Directory T

Tachochrom Company Berlin

New York & Philadelphia

  • Tachochrom Co Berlin, New York, Philadelphia Pa with blackboard & easel logo

Seem to have specialised in views of Pennsylvania and Poland and actor/model postcards. Many of the Pa views seem to have been postally used in 1907 while the Polish ones have divided backs.

H.H. Tammen

Denver, Colorado, USA

  • H.H. TAMMEN, DENVER My card of Indian Papoose also has, within the image: Copyright 1903 By H.H. TAMMEN

Harry Heye Tammen (6 March 1856 to 1924), a maker of souvenirs based in Denver, born in Baltimore, Maryland, the son of a German immigrant pharmacist. With his partner Charles A. Stuart he worked as a Denver bartender in 1880 and, in 1881, they established the firm of H.H. Tammen & Company, also H.H. Tammen Curio Company. The company specialized in rodeo, National Park and western items. They focused on creating souvenir mineralogical curiosities of Colorado, but also sold photography (some by William Henry Jackson), silver souvenir spoons, and the like. The company also sold colourized prints and postcards shot by different photographers and became Colorado’s largest postcard publisher. In 1895, Tammen and Frederick G. Bonfils became co-owners of the Denver Post. Tammen held the position of co-editor until his death. He was apparently behind the controversial decision of Buffalo Bill’s family to bury him in Denver instead of his hometown of Cody, Wyoming. The H.H. Tammen Curio Company was in business until 1953, and possibly as late as 19621.

D.B.Taraporevala Sons & Company, Mumbai

  • D.B.Taraporevala Sons & Co., Bombay

D.B. Taraporevala Sons & Company, a Parsee2-run bookshop and publishers that published books between 1891 and 2008. Listed at Meadow Street, Fort, Post, Bombay in 1906 International Directory of Second-hand Booksellers. The bookshop clearly has iconic status in Indian literature3. DB Taraporevala Sons & Company Private Limited was incorporated on 4 March 1947 and is still involved in Publishing. Taraporewala Aquarium in Mumbai (1951) was named after philanthropist D B Taraporewala who donated 200,000 rupees towards the construction.

Dimitri Tarazi and André Terzis

  • Dimitri Tarazi & Fils
  • Dimitri Tarazi & Fils, Beyrouth-Damas-Jerusalem.
  • Andre Tersis et Fils, Beyrouth et Jerusalem

Dimitri Tarazi and his younger brother André Terzis were in business together at least by 1888 when they were advertising as trading in a souk in Beirut before parting in 1894. Both brothers and their sons published early postcards on Lebanon, Syria and Palestine. In 1899 Dmitri Tarazi and sons opened The Oriental Museum Factory and Depositary of Silks, embroideries and artistic furniture in Damascus. Their divided-backs bore to be from Beyrouth, Damascus and Jerusalem. Maison Tarazi is still in business in Lebanon.

Alphonse Taride, Paris

  • A. Taride Paris

Alphonse Taride, publisher 18-20, boulevard de Saint-Denis, Paris specialised in maps, tourist guides, histories, and pocket plans of France. He seems to have been a son of one of Jules and Alphonse Taride, the founders of the business that published maps from 1850 into the 1980s. From 1852, Taride published walking itineraries, a metro map and school maps. In the 1880s he published prints of officers of the French and Russian armies. From 1895 he published motoring and cycling maps, expanding in the mid-1930s to Europe and North Africa. Postcards included the 1900 Paris Exposition in respect of which he also published a Photographic Album. After WW2. the business declined until the 1970s, when it was producing only Paris guides and maps of the world4.

Henry W Taunt, Oxford, England

  • TAUNT & CO
Witney is a historic market town on the River Windrush, 12 miles (19 km) west of Oxford.

Henry William Taunt, photographer and author, (14 June 1842 to 4 November 1922) Oxford. At the age of 14, Taunt became a general utility apprentice for photographer Edward Bracher. Three years later, he took a fateful boat trip along the River Thames, which began his lifelong fascination with the waterway. In 1863 Taunt married Miriam Jeffrey, but continued to enjoy the reputation of being a ladies’ man, often seen in the company of women other than his wife. In 1868 he opened his first studio, at 33 Cornmarket Street, and not surprisingly, specialized in the Thames and its surrounding landscape. His photographs distinguished themselves for their technical precision and their masterful aestheticism. Taunt’s thoughtful lens captured the beauty and mystery of the river unlike any other photographer of the time.

In 1872 Taunt published A New Map of the River Thames from Oxford to London, from Entirely New Surveys, Taken During the Summer of 1871: With a Guide, Giving Every Information Required by the Tourist, the Oarsman, and the Angler. The first edition was published to great acclaim. Each of the river’s 33 maps was painstakingly hand-coloured in blue. The widespread popularity of the volume led to a surge in mapbooks, brochures, and postcards featuring the Thames, and inspired humorist Jerome K. Jerome’s novel Three Men in a Boat. It was reprinted again in 1989.

