisher and editor, 33 North Centre Street, Orange.
Orange Volksbote (People’s Messenger) (1872 to 1914) was a German-language weekly newspaper devoted to the interests of the German-American residents of the Oranges. It was Democrat in politics and a six-column paper of four pages (22” x 32”) with a circulation of 424 by 1876 and a subscription price of $2.50. In 1892 Ernest Temme, a well known Newark newspaper man, bought the Volksbote and became its editor and proprietor, roles his printer son Fred. G. Temme gradually took over as the century came to an end.
In 1886 Temme printed a timetable card for the Morris & Essex Railway, listing travel between South Orange, New Jersey and New York City, with intermediate stops.
On 10 June 1896 The journal of New York reported the latest of a series of burglaries in Orange:
“Last night the office of Fred Temme, editor of the Volksbote, on Day street, was raided. The establishment was entered from a rear window, and the interior presented a dilapidated appearance this morning. The vandals are supposed to be boys, and several were seen about the place shortly before dark. Temme prints excursion and picnic tickets for Societies and it is thought the intruders entered with the Intention of securing tickets to these outings.”
Temme published numbered NJ topographical postcards into the divided-back era. Despite being a printer, he commissioned many of them from various German firms. However, he seems to have printed cards himself by 1903:
We have received from Fred G. Temme, a printer at Orange, a very attractive mailing card printed in colors after the style of souvenir cards now so popular at sea-side and mountain resorts. The card shows pictures of the Edison Laboratory; of “Glenmont,” the home of Thomas A. Edison, and the entrance to Llewellyn Park, in which Mr. Edison’s home is situated. If this card should interest any of our trade, Mr. Temme willEdison Phonograph Monthly Published For Trade Use Only By The National Phonograph Co. November 1903
doubtless be willing to furnish quotations upon it. His address is Orange, N. J.
Tensi Brothers, Milan, Italy
- F.lli Tensi8 – Milano
Alberto and Francesco Tensi founded the company Fratelli Tensi on June 15, 1867 with headquarters in Via Vigentina 11 in Milan. Alberto Tensi died aged 38 years on 5 June 1879. In the new century, the firm undertook the production of lithography and cromolithography including posters, game sheets, often on military and historical subjects. The Company ceased production in 19739.
Perugia, Umbria, Italy
- Prop. Riservata Libreria Terese – Perugia
- Ed. Domenico Terese Perugia H. & S. D.
Domenico Terese, bookseller and publisher, Perugia, published local topographicals of images some of which are now in the Alinari archive. He also published non-fiction books round about the turn of the century which he sold with plates reading Terese Bookshop of Artistic Photography Perugia. The Perugia Section of the Italian Alpine Club meeting point from its establishment in 1875 was at the Terese shop in Corso Vannucci in front of the Guardia dei Vigili Urbani, where the shop clerk, Cipriani, was always thoughtfully welcoming towards the members10.
This card: The Palazzo dei Priori is one of the best examples in Italy of a public palace of the Middle Ages. It was built in the Gothic style between 1293 and 1443 in several construction phases. It stands in the central Piazza IV November in Perugia and extends along Corso Vannucci to via Boncambi. Source: wikipedia
Limoges, Haute-Vienne, France
- MTIL11 logo with each letter in a different leaf of a four leaf clover
- MT above IL
Jean-Maurice Tesson (1877 to 1955), printer and publisher, 5 bis rue du General Cerez, Limoges, publisher of national influence. Tesson worked with Charles Collas (qv) in Cognac, the place of his birth, before becoming a printer in Limoges. Collas also used four initials in a clover and, indeed, published Tesson’s first cards. Tesson managed to combine this activity while serving as a sergeant of the 78th Infantry Regiment and colonel’s secretary in Limoges. His younger brother Roger, after having worked in Cognac with Charles Collas, joined him in Limoges as a photographer12. As well as a numbered series of fine photo-cards, Tesson advertised colour prints produced by chromolithography and calendars.
Chiasso, Ticino, Switzerland.
- Tip. R. Tettamenti – Chiasso
Rinaldo Pietro Giuseppe Tettamanti (born 4 September 1857), printer and publisher. Como-born Tettamanti published an eclectic selection of books:
- Marco Visconti by Tomaso Grossi (1886)
- Freemasonry, socialism, Judaism contemporary historical notes of an Italian by A. Forni (1888 reprinted 1999);
- Swiss Typography (1893);
- Compendium of the Christian Doctrine for use by the Diocese of Como, which catechists and teachers in the classes of the Christian Doctrine must use in the future. Edition again corrected with the approval of the Ecclesiastical Authority of Ticino (1893);
- Breaktime, a monthly four-page periodical of the students of the International Baragiola Institute of Riva S. Vitale;
- “The house of the German colonies of the Carnic group. Sappada, Sauris and Timau” by Aristide Baragiola (1915 reprinted 1989)
Tettamenta became a limited partner in the Angelo Bietti printing company in Milan when it was founded in 1903.