To accommodate his growing business, Taunt moved his gallery from Cornmarket to a larger building on 9-10 Broad Street in 1874. Taunt was a prolific author: In 1880 Taunt & Company published The Story of Iffley Mill by Henry Taunt. In 1894 Henry W. Taunt & Company published Goring, Streatley, and the neighbourhood by Henry Taunt. In 1912 Taunt published his history of Oxford’s thousand years, The Millenary of Oxford. Its Story for a Thousand Years Concisely told and Illustrated. Taunt’s The Rollright Stones; the Stonehenge of Oxfordshire; With Some Account of the Ancient Druids and Sagas Rendered Into English, Illustrated With Camera and Pen was reprinted in 2018.

Taunt cut an impressive figure in a houseboat converted to a floating studio surmounted by the camera he used for river photography. In 1895 he was photographed in it near Oxford with a lady, probably his close friend Fanny Miles. Always happiest on the water, Taunt would occasionally move his operations onto the houseboat to be closer to his greatest source of inspiration. He was also active in his church, St Mary Magdalen, playing organ and leading the choir. Taunt was equally involved in civic affairs, campaigning vigorously for clean urban water and bitterly opposing electric trams. In 1889, he leased Canterbury House, dubbed ‘Rivera’ as an homage to the river, and it became an integral part of his personal and professional lives. This became his primary photographic and printing headquarters. Still riding the wave of success, Taunt was elected as a Fellow of the Royal Geographical Society. However, the following year, his professional fortunes took a nosedive when he was forced into bankruptcy when a verbal agreement on his Broad Street lease was reneged. When Taunt died, he had only five members of staff.

Source: Historic Camera

Further reading: Henry Taunt of Oxford: A Victorian Photographer Malcolm Graham, Oxford Illustrated Press, 1973

Curt Teich & Company

Chicago, Illinois, US

  • MANUFACTURED BY CURT TEICH & CO., CHICAGO, ILL
  • Curt Teich & Co., Printers, Chicago.
  • Curt Teich & Co., Publishers, Chicago. logo of dragon holding a monogram of CT
  • Curt Teich & Co., Chicago and St. Louis.
  • CTCo monogram CHICAGO

Curt Otto Teich (1877 to 1974) who migrated to the United States from Lobenstein, Germany in 1896, founded the Curt Teich Company of Chicago which operated from 1898 to 1978 and was said to be the world’s largest printer of view and advertising postcards. At the peak of production, the company could print several million postcards in a single day though they also had cards made in Germany. The Company saved examples of every image they produced5.

The first series of cards printed by the Teich Company used numbers only and ranged from 1 – 14989 and were produced between 1900 and 19086. Teich photographers took pictures in more than 10,000 towns and cities in the U.S., Canada and 115 other countries. Their cards of the St Louis World Fair in 1904 gave their second place of business as that city. In 1982, the bulk of the collection — more than 350,000 images – was donated by the Teich family to a museum from where they were transferred to Newberry Library, Chicago in October 20167.

It is not clear to me what the CCC 3473 on the sender’s stamp is. As he sent the card in 1908, it is too early to be either Roosevetlt’s Civilian Conservation Corps or the Chicago Corvette Club.

Fred. G. Temme, Orange, N.J., USA

  • FRED. G. TEMME, PUBLISHER, ORANGE, N.J.
Newark German Hospita wasl founded in 1868 and renamed in 1952 Clara Maass Medical Center in honour of Clara Maass, who trained there and become the hospital’s head nurse. Maass’ death in 1901 during yellow fever experiments attracted national attention

Fred. G. Temme, printer, newspaper publisher and editor, Orange.

Orange Volksbote (People’s Messenger) (1872 to 1914) was a German-language weekly newspaper devoted to the interests of the German-American residents of the Oranges. It was Democrat in politics and a six-column paper of four pages (22” x 32”) with a circulation of 424 by 1876 and a subscription price of $2.50. In 1892 Ernest Temme, a well known Newark newspaper man, bought the Volksbote and became its editor and proprietor, roles his printer son Fred. G. Temme gradually took over as the century came to an end.

In 1886 Temme printed a timetable card for the Morris & Essex Railway, listing travel between South Orange, New Jersey and New York City, with intermediate stops.

On 10 June 1896 The journal of New York reported the latest of a series of burglaries in Orange:


“Last night the office of Fred Temme, editor of the Volksbote, on Day street, was raided. The establishment was entered from a rear window, and the interior presented a dilapidated appearance this morning. The vandals are supposed to be boys, and several were seen about the place shortly before dark. Temme prints excursion and picnic tickets for Societies and it is thought the intruders entered with the Intention of securing tickets to these outings.”

Temme published numbered NJ topographical postcards into the divided-back era. Despite being a printer, he commissioned many of them from various German firms. However, he seems to have printed cards himself by 1903:

We have received from Fred G. Temme, a printer at Orange, a very attractive mailing
card printed in colors after the style of souvenir cards now so popular at sea-side and mountain resorts. The card shows pictures of the Edison Laboratory; of “Glenmont,” the home of Thomas A. Edison, and the entrance to Llewellyn Park, in which Mr. Edison’s home is situated. If this card should interest any of our trade, Mr. Temme will
doubtless be willing to furnish quotations upon it. His address is Orange, N. J.

Edison Phonograph Monthly Published For Trade Use Only By The National Phonograph Co. November 1903

Tensi Brothers, Milan, Italy

  • F.lli Tensi8 – Milano

Alberto and Francesco Tensi founded the company Fratelli Tensi on June 15, 1867 with headquarters in Via Vigentina 11 in Milan. Alberto Tensi died aged 38 years on 5 June 1879. In the new century, the firm undertook the production of lithography and cromolithography including posters, game sheets, often on military and historical subjects. The Company ceased production in 19739.

Domenico Terese, Perugia, Italy

  • Prop. Riservata Libreria Terese – Perugia
  • Ed. Domenico Terese Perugia H. & S. D.

Domenico Terese, bookseller and publisher, Perugia, published local topographicals of images some of which are now in the Alinari archive. He also published non-fiction books round about the turn of the century which he sold with plates reading Terese Bookshop of Artistic Photography Perugia. The Perugia Section of the Italian Alpine Club meeting point from its establishment in 1875 was at the Terese shop in Corso Vannucci in front of the Guardia dei Vigili Urbani, where the shop clerk, Cipriani, was always thoughtfully welcoming towards the members10.

Maurice Tesson

Limoges, Haute-Vienne, France

  • MTIL11 logo with each letter in a different leaf of a four leaf clover
  • MT above IL

Jean-Maurice Tesson (1877 to 1955), printer and publisher, 5 bis rue du General Cerez, Limoges, publisher of national influence. Tesson worked with Charles Collas (qv) in Cognac, the place of his birth, before becoming a printer in Limoges. Collas also used four initials in a clover and, indeed, published Tesson’s first cards. Tesson managed to combine this activity while serving as a sergeant of the 78th Infantry Regiment and colonel’s secretary in Limoges. His younger brother Roger, after having worked in Cognac with Charles Collas, joined him in Limoges as a photographer12. As well as a numbered series of fine photo-cards, Tesson advertised colour prints produced by chromolithography and calendars.

Rinaldo Tettamenti

Chiasso, Ticino, Switzerland.

  • Tip. R. Tettamenti – Chiasso
Crotto della Giovannina. This card bears the logo of A intersecting L which indicates involvement in the production of this card of Aristophot.

Rinaldo Pietro Giuseppe Tettamanti (born 4 September 1857), printer and publisher. Como-born Tettamanti published an eclectic selection of books:

  • Marco Visconti by Tomaso Grossi (1886)
  • Freemasonry, socialism, Judaism contemporary historical notes of an Italian by A. Forni (1888 reprinted 1999);
  • Swiss Typography (1893);
  • Compendium of the Christian Doctrine for use by the Diocese of Como, which catechists and teachers in the classes of the Christian Doctrine must use in the future. Edition again corrected with the approval of the Ecclesiastical Authority of Ticino (1893);
  • Breaktime, a monthly four-page periodical of the students of the International Baragiola Institute of Riva S. Vitale;
  • The house of the German colonies of the Carnic group. Sappada, Sauris and Timau” by Aristide Baragiola (1915 reprinted 1989)

Tettamenta became a limited partner in the Angelo Bietti printing company in Milan when it was founded in 1903.

I also very often spent Sundays at Monte Olimpino and walking in Chiasso, where all the Comaschi flocked to buy sugar, coffee, chocolate and tobacco, to drink lots of beer and to dance at Crotto della Giovannina and Bagnetta, where all the young men and women of the city met. At the time, of course, there was no mention of border cards, nor of passports: all of them passed freely and customs control was light-touch.

Memory of 1904 Avv. AMILCARE CASNATI (scan and elaboration from L’OLIMPO of 14 October 1945 by Franco Romanò)

Lance Thackeray

  • L. Thackeray
  • LT elongated initials making a square with the horizontals

Lance Thackeray (1867 to 1916) Yorkshire joke cartoonist, illustrator and postcard artist. Thackeray designed hundreds of postcards for Tucks (qv) in the write away style originated by Cynicus (qv) as well as cartoons for other publishers13. His gentle wit, satirising Edwardian society, is well known and has never been surpassed. Thackeray is an elusive man, a bachelor leaving no private papers. Sociable and enjoying life, yet always edging away. In his postcard designs he eludes us too. Drawing just enough, then setting the imagination working. The greater our human experience – pretensions, hopes, desires, disasters, follies – the more we smile. Not at the people he draws, but with them. Sadly he never became the major English artist he might have been. In his centenary year a pioneering biography entitled Lance Thackeray : His Life and Art by Tom Askey was published14.