I also very often spent Sundays at Monte Olimpino and walking in Chiasso, where all the Comaschi flocked to buy sugar, coffee, chocolate and tobacco, to drink lots of beer and to dance at Crotto della Giovannina and Bagnetta, where all the young men and women of the city met. At the time, of course, there was no mention of border cards, nor of passports: all of them passed freely and customs control was light-touch.Memory of 1904 Avv. AMILCARE CASNATI (scan and elaboration from L’OLIMPO of 14 October 1945 by Franco Romanò)
- L. Thackeray
- LT elongated initials making a square with the horizontals
Lance Thackeray (1867 to 1916) Yorkshire joke cartoonist, illustrator and postcard artist. Thackeray designed hundreds of postcards for Tucks (below) in the write away style originated by Cynicus (qv) as well as cartoons for other publishers13. His gentle wit, satirising Edwardian society, is well known and has never been surpassed. Thackeray is an elusive man, a bachelor leaving no private papers. Sociable and enjoying life, yet always edging away. In his postcard designs he eludes us too. Drawing just enough, then setting the imagination working. The greater our human experience – pretensions, hopes, desires, disasters, follies – the more we smile. Not at the people he draws, but with them. Sadly he never became the major English artist he might have been. In his centenary year a pioneering biography entitled Lance Thackeray : His Life and Art by Tom Askey was published14.
Thacker, Spink & Co., Kolkata, India.
- Thacker, Spink & Co., Calcutta.
Thacker, Spink & Company, publishers (1819 to 1960). A major Indian book publisher of literature, guides, history, and almanacs. They were also an early publisher of picture postcards. In 1851 they established William Thacker & Co. at 2, Newgate Street, London. Their Calcutta partner, William Spink, was a Justice of the Peace15. From 1864 to 1884 they published Thacker’s Bengal Directory covering the Bengal Presidency which included the present day Myanmar and Bangladesh. From 1885 the Directory covered the whole of British India and was renamed Thacker’s Indian Directory. The directory was an almanac which listed British and Foreign Merchants and Manufacturers, Commercial Industries, Army, railway and government departments and office holders, European residents, and separately, prominent non-European residents. It was later owned by Maharaja of Darbhanga and was published until 196016. William Thacker died in 1872 and William Spink left India in 1876 for London where he died in 1891 at the age of 75. His son and grandson headed the Indian branch in succession17.
Frank S Thayer
Denver, Colorado, USA
- BURRO SERIES
- ART SOUVENIR SYNDICATE, P.O. BOX 1528, DENVER.
- Frank S. Thayer, Publisher, Denver
Frank S Thayer, publisher, Denver. Between 1879 and 1894 Thayer published The Canons (Canyons) of Colorado from photographs by William Henry Jackson (1843 to 1942), one of the most renowned 19th Century landscape photographers of the Western USA who opened a studio in Denver in 187918. In 1901 Thayer published La Grande Flora de Colorado de Montana y Llanos, an atlas folio of Twelve botanical chromolithographs of artwork of the flowers of the mountains and plains of Colorado with his own introduction. In 1905 he published Souvenir of Lewis & Clark Exposition, Portland, Oregon, an exposition held to commemorate the first American expedition to cross the western portion of the United States. As well as topographical cards, Thayer published as series of comic cards featuring donkeys mostly with jokes about telephones although he was not the only one even in Denver to do so19.
Theodor Eismann (1908 to 1914) New York and Leipzig, Saxony, a fine-art printing and publishing house that produced tinted halftone postcards that were printed in the United States and in Germany. These include view-cards, comics, and greetings. Eismanm senior died in 1903 and his son Paul Edward Theodor took over the business20.
- Theuer Kauf
Christian Gottlob Heinrich Theuerkauf (21 January 1833 to 5 March 1911 ) was a German painter and lithographer born and bred in Kassel in North Hesse.
Having trained at the Kassel Art Academy and learned the art of lithography using chalk technique (where lithographs mimic chalk drawings) Theuerkauf set up on his own in 1848. In 1851 he went to Berlin where he lithographed landscapes and architectural pictures and drew them for woodcut. Theuerkauf created views of numerous German and European cities and buildings and his work appeared in books and high-circulation journals. From 1875 he also turned to watercolour painting. From 1890 Theuerkauf lectured in watercolours as well as architecture and landscape painting at the Technical University of Berlin in Charlottenburg. He was appointed professor in 1895 and taught landscape painting until 1904. In 1898 he published the autobiographical Uß den Kännerjohren, written in the North Hessian dialect. As if all this were not enough, he also composed songs and orchestral pieces. He died in Kassel.