Thacker, Spink & Co., Kolkata, India.

  • Thacker, Spink & Co., Calcutta.

Thacker, Spink & Company, publishers (1819 to 1960). A major Indian book publisher of literature, guides, history, and almanacs. They were also an early publisher of picture postcards. In 1851 they established William Thacker & Co. at 2, Newgate Street, London. Their Calcutta partner, William Spink, was a Justice of the Peace15. From 1864 to 1884 they published Thacker’s Bengal Directory covering the Bengal Presidency which included the present day Myanmar and Bangladesh. From 1885 the Directory covered the whole of British India and was renamed Thacker’s Indian Directory. The directory was an almanac which listed British and Foreign Merchants and Manufacturers, Commercial Industries, Army, railway and government departments and office holders, European residents, and separately, prominent non-European residents. It was later owned by Maharaja of Darbhanga and was published until 196016. William Thacker died in 1872 and William Spink left India in 1876 for London where he died in 1891 at the age of 75. His son and grandson headed the Indian branch in succession17.

Frank S Thayer

Denver, Colorado, USA

  • BURRO SERIES
  • ART SOUVENIR SYNDICATE, P.O. BOX 1528, DENVER.
  • Frank S. Thayer, Publisher, Denver

Frank S Thayer, publisher, Denver. Between 1879 and 1894 Thayer published The Canons (Canyons) of Colorado from photographs by William Henry Jackson (1843 to 1942), one of the most renowned 19th Century landscape photographers of the Western USA who opened a studio in Denver in 187918. In 1901 Thayer published La Grande Flora de Colorado de Montana y Llanos, an atlas folio of Twelve botanical chromolithographs of artwork of the flowers of the mountains and plains of Colorado with his own introduction. In 1905 he published Souvenir of Lewis & Clark Exposition, Portland, Oregon, an exposition held to commemorate the first American expedition to cross the western portion of the United States. As well as topographical cards, Thayer published as series of comic cards featuring donkeys mostly with jokes about telephones although he was not the only one even in Denver to do so19.

Theochrome

  • Theochrome

Theodor Eismann (1908 to 1914) New York and Leipzig, Saxony, a fine-art printing and publishing house that produced tinted halftone postcards that were printed in the United States and in Germany. These include view-cards, comics, and greetings. Eismanm senior died in 1903 and his son Paul Edward Theodor took over the business20.

Gottlob Theuerkauf

  • Theuer Kauf

Christian Gottlob Heinrich Theuerkauf (21 January 1833 to 5 March 1911 ) was a German painter and lithographer born and bred in Kassel in North Hesse.

Having trained at the Kassel Art Academy and learned the art of lithography using chalk technique (where lithographs mimic chalk drawings) Theuerkauf set up on his own in 1848. In 1851 he went to Berlin where he lithographed landscapes and architectural pictures and drew them for woodcut. Theuerkauf created views of numerous German and European cities and buildings and his work appeared in books and high-circulation journals. From 1875 he also turned to watercolour painting. From 1890 Theuerkauf lectured in watercolours as well as architecture and landscape painting at the Technical University of Berlin in Charlottenburg. He was appointed professor in 1895 and taught landscape painting until 1904. In 1898 he published the autobiographical Uß den Kännerjohren, written in the North Hessian dialect. As if all this were not enough, he also composed songs and orchestral pieces. He died in Kassel.

Sources: Gottlob Theuerkauf (wikipedia); The Dictionary of Kassel Dialect by August Grassow and Paul Heidelbach

Charles Thwaites, Durham, England

  • C. THWAITES, DURHAM
  • C. THWAITES, 10 MARKET PLACE, DURHAM

Charles Thwaites, (died 1901) printer and stationer, 10 Market Place, Durham. As early as 1876 Thwaites published a report of Proceedings in the Court of Arbitration in relation to the Durham Coal Trade. In 1880 he advertised that he kept in stock note paper and envelopes stamped with the Durham University Arms. When he printed the 1899 Annual Report of the Medical Officer of Health, he was described as County Printer and Stationer. He commissioned cards, including this one, from ETW Dennis of Scarborough.

A carved C & T monogram can be seen in the stone above the bay window of Thwaites’ shop in Market Place. In the 1920s the building was taken over by Durham City Dairy who turned the upstairs into a tearoom. It is now occupied by opticians21.

Leonhard Tietz, Antwerp, Belgium

  • ETABLISSEMENT LEONHARD TIETZ, ANVERS

Leonhard Tietz, department store, Meir, Antwerp. Tietz came from a family of German Jewish traders who had a network of dozens of department stores spread across Germany, including ten in Berlin alone. On a trip to Milan Tietz saw the breathtaking Victor Emmanuel II Gallery, built between 1865 and 1877, and this inspired the design of his store in Antwerp. His architect Joseph Hertogs (1861 to 1930) completed his design in 1900 and the festive opening of Les Grands Magasins Tietz on the Meir took place on April 28 1901. There are a whole series of postcards of the interior of the store in the period before World War I. The images give a good idea of the breathtaking and richly decorated interior and the dozens of departments22. One of the features of the store was an automatic bar, a craze in the hospitality sector of the Belle Epoque period consisting of vending machines, from which one could obtain drinks or refreshments after inserting coins or tokens23.

Emil Tietze

Bad Elster, Saxony, Germany

  • E. Tietze, Bad Elster.

Emil Tietze (19 December 1840 to 30 July 1931), hotelier and photographer in Bad Elster, opened his studio around 1865 and also branches in Asch in Bohemia and Oelsnitz in Voigtland. As well as studio portraits as cartes de cabinets, Tietze produced topographical and stereoscopic photographs in the era before postcards. On the reverse, he advertised 20 elegantly furnished rooms for rent in Villa Tietze with moderate prices, prompt service and a brilliant view.

On 18 February 1870, Tietze became member No. 53 of the Dresden Photographic Society, founded the previous October. Tietze helped organise the first Spa Museum (Bademuseum) in Bad Elster which opened in 1880. In 1900 he was appointed photographer to the Royal Saxony Court.

Bad Elster is a spa town in the Vogtlandkreis district, in the Free State of Saxony, Germany. It lies on the border of Bavaria and the Czech Republic in the Elster gebirge hills.

Tilley & Son, Ledbury, England

  • TILLEY & SON, POST CARD PUBLISHERS LEDBURY.
  • Tilley & Son, Ledbury

Luke Tilley, (died 30 September 1914 aged 75)24 purchased an old-established bookselling, stationery and printing business in High Street, Ledbury in April 1870. His second son John opened a studio up the alley behind the shop. His other son, William, ran a motor accessories shop from next door. The Tilley family business – stationer, newsagent, bookseller and printer, hiring of bicycles and motor vehicles, repair garage, poster sites, and a subscription library – was very successful. Luke retired from business about 18 months before his death, leaving John to carry on the business. While adhering to his principle that he would never allow himself to be nominated for any public office necessitating any election or voting, he engaged in public work to the extent that he was informally referred to as the Mayor of Ledbury.

John Tilley, a prolific publisher of postcards and photographs, is the man to whom the pictorial history of Ledbury is indebted25. Many of his cards were made by Stengel (qv). Aerofilms Ltd, founded in 1919, was the UK’s first commercial aerial photography company. Tilley printed and published a series of Giant Photo-Cards, 8 by 11 inches, of their aerial photographs of Ledbury.

Frans Timmerman

Vlissingen, Netherlands

  • Uitg. Frans Timmerman, Vlissingen

Frans Timmerman26, 44 Walstraat, Vlissingen, extended his bookshop in Walstraat to serve tourists and opened a branch on the seafront. There he sold beach equipment, cigars and cigarettes, chocolates, his postcards and souvenirs of Vlissingen as well as serving as a tourist information bureau27.

Tipografia Umbra, Perugia, Italy

  • Tip. Umbra Perugia

Umbria Printing House, 21 via Bontempi, Perugia. Tipografia Umbra was the trading name of the partnership of Benucci & Fazzoli. They published non-fiction books in the period straddling the turn of the century. Their periodicals included the 1890 and 91 editions of La Favilla, the literature magazine of Umbria and the local weekly Il Socialista between 1903 and 1905.

Toko Centrum28

Weltevreden, Jakarta, Indonesia.

  • importatie “Toko Centrum29” Weltevreden

Other places in the Dutch East Indies had shopping centres but only the one in Weltvreden seems to have imported postcards. In 1902 Tio Tek Hong, a prominent general merchant and leading postcard publisher opened a shop at 93 Jalan Pasar Baru in the Weltevreden area, near Passer Baroe. His business prospered and during the 1910s, he acquired adjoining land and twice rebuilt his store to become the building which exist now, a colonial building in Jakarta known as Toko Tio Tek Hong (Indonesian for “Tio Tek Hong’s Shop”)30. The cards published in his name seem to be later than the toko centrum undivided backs which confirms the idea that they were published by the same person.