Sources: Gottlob Theuerkauf (wikipedia); The Dictionary of Kassel Dialect by August Grassow and Paul Heidelbach
Fontainebleau & Melun, Seine-et-Marne, France
- Thibault, editeurs, Fontainebleau Melun
Henri Thibault (c. 1873 to 1942) was an important postcard publisher based in Melun and at 18 rue de France, Fontainebleau, fifteen kilometres to the south. There’s quite a lot of research online about him but some of it is contradictory and much of it confusing. It does appear that in 1904, he launched the Salamander brand with a logo representing the animal bearing a stylised letter “T”.
French stage actor, film actor, director, screenwriter, and playwright Sacha Guitry (1885 to 1957) started writing a book about love in a gilt-edged notebook he bought from Thibault’s bookshop.
Sources: cparama; delcampe; bleau
- R. Thiele London G.B. & Co. London
- R. THIELE. PHOTO GB CO
Karl Anton Reinhold Thiele (1856 to 1921), photographer. Born in Hamelin, Germany, Reinhold Thiele served his photographic apprenticeship with the daguerreotypist and later composite photographer Friedrich Karl Wunder. He arrived in London in 1878 to work for William Henry Prestwich and in 1880 joined the London Stereoscopic Company, initially as a water colourist and then as an operator. In 1894, working as Symmons and Thiele, and at first specialising in football teams, he became one of the first photo journalists, working for the Daily Graphic newspaper on special news events such as Queen Victoria’s jubilee, the opening of Tower Bridge in 1894 and the Boer war. Thiele was commissioned by the Daily Graphic to cover the Boer War. For nine months, he followed the battles in an ox-drawn wagon. His camera of choice for combat photographs was a 10 x 8” plate camera fitted with a Dallmeyer telephoto lens. However, the editorial staff at the Daily Graphic thought some of Thiele’s photographs were too graphic for the public, and they were not published.
Thiele was also a pioneer of flashlight photography. He had a photographic studio at 66 Chancery lane in London where he took portraits of royalty and the rich and famous. His sister Elsa Thiele worked with him at the studio as a colourist.
Sources: National Portrait Gallery; Shiloha Levi (Thiele’s great granddaughter); Historic Camera
This card: This card was produced by Giesen Brothers of London. Walter Henry Passmore (10 May 1867 to 29 August 1946) was an English singer and actor best known in the comic baritone roles in Gilbert and Sullivan operas with the D’Oyly Carte Opera Company. In 1903, Passmore left D’Oyly Carte and began a thirty-year career in musical comedies, plays and pantomimes in London’s West End and on tour. Source: wikipedia
Elberfeld, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany
- Lichtdruck von Zedler & Vogel, Darmstadt 1904 Hauptniederlage f. Rheinland und Westfalen Gerhard Thien, Elberfeld
Gerhard Thien, printer and publisher, Elberfeld. Thien was the principal place of business for Rheinland and Westfalen of printers Zedler & Vogel of Darmstadt 250 km to the southeast in Hessse. Thien published local topographicals well in to the 20th century not least of the the suspension railway at nearby Wuppertal.
D C Thomson, Dundee, Scotland
- Presented with “The Red Letter” RED LETTER MESSAGE CARD
The DC Thomson family enterprise originates from the entrepreneurship of William Thomson who launched a shipping business in the early 19th century. In the mid-19th century, the Thomson family invested in publishing, taking an interest in the Dundee Courier newspaper before buying it in 1886. At that time there were two major publishing houses in Dundee, the other run by Sir John Leng, home of the Dundee Advertiser. In 1905 the Thomson and Leng firms merged under the leadership of William Thomson’s son David Couper (D.C.) Thomson.
The acquisition of John Leng was a shrewd investment which considerably strengthened Thomson. Leng was an established fixture in the Scottish magazine market, publishers of the most popular weekly, The People’s Friend. They also published The People’s Journal, a local-interest publication known throughout Scotland as the ‘Ploughman’s Bible’. Thomson-Leng’s letterpress weeklies for women and for boys exploited the demand for stories of romance, crime, and adventure created by light fiction and the cinema.
The Red Letter family magazine was published from 1899 to 1987. The magazine was primarily aimed at women in general and the housewife in particular. In 1911, a silent film commissioned to mark the Dundee Courier‘s 50 years as a daily newspaper, showed The Red Letter and other weekly journals being printed in their Glasgow works.