Tongimed

Angoulême, Nouvelle-Aquitaine, France

  • Tongimed Angoulême

Jacques Maurice Demignot founded Tongimed, the General Paper Mill of Angoulême which specialized in manufacture for retailers. A small part of its production was the manufacture and distribution of postcards. TONGIMED is the founder’s name in reverse. All cards have undivided backs and are numbered 1 to 331. The oldest cards have Tongimed’s Paper on the front, and later ones Tongimed, Angoulême. Production ended in July 1906 when the factory burned down.31

Y. Torii, Shibaku, Tokyo

  • Y. TORII SHIBAKU32 TOKYO NIPPON33

Y. Torii, bookstore in Shibaku, Tokyo published view and portrait cards during Period I34 and humorous postcards of children playing during Period II35.

Tosari Sanitorium, Java, Indonesia

  • Sanatorium Tosari hoogst gelegen herstellengsfoord van lava 6000 voet36 Directeur-Geneesheer37 Dr J. H. J. v Barmen-‘t Loo Arts

Tosari Sanitorium, a sanatorium established at Kampong Ledok in Java, at 1777 metres in 1845 under the direction and medical supervision of Dr Fangmann offering comfortable conviviality, rooms bookable by telegraph and a path to the Nymphs’ pool and splendid waterfall within forty minutes’s walk38. Heavily Government-subsidised, the Sanatorium published a number of advertising view cards featuring the sights of Java.

Imprimerie Tourangelle

Tours, France

  • IMP TOURANGELLE TOURS

Mame & Son, publishers in Tours between 1796 and 1975.

Armand Mame (1779 to 1848) set up as a printer in Tours in the late 18th century. He was from a family of Angers printers whose path crossed with Honoré de Balzac several times. In 1833, Armand’s son Alfred (1811 to 1893) and nephew Ernest (1805 to 1883) joined the firm. From 1845, they had large workshops built to modernize the company. The site was close to the current National Street. In 1846, Honoré de Balzac planned to buy a residence in Touraine. He justified his project: None of my business will suffer, because we go from Vouvray to Paris in 6 hours, and there is a huge printing works in Tours39. Between 1860 and 1875 Alfred Mame built Mame City, 62 houses to accommodate its workers. Mame wanted to make his company a model of social organization. He worked to improve the living conditions expecting good conditions to improve the quality of work and the loyalty of his workers40. Later family to join the business included Ernest Mame (1805 to 1883) who was mayor of Tours, his cousin Alfred Mame (1811 to 1893), Paul Mame (1833 to 1903), Armand Mame (1864 to 1926) and Alfred Mame (1909 to 1994)). Their works were destroyed on 19 June 1940 when German tracer bullets caused a gigantic fire. The replacement premises near the Tours train station were destroyed by stray Allied bombs on 20 May 194441.

This card: Originally from the south of Touraine, Edmond Chaumier (1853 to 1931) founded a dispensary for children in Tours. From this castle in Plessis Les Tours, now owned by the City of Tours, Chaumier manufactured and distributed smallpox vaccine in France and abroad. Heifers were used for the production of the vaccine being shaved and then marked with shallow incisions in the skin. They were then inoculated with the disease and their wounds then scraped to collect the anti-bodies.

Source: Esprit Val de Loire

Fernand Toussaint

Fernand Toussaint (1873 to 1956) was one of the most important Post-Impressionist Belgian painters of the 20th century. He was born in Brussels in an upper-middle class family. When his parents discovered his talent in drawing they helped him to develop it and he enrolled at the Académie Royale des Beaux-Arts at the age of 15. At the age of eighteen he left for Paris to continue his studies there.

Toussaint specialised in painting portraits of women, still lifes and city-scapes, in the Impressionist, Art Nouveau, and Post-Impressionist styles. His works include paintings, water-colours and commercial posters. One of the Belgian art critics of the time said that he was one of the painters who broadened the horizon of the peaceful and intimate landscape. In 1929, a French reviewer described him as the undisputed master at capturing the grace and charm of women.

In November 1980 Le Sillon, a poster by Toussaint, sold to a private collector in California for $70,000.

The nouveau ladies set of the work of Fernand Toussaint was sold by Raphael Tuck as a set of 12 for the British market first used on 11 November 1903. It is not clear what involvement Munk of Vienna had.

Paul Trabert, Leipzig and Florence

  • Paul Trabert, Firenze-Lipsia42 (fot: Alinari)
  • Ditta Paul Trabert-Firenze No 62 fot. Biagetti
  • Paul Trabert, Lipsia and logo of T with elaborate P intertwined.
  • Paul Trabert, Firenze-Lipsia and logo of T with elaborate P intertwined.

Paul Trabert was one of the many Leipzig printers and artists using phototype43 from the start of the twentieth century. He founded the Leipziger Ansichtskartenfabrik44 in what was then Seumestrasse45. My cards were published from their branch in Italy and one features a photograph from the famous Italian Alinari studio (qv). In 1914, Trabert set up the new Graphische Kunstanstalt46 factory. The company came to an end with the Second World War though the GDR continued to use the building for printing47.

Robert Tränkner, Jarocin, Poland

  • Verlag von R. Tränkner in Jarotschin48

Robert Tränkner, editor, publisher and owner of the local printing house. Tränkner built his second printing works, on Gołębia Street, during World War I and published the German newspaper Jarotschiner Anzeiger49 until 1920 when he closed it following the establishment post war of the Second Polish Republic50.

Pietro Tremolada

Monza, Lombardy, Italy

  • P. Tremolada

Pietro Tremolada (1855 to 1913) painter and photographer, Monza. His photography has been described as … a witness of the changes in a city still uncertain about its destiny, poised between past and present, between provincialism and industrial take-off. Tremolada is the most sensitive witness to the expressive freedom offered by photography in Monza, the narrator of an uncontaminated age that will be definitively wiped out with the death of Umberto I and the tragic events of war51. Tremolada’s photo-cards included the King and Queen driving through the town and a series of romantic scenes posed by models and published by Alterocca of Terni (qv).

Dr. Trenkler & Company

Leipzig, Saxony, Germany

  • D.T.C.,L.
  • T in scalloped logo
  • Dr. Trenkler Co.
  • T in scalloped logo Dr. Trenkler Co., Leipzig
  • Dr. Trenkler Co., Lipsia52
  • T in scalloped logo Dr. Trenkler Co., Lipsia

Dr. Trenkler Company, 1894 to 1972 Leipzig, Saxony. This fine art printer was first established in 1894 under the name Phototechnisches Institut Dr. Trenkler & Co. by Dr Bruno Trenkler and Carl Gustav Jahrig53. After the comings and goings of a few additional partners, the firm settled on the name Dr. Trenkler & Company by 1900. They would become one of the largest printers and publishers of lithographic and collotype postcards in Germany, producing view-cards from all over the world. They are also known for a large set of cards issued for the Louisiana Purchase Exposition in 1904. They opened an office in London in 1902 where the publisher Frederick Hartmann (qv) became their agent. Their growth required the opening of another factory around 1904. In the following years they got into a long legal battle for using the term Autochrom to describe their tinted lithographs, which was a trade name registered with Louis Glaser (qv). The loss of this case combined with a long labour strike and the failure of Jahrig to form a strong union of collotype printers contributed to their decision in 1909 to sell off the publishing side of their business.

Raphael Tuck & Sons

  • Raphael Tuck & Sons’ “ART” Series 865 “CAT STUDIES BY CHARLES REID” ART PUBLISHERS TO THEIR MAJESTIES THE KING AND QUEEN Phototyped in Austria Landor’s Cat Series

Raphael Tuck (born 7 August 1821) and his wife Ernestine had seven children before they emigrated from Prussia to London. In October 1866 they opened a little shop on Union Street selling pictures and frames and within a few months Tuck established himself as a distributor of graphic art printing which included chromos, oleographs and black and white lithographs.

As the children grew up, they provided more help to the business. Tuck sent his sons, Herman, Adolph and Gustave out to bring in more business. On these selling trips, Herman and Adolph would check the results of the day’s work. The one with the higher sales would get the bigger egg next morning for breakfast.

In the early 1900s Tuck opened several offices in addition to the headquarters in London; the New York office seems to have been especially important. There were others at various times in Montreal, Berlin, Paris, & Toronto.

The greatest period of expansion of the Tuck firm came under direction of Adolph who joined his father in 1870. Gustave and Herman followed their brother in 1871. Adolph became managing director, which included control of the art department. Gustave directed the book and calendar departments, while Herman handled the financial end of the business.

In 1883, Queen Victoria granted the firm the Royal Warrant of Appointment. Tuck cards thereafter bore the message, Art Publishers to Her Majesty the Queen. Future sovereigns continued the warrant.

In 1899 Tuck issued its first regular series of postcards, a group of twelve consecutively numbered chromographic (i.e. coloured) views of London. These issues, frequently referred to as early Tucks are numbered on the front left edge along with the publisher’s name. Tuck numbered almost 4,000 cards consecutively but at the same time began to use series numbering which usually consisted of six cards in a series with the same number.

J. Tully

  • COPYRIGHT 1905 J. TULLY

J Tully published cards of people into the divided-back era including the work of HM Pollock (qv).

Twiss and Son

Ilfracombe, Devon, England

  • TWISS’ ARCADE SERIES ILFRACOMBE

Twiss and Son, printer, the Library, 11-14, The Arcade, High Street Ilfracombe. As Twiss and Sons said to be owned by Ingram Clark Ltd from 190254 but divided backs were later published in the name Twiss Brothers, the Arcade, Ilfracombe and the Arcade Library all of which suggest a business developing under the ownership of the Twiss family. They published cards of photographs by Phillipse. The words printed at Works Dresden printed in green down the side of the stamp box suggest that my card was made by Stengel & Co.