Although not a specialist film or theatre magazine, from 1902 to 1914 the Red Letter published reviews of music hall acts from theatres all over Britain and acts from around the world. In about 1916, Fred Goodwins contributed around thirty five articles about Charlie Chaplin building Chaplin’s star image. Chaplin was, by then, arguably the most famous man in the world. These articles reveal how his star image was maintained, how Chaplin attempted (with a fair degree of success) to deflect criticism of his failure to join up at the outbreak of the war, and the repeated emphasis on both his extraordinary talent and his being ‘one of the boys’. There is a checklist of the Chaplin postcards issued with the Red Letter here.
During WWI Thomson published MIDGET MESSAGE CARDS of similar dimensions to this card, contributing to the war propaganda effort. Thomsons were the most successful publisher of letterpress weekly papers for women and for boys during and between the World Wars. Today DC Thomson has five directors all of whom are descendants of the founder. Other members of the Thomson family continue to work within the business.
Sources; ‘When I’m trying to be funny I’m all wrong’: Chaplin in The Red Letter August 2013 Early Popular Visual Culture 11(3):255-272; DC Thomson; Charlie Chaplin’s Red Letter Days. At Work with the Comic Genius Fred Goodwins Edited by David James; Notes by Dan Kamin (Rowman & Littlefield 2017)
Charles Thwaites, Durham, England
- C. THWAITES, DURHAM
- C. THWAITES, 10 MARKET PLACE, DURHAM
Charles Thwaites, (died 1901) printer and stationer, 10 Market Place, Durham. As early as 1876 Thwaites published a report of Proceedings in the Court of Arbitration in relation to the Durham Coal Trade. In 1880 he advertised that he kept in stock note paper and envelopes stamped with the Durham University Arms. When he printed the 1899 Annual Report of the Medical Officer of Health, he was described as County Printer and Stationer. He commissioned cards, including this one, from ETW Dennis of Scarborough.
A carved C & T monogram can be seen in the stone above the bay window of Thwaites’ shop in Market Place. In the 1920s the building was taken over by Durham City Dairy who turned the upstairs into a tearoom. It is now occupied by opticians21.
Leonhard Tietz, Antwerp, Belgium
- ETABLISSEMENT LEONHARD TIETZ, ANVERS
Leonhard Tietz, department store, Meir, Antwerp. Tietz came from a family of German Jewish traders who had a network of dozens of department stores spread across Germany, including ten in Berlin alone. On a trip to Milan Tietz saw the breathtaking Victor Emmanuel II Gallery, built between 1865 and 1877, and this inspired the design of his store in Antwerp. His architect Joseph Hertogs (1861 to 1930) completed his design in 1900 and the festive opening of Les Grands Magasins Tietz on the Meir took place on April 28 1901. There are a whole series of postcards of the interior of the store in the period before World War I. The images give a good idea of the breathtaking and richly-decorated interior and the dozens of departments22. One of the features of the store was an automatic bar, a craze in the hospitality sector of the Belle Epoque period consisting of vending machines from which one could obtain drinks or refreshments after inserting coins or tokens23.
Bad Elster, Saxony, Germany
- E. Tietze, Bad Elster.
Emil Tietze (19 December 1840 to 30 July 1931), hotelier and photographer in Bad Elster, opened his studio around 1865 and also branches in Asch in Bohemia and Oelsnitz in Voigtland. As well as studio portraits as cartes de cabinets, Tietze produced topographical and stereoscopic photographs in the era before postcards. On the reverse, he advertised 20 elegantly furnished rooms for rent in Villa Tietze with moderate prices, prompt service and a brilliant view.
On 18 February 1870, Tietze became member No. 53 of the Dresden Photographic Society, founded the previous October. Tietze helped organise the first Spa Museum (Bademuseum) in Bad Elster which opened in 1880. In 1900 he was appointed photographer to the Royal Saxony Court.
Bad Elster is a spa town in the Vogtlandkreis district, in the Free State of Saxony, Germany. It lies on the border of Bavaria and the Czech Republic in the Elster gebirge hills.
Tilley & Son, Ledbury, England
- TILLEY & SON, POST CARD PUBLISHERS LEDBURY.
- Tilley & Son, Ledbury
Luke Tilley, (died 30 September 1914 aged 75)24 purchased an old-established bookselling, stationery and printing business in High Street, Ledbury in April 1870. His second son John opened a studio up the alley behind the shop. His other son, William, ran a motor accessories shop from next door. The Tilley family business – stationer, newsagent, bookseller and printer, hiring of bicycles and motor vehicles, repair garage, poster sites, and a subscription library – was very successful. Luke retired from business about 18 months before his death, leaving John to carry on the business. While adhering to his principle that he would never allow himself to be nominated for any public office necessitating any election or voting, he engaged in public work to the extent that he was informally referred to as the Mayor of Ledbury.