1http://cayusewa.com/item/artist/h-h-tammen/

2also Parsi: an adherent of Zoroastrianism, especially a descendant of those Zoroastrians who fled to India from Muslim persecution in Persia during the 7th–8th centuries

3 eg Haunting Bombay by Shilpa Agarwal Soho Press 1 April 2009

4 http://www.corpusetampois.com/cie-20-1914taride8.html

5 http://www.compassrose.org/uptown/Curt-Teich.html

6 http://www.ebay.co.uk/gds/Guide-to-Dating-Curt-Teich-Postcards-/10000000007205788/g.html

7 http://www.chicagobusiness.com/article/20161011/NEWS07/161019968/newberry-library-to-get-largest-postcard-collection-in-u-s

8 Tensi Brothers

9http://biblioteche.comune.trieste.it/Record.htm?Record=19421746157912499289&idlist=1

10 http://users.libero.it/fioriti/bellucci_1969.htm

11 Maurice Tesson Imprimeur Limoges

12 http://www.riboulet.info/g/g_ed/m/mtil.htm

13The Dictionary of 20th-century British Cartoonists and Caricaturists Mark Bryant Routledge, 6 Feb 2018 

14http://www.natgould.org/lance_thackeray_1867-1916

15http://www.metropostcard.com/publisherst.html

16https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thacker%27s_Indian_Directory

17A famous Calcutta firm The history of Thacker, Spink & Co Evan Cotton 1907 Bengal, Past & Present: Journal of the Calcutta Historical Society

18 http://files.lib.byu.edu/ead/XML/MSS1608.xml

19 See Art Souvenir Syndicate

20http://www.metropostcard.com/publisherse.html

21 http://www.optician-durham.co.uk/about-us/history/

22 http://www.retroscoop.com/maatschappij.php?artikel=148

23 http://www.retroscoop.com/amusement.php?artikel=220

24Ledbury Guardian Newspaper 1 October 1914

http://www.old-ledbury.co.uk/streets/tilley.htm

25http://www.ledburyhistorysociety.co.uk/ledburyhistory/ledburysnippets/files/d04abb556a493a7ddac37979ad202b64-92.html

26“French carpenter” in Dutch

27http://annerieksboeken.blogspot.co.uk/2007_09_01_archive.html

28Toko – shop in Indonesian; centrum – centre in Dutch

29Toko – shop in Indonesian; centrum – centre in Dutch

30https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Toko_Tio_Tek_Hong

31http://www.ile-oleron-cartes-postales.com/documentsweb/charentesnew/tongimed/jvcpatongimedtexte.pdf

32 Shiba-ku was a division of Minato-ku, one of 15 wards. Established in 1878 as the core structure of Tokyo – https://old-tokyo.info/where-is-old-tokyo/

33 Japanese name for Japan

34 Undivided back: October 1900 to March 1907

35 ⅓ divided back: March 1907 to March 1918 – https://sites.lafayette.edu/eastasia/2014/09/04/how-to-ascertain-the-date-or-time-period-of-a-japanese-postcard/

36 highest situated lava flow 6000 feet

37 Director-General

38 Weltreise: Erster Teil: Indien, China und Japan Meyers Reisebücher Bibliographisches Institut, Leipzig, Wien, 1912 Zweite Auflage. [World Travel: First Part: India, China and Japan Meyers travel books, Bibliographical Institute, Leipzig, Vienna, 1912 Second Edition]

39 http://www.lysdanslavallee.fr/fr/contenu/limprimerie-mame-tours#.XPqlD4hKjIU

40 https://www.lanouvellerepublique.fr/tours/la-ville-au-chevet-de-la-cite-mame

41 https://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Imprimerie_Mame

42 Florence – Leipzig

43 Lichtdruck

44 Leipzig Viewcard Factory

45 Later Holbeinstrasse

46 Graphic art institution

47https://www.maslaton.de/news/Ein-Aufzug-fuer-die-Denk-Fabrik–n193

48 Jarotschin is the German version of the name of Jarocin, a town in central Poland with 25,700 inhabitants in 1995, the administrative capital of Jarocin County.

49 Jarotschin Advertiser

50 Gazeta Jarocinska 19 March 2010 http://media.zwielkopolski24.pl/gazeta/1/2010/11.pdf

51 Monza Belle époque La fotografia di Pietro Tremolada

testi di R. Cassanelli e S. Paoli (Slvana Editoriale; 2000)

http://www.silvanaeditoriale.it/catalogo/prodotto.asp?id=1448

52 Lipsia is Italian and latin for Leipzig and occurs in cards for the Italian market.

53http://drtrenkler.eu/about/

54http://bookhistory.blogspot.co.uk/2014/07/devon-book-trades-ilfracombe.html