John Tilley, a prolific publisher of postcards and photographs, is the man to whom the pictorial history of Ledbury is indebted25. Many of his cards were made by Stengel (qv). Aerofilms Ltd, founded in 1919, was the UK’s first commercial aerial photography company. Tilley printed and published a series of Giant Photo-Cards, 8 by 11 inches, of their aerial photographs of Ledbury.
- Uitg. Frans Timmerman, Vlissingen
Frans Timmerman26, 44 Walstraat, Vlissingen, extended his bookshop in Walstraat to serve tourists and opened a branch on the seafront. There he sold beach equipment, cigars and cigarettes, chocolates, his postcards and souvenirs of Vlissingen as well as serving as a tourist information bureau27.
The Tinners Arms
Zennor, Saint Ives, Cornwall,
- The Tinners Arms Zennor
The Tinners Arms has been at the heart of village life in Zennor for over 700 years. The Inn is a Grade II-listed traditional Cornish pub. It is said to have been built in 1271 to accommodate the masons who constructed St Senara’s Church opposite, famous for its mermaid. The name is derived from the Tinners, with records of tin extraction in the area dating back to Tudor times. The pub sign pictures a tin miner at work.
D. H. Lawrence stayed in the pub for a fortnight in 1916:
“At Zennor one sees infinite Atlantic, all peacock-mingled colours, and the gorse is sunshine itself. Zennor is a most beautiful place: a tiny granite village nestling under high shaggy moor-hills and a big sweep of lovely sea beyond, such a lovely sea, lovelier even than the Mediterranean… It is the best place I have been in, I think”
The Tinners is a refuge from the modern pace of life without television, juke box, fruit machine or mobile phone signal. This card bears an artist signature which appears to be Roadstone 59. This would put it, unsurprisingly perhaps, long after the undivided-back era.
Sources: Tinners Arms; wikipedia: Tinners Arms
The Tintograph Company
Cincinnatian Joseph F. Grever (died 10 November 1943 aged 76) set up the Tintograph Company in 1905 to trade in colour printing equipment and supplies. He incorporated it in New York on 3 March 1906 with Thomas F. Fox and Thomas Hill of Brooklyn. By 1918 Grever was president, Hill vice-president and Fox. secretary-treasurer. They described the company as manufacturers of shading mediums. On 22 November 1920 Grever and Fox filed a patent application for a film-holding device.
Tipografia Umbra, Perugia, Italy
- Tip. Umbra Perugia
Umbria Printing House, 21 via Bontempi, Perugia. Tipografia Umbra was the trading name of the partnership of Benucci & Fazzoli. They published non-fiction books in the period straddling the turn of the century. Their periodicals included the 1890 and 91 editions of La Favilla, the literature magazine of Umbria and the local weekly Il Socialista between 1903 and 1905.
Weltevreden, Jakarta, Indonesia.
- importatie “Toko Centrum29” Weltevreden
Other places in the Dutch East Indies had shopping centres but only the one in Weltvreden seems to have imported postcards. In 1902 Tio Tek Hong, a prominent general merchant and leading postcard publisher opened a shop at 93 Jalan Pasar Baru in the Weltevreden area, near Passer Baroe. His business prospered and during the 1910s, he acquired adjoining land and twice rebuilt his store to become the building which exist now, a colonial building in Jakarta known as Toko Tio Tek Hong (Indonesian for “Tio Tek Hong’s Shop”)30. The cards published in his name seem to be later than the toko centrum undivided backs which confirms the idea that they were published by the same person.
Angoulême, Nouvelle-Aquitaine, France
- Tongimed Angoulême
Jacques Maurice Demignot founded Tongimed, the General Paper Mill of Angoulême which specialized in manufacture for retailers. A small part of its production was the manufacture and distribution of postcards. TONGIMED is the founder’s name in reverse. All cards have undivided backs and are numbered 1 to 331. The oldest cards have Tongimed’s Paper on the front, and later ones Tongimed, Angoulême. Production ended in July 1906 when the factory burned down.31
Y. Torii, Shibaku, Tokyo
Y. Torii, bookstore in Shibaku, Tokyo published view and portrait cards during Period I34 and humorous postcards of children playing during Period II35.
Tosari Sanitorium, Java, Indonesia
- Sanatorium Tosari hoogst gelegen herstellengsfoord van lava 6000 voet36 Directeur-Geneesheer37 Dr J. H. J. v Barmen-‘t Loo Arts
Tosari Sanitorium, a sanatorium established at Kampong Ledok in Java, at 1777 metres in 1845 under the direction and medical supervision of Dr Fangmann offering comfortable conviviality, rooms bookable by telegraph and a path to the Nymphs’ pool and splendid waterfall within forty minutes’s walk38. Heavily Government-subsidised, the Sanatorium published a number of advertising view cards featuring the sights of Java.
Theodoulos N Toufexis
- Th. N. Toufexis, Nicosia Θ. Ν. Τουφεξής, Λευκωσία
Theodoulos Nikolaou Toufexis, (1872 to 1948) Greek Cypriot photographer, Nicosia.
Toufexis was born in the village of Athienou where his family sold rifles (toufek) which earned them their distinctive surname. In the early 20th century they moved to Nicosia and opened a shop in Ermou Street, a main commercial street, and added imported items to their gun stock. Toufexis began his working career in glassware and hardware there. Nicknamed Foulis, Toufexis was regarded as a bon viveur. He ventured into amateur photography and started selling picture postcards in 1902. His images reflected more the local way of life than topographical scenes and his postcards have given us an immense insight into the way of life of ordinary people.
Source:s Theodoulos N. Toufexis – An illustrated Guide to Early Twentieth Century Cyprus: its History and its People Stavros G. Lazarides (Laiki Group Cultural Centre, Nicosia 2004); Kyrenia Commentator The History of Cypriot Photography – Part 2 Ismail Veli; Genius Loci – Ioannis Kissonerghis and British Landscape Painters A catalogue published on the occasion of the temporary exhibition at the A. G. Leventis Gallery, Oct 1, 2016
This card: Christianity was originally brought to Cyprus by the Apostles Barnabas and Mark in the first century, c. 46AD and was under the jurisdiction of the Patriarchate of Jerusalem until 325. Apostle Barnabas is considered to be the first bishop of Cyprus.
In 478, the grave of St. Barnabas was found, with a copy of the Gospel of Matthew on his relics. The autocephaly, the property of being self-headed, of the Church of Cyprus was confirmed later that year by the Roman Emperor Zeno who granted its Archbishop three privileges: to sign his name in cinnabar (the bright scarlet to brick-red form of mercury sulfide), to wear purple instead of black under his vestments, and to use an imperial scepter instead of the episcopal crosier.
Source: orthodoxwiki: Church of Cyprus
- IMP TOURANGELLE TOURS
Mame & Son, publishers in Tours between 1796 and 1975.
Armand Mame (1779 to 1848) set up as a printer in Tours in the late 18th century. He was from a family of Angers printers whose path crossed with Honoré de Balzac several times. In 1833, Armand’s son Alfred (1811 to 1893) and nephew Ernest (1805 to 1883) joined the firm. From 1845, they had large workshops built to modernize the company. The site was close to the current National Street. In 1846, Honoré de Balzac planned to buy a residence in Touraine. He justified his project: None of my business will suffer, because we go from Vouvray to Paris in 6 hours, and there is a huge printing works in Tours39. Between 1860 and 1875 Alfred Mame built Mame City, 62 houses to accommodate its workers. Mame wanted to make his company a model of social organization. He worked to improve the living conditions expecting good conditions to improve the quality of work and the loyalty of his workers40. Later family to join the business included Ernest Mame (1805 to 1883) who was mayor of Tours, his cousin Alfred Mame (1811 to 1893), Paul Mame (1833 to 1903), Armand Mame (1864 to 1926) and Alfred Mame (1909 to 1994)). Their works were destroyed on 19 June 1940 when German tracer bullets caused a gigantic fire. The replacement premises near the Tours train station were destroyed by stray Allied bombs on 20 May 194441.
This card: Originally from the south of Touraine, Edmond Chaumier (1853 to 1931) founded a dispensary for children in Tours. From this castle in Plessis Les Tours, now owned by the City of Tours, Chaumier manufactured and distributed smallpox vaccine in France and abroad. Heifers were used for the production of the vaccine being shaved and then marked with shallow incisions in the skin. They were then inoculated with the disease and their wounds then scraped to collect the anti-bodies.
Source: Esprit Val de Loire
- FT monogram in the artwork RAPHAEL TUCK & SONS’ “CONTINENTAL SERIES 4007 M.M. VIENNA.
Fernand Toussaint (1873 to 1956) was one of the most important Post-Impressionist Belgian painters of the 20th century. He was born in Brussels in an upper-middle class family. When his parents discovered his talent in drawing they helped him to develop it and he enrolled at the Académie Royale des Beaux-Arts at the age of 15. At the age of eighteen he left for Paris to continue his studies there.
Toussaint specialised in painting portraits of women, still lifes and city-scapes, in the Impressionist, Art Nouveau, and Post-Impressionist styles. His works include paintings, water-colours and commercial posters. One of the Belgian art critics of the time said that he was one of the painters who broadened the horizon of the peaceful and intimate landscape. In 1929, a French reviewer described him as the undisputed master at capturing the grace and charm of women.
In November 1980 Le Sillon, a poster by Toussaint, sold to a private collector in California for $70,000.
Leipzig and Florence
- Paul Trabert, Firenze-Lipsia42 (fot: Alinari)
- Ditta Paul Trabert-Firenze No 62 fot. Biagetti
- Paul Trabert, Lipsia and logo of T with elaborate P intertwined.
- Paul Trabert, Firenze-Lipsia and logo of T with elaborate P intertwined.
- Paul Trabert, Firenze and logo of T with elaborate P intertwined.
Paul Trabert was one of the many Leipzig printers and artists using phototype43 from the start of the twentieth century. He founded the Leipziger Ansichtskartenfabrik44 in what was then Seumestrasse45. My cards were published from their branch in Italy and one features a photograph from the famous Italian Alinari studio (qv). In 1914, Trabert set up the new Graphische Kunstanstalt46 factory. The company came to an end with the Second World War though the GDR continued to use the building for printing47.
Robert Tränkner, Jarocin, Poland
- Verlag von R. Tränkner in Jarotschin48
Robert Tränkner, editor, publisher and owner of the local printing house. Tränkner built his second printing works, on Gołębia Street, during World War I and published the German newspaper Jarotschiner Anzeiger49 until 1920 when he closed it following the establishment post war of the Second Polish Republic50.
Monza, Lombardy, Italy
- P. Tremolada
Pietro Tremolada (1855 to 1913) painter and photographer, Monza. His photography has been described as … a witness of the changes in a city still uncertain about its destiny, poised between past and present, between provincialism and industrial take-off. Tremolada is the most sensitive witness to the expressive freedom offered by photography in Monza, the narrator of an uncontaminated age that will be definitively wiped out with the death of Umberto I and the tragic events of war51. Tremolada’s photo-cards included the King and Queen driving through the town and a series of romantic scenes posed by models and published by Alterocca of Terni (qv).
Dr. Trenkler & Company
Leipzig, Saxony, Germany
- T in scalloped logo
- Dr. Trenkler Co.
- T in scalloped logo Dr. Trenkler Co., Leipzig
- Dr. Trenkler Co., Lipsia52
- T in scalloped logo Dr. Trenkler Co., Lipsia
Dr. Trenkler Company, 1894 to 1972 Leipzig, Saxony. This fine art printer was first established in 1894 under the name Phototechnisches Institut Dr. Trenkler & Co. by Dr Bruno Trenkler and Carl Gustav Jahrig53. After the comings and goings of a few additional partners, the firm settled on the name Dr. Trenkler & Company by 1900. They would become one of the largest printers and publishers of lithographic and collotype postcards in Germany, producing view-cards from all over the world. They are also known for a large set of cards issued for the Louisiana Purchase Exposition in 1904. They opened an office in London in 1902 where the publisher Frederick Hartmann (qv) became their agent. Their growth required the opening of another factory around 1904. In the following years they got into a long legal battle for using the term Autochrom to describe their tinted lithographs, which was a trade name registered with Louis Glaser (qv). The loss of this case combined with a long labour strike and the failure of Jahrig to form a strong union of collotype printers contributed to their decision in 1909 to sell off the publishing side of their business, possibly to Emil Pinkau (qv). In 1939 the Trenkler-Verlag published the book The Wonderful Adventures of Baron von Münchhausen by Peter Hammerschlag, although as a Jew he was prohibited from publishing and was already on the run.
A different address side here.
- A. TREVISAN
Trevisan was an Italian watercolourist of scenes of Venice, active between about 1900 and 1915. Like many of his contemporaries serving the tourist trade in Venice, Trevisan produced signed watercolours that served as the basis for postcards. Painting for postcards was an opportunity not to be missed for the Venetian watercolourists supplying the shops around Piazza San Marco; buy the postcard – buy an original.
Watercolours produced and signed by Trevisan served as the basis for postcards in at least two series produced by the Venetian Ferdinand Gobbato and Cormault and Papeghin of Paris.
Trevisan is not to be confused with Alberto Trevisan (1919 to 1978), a Rome-based artist active after World War II.
Raphael Tuck & Sons
- Raphael Tuck & Sons’ “ART” Series 865 “CAT STUDIES BY CHARLES REID” ART PUBLISHERS TO THEIR MAJESTIES THE KING AND QUEEN Phototyped in Austria Landor’s Cat Series
Raphael Tuck (born 7 August 1821) and his wife Ernestine had seven children before they emigrated from Prussia to London. In October 1866 they opened a little shop on Union Street selling pictures and frames and within a few months Tuck established himself as a distributor of graphic art printing which included chromos, oleographs and black and white lithographs.
As the children grew up, they provided more help to the business. Tuck sent his sons, Herman, Adolph and Gustave out to bring in more business. On these selling trips, Herman and Adolph would check the results of the day’s work. The one with the higher sales would get the bigger egg next morning for breakfast.
In the early 1900s Tuck opened several offices in addition to the headquarters in London; the New York office seems to have been especially important. There were others at various times in Montreal, Berlin, Paris, & Toronto.
The greatest period of expansion of the Tuck firm came under direction of Adolph who joined his father in 1870. Gustave and Herman followed their brother in 1871. Adolph became managing director, which included control of the art department. Gustave directed the book and calendar departments, while Herman handled the financial end of the business.
In 1883, Queen Victoria granted the firm the Royal Warrant of Appointment. Tuck cards thereafter bore the message, Art Publishers to Her Majesty the Queen. Future sovereigns continued the warrant.
Tuck’s held back from issuing picture postcards until the standard size of postal cards was established as 3½” by 5½” ratther than the Court size 3½” by 4½” which the UK retained until 1899. Tuck’s first regular series of picture cards was a group of twelve consecutively numbered chromographic (i.e. coloured) views of London. These issues, frequently referred to as early Tucks are numbered on the front left edge along with the publisher’s name. Tuck numbered almost 4,000 cards consecutively but at the same time began to use series numbering which usually consisted of six cards in a series with the same number. G E Newton (qv) and John Hassall (qv) were two of their many artists.
Source: Tuck DB Postcards
- COPYRIGHT 1905 J. TULLY
- Copyrighted 1906 by J. Tully
J Tully published cards of people and cartoons into the divided-back era including the artwork of HM Pollock (qv).
Twiss and Son
Ilfracombe, Devon, England
- TWISS’ ARCADE SERIES ILFRACOMBE
Twiss and Son, printer, the Library, 11-14, The Arcade, High Street Ilfracombe. As Twiss and Sons said to be owned by Ingram Clark Ltd from 190254 but divided backs were later published in the name Twiss Brothers, the Arcade, Ilfracombe and the Arcade Library all of which suggest a business developing under the ownership of the Twiss family. They published cards of photographs by Phillipse. The words printed at Works Dresden printed in green down the side of the stamp box suggest that my card was made by Stengel & Co.
2also Parsi: an adherent of Zoroastrianism, especially a descendant of those Zoroastrians who fled to India from Muslim persecution in Persia during the 7th–8th centuries
3 eg Haunting Bombay by Shilpa Agarwal Soho Press 1 April 2009
8 Tensi Brothers
11 Maurice Tesson Imprimeur Limoges
13The Dictionary of 20th-century British Cartoonists and Caricaturists Mark Bryant Routledge, 6 Feb 2018
17A famous Calcutta firm The history of Thacker, Spink & Co Evan Cotton 1907 Bengal, Past & Present: Journal of the Calcutta Historical Society
19 See Art Souvenir Syndicate
24Ledbury Guardian Newspaper 1 October 1914
26“French carpenter” in Dutch
28Toko – shop in Indonesian; centrum – centre in Dutch
29Toko – shop in Indonesian; centrum – centre in Dutch
32 Shiba-ku was a division of Minato-ku, one of 15 wards. Established in 1878 as the core structure of Tokyo – https://old-tokyo.info/where-is-old-tokyo/
33 Japanese name for Japan
34 Undivided back: October 1900 to March 1907
35 ⅓ divided back: March 1907 to March 1918 – https://sites.lafayette.edu/eastasia/2014/09/04/how-to-ascertain-the-date-or-time-period-of-a-japanese-postcard/
36 highest situated lava flow 6000 feet
38 Weltreise: Erster Teil: Indien, China und Japan Meyers Reisebücher Bibliographisches Institut, Leipzig, Wien, 1912 Zweite Auflage. [World Travel: First Part: India, China and Japan Meyers travel books, Bibliographical Institute, Leipzig, Vienna, 1912 Second Edition]
42 Florence – Leipzig
44 Leipzig Viewcard Factory
45 Later Holbeinstrasse
46 Graphic art institution
48 Jarotschin is the German version of the name of Jarocin, a town in central Poland with 25,700 inhabitants in 1995, the administrative capital of Jarocin County.
49 Jarotschin Advertiser
50 Gazeta Jarocinska 19 March 2010 http://media.zwielkopolski24.pl/gazeta/1/2010/11.pdf
51 Monza Belle époque La fotografia di Pietro Tremolada
testi di R. Cassanelli e S. Paoli (Slvana Editoriale; 2000)
52 Lipsia is Italian and latin for Leipzig and occurs in cards for the Italian market.