L. Saalfeld, Berlin
- L. Saalfeld, Berlin S.W. 29
- L. S. above B. in a shield and L. Saalfeld, Berlin S.W. 29
L. Saalfeld, Berlin S.W. 291 produced a series of topographical cards of fine photographs of the Berlin area. Their photographs featured in Greetings from Berlin: A stroll through Berlin in 1900 to 120 postcards with Uncle Theo and his niece Lottchen2published by Agora in 1986. Another card here.
Benares, Uttar Pradesh, India
- SAEED BROS., BENARES
Saeed Brothers established their photographic studio and shop in Benares, next door to the Hotel de Paris (church side) in the mid-1890s. In the first days of the 20th century they guaranteed the best development of Amateurs’ takings and free use of a dark room for Amateurs. The brothers published photocards into the divided-back era and advertised a complete set of Benares pictorial postcards. Their photographs were and remain staples of books about Benares. Such postcards were given to Hotel de Paris guests and visitors to the city, to advertise the services and offers of the photographers.
The Saeeds were Indian Muslims and their work is often used as examples demonstrating that Indian photographers were more sympathetic to the culture of their own country than the many Europeans who did the same work.
Source: A Visual Skirmish: The Use of Postcards in the Creation of An Indian Identity, 1895–1915 Rianne Siebenga, Indiana University Press
Ernest Sagnes, Castres, Tarn, France
- Pap de luxe E. Sagnes, Castres – Cliche Valat
- E. Sagnes, editeur, Castres
Ernest Sagnes, bookseller, Castres. Sagnes sold books, ice cream and paintings. In July 1891 local artist Jean-Francois Batut exhibited paintings in window of Sagnes’ bookshop on the Quais des Jacobins, the portraits ofJules Cambos, eminent Castres sculptor and friend of the painter and of M. Mottes, painter and decorator from Castres. Around 1897 Batut exhibited a portrait of the French Socialist leader Jean Jaurès. Unlike his other work, the local press didn’t cover it all.
By 1908 the shop was Perrot-Sagnes and also advertised framing.
A. Saint-Just, Paris
- AS with fleur de lys between the letters
A. Saint-Just, 19 Place St Pierre (1903), 5 Rue de Steinkerque, (1907) Paris. Saint-Just specialised in studio photo-cards of female models and floral themes in cards au bromure – prints on paper sensitised with a bromide emulsion. Divided-backs with this logo bore the word LEDA beside the photographs.
This is one of a series of cards Saint-Just published featuring Marianne, a personification of the French Republic:
Elle est le doux pays des rires, des chansons,
Du labeur sans relache et des riches moissons
She is the sweet land of laughter, songs,
Unceasing toil and rich harvests
Salisbury Hotel, London EC
- SALISBURY HOTEL, 45 SALISBURY SQUARE, LONDON, E.C.
In 1874 H Trethewy was in charge and he was present in December 1869 when the Hotel hosted a meeting of the Farmers’ Club. The meeting was very well attended owing to the immense number of agriculturists attending the Islington Cattle Show. The general feeling was that there ought to be leases or compensation for unexhausted improvements. Ward Lock’s Pictorial and Descriptive Guide to London of 1906 noted that the Hotel … has enjoyed for many years the reputation of being one of the quietest and most comfortable hotels in the metropolis. It is quite close to the Thames Embankment, the Law Courts, the theatres, and other places of interest, yet is well out of the noise of traffic.
Thomas Bartens (born about 1856) was brought up in New Inn, Station Lane, Broxbourne, Hertfordshire where his mother kept the Inn after his father died between 1867 and 1871. By 1906 the Salisbury hotel was offering inclusive terms of 10/6 per day … English service and catering under the personal supervision of Mr. and Mrs. T. Bartens. In 1905 Bartens was elected a fellow of the Zoological Society Of London. His wife Jeannette was elected in 1907.
Not to be confused with: The Salisbury Hotel, Harringay which still exists.
This card: Emily Farrish’s parents’ trip to the hotel seems to have been less than a triumph. On 15 February 1907 her father used the courtesy card to write: I found your mother at Euston at 1-30 pm, she was in a fine humour and so was I but we have buried the hatchet for the present. Mother will be home on Tuesday, write at once. Have you managed the P.O. alright. Pater
Herbert W. Salmon
- Salmon, Photo Teddington
Herbert William Salmon (born about 1879) artist and photographer. Early in life Salmon travelled to Australia where he married. By 1901, Salmon had two photographic studios in Teddington, one at Hughenden House, Park Road and the other in Teddington’s High Street. In the early 1900s, Salmon left Teddington and moved out to Sussex3. Salmon’s postcards bear the reverse style of Wyndham & Co (qv). The earliest postmark on one of his cards (Knole view) is dated 21 August 19004.
This card: Bushy Park is the second largest of London’s royal parks, after Richmond Park, and covers almost 1100 acres (450 hectares). The Diana Fountain is a striking bronze statue of a Greek goddess atop an ornate base of marble and stone. The gleaming golden figure of the goddess is surrounded by four cherubic boys, four shells, and four water nymphs, and rises from the centre of a very large circular pond. The pond is set at the junction of Chestnut Avenue to the north and Lime Avenue to the south. The Diana Fountain was designed in 1637 by sculptor Hubert le Sueur. Le Sueur was commissioned by King Charles I, who wanted the statue as a gift for his wife Henrietta Maria. He paid the sculptor 200 pounds for the finished work. The fountain originally stood at Somerset House in London, but in 1656 Oliver Cromwell had it installed in the Privy Garden of Hampton Court Palace. It was moved to its present location in Bushy Park in 1713 to stand in the centre of Sir Christopher Wren’s Chestnut Avenue.
Source: Britain Express
Luigi Salomone, Rome
- LIT5 L SALOMONE ROMA
Luigi Salomone, Printer in Rome, produced many travel and other posters. In April 1875, a young Basilio Cascella was hired as a lithography apprentice. Salomone’s 1912 calendar boasted royal patronage. In 1942 he published a card of Gibraltar for the armed forces6. Salomone’s graphic arts factory beside the railway was destroyed by the bombing of Rome in March 19447. His business continued to publish books into the 1960s.
Salute & Company
Southsea, Hampshire, England
- Postcard Salute & Co., Southsea
Salute & Company, Southsea published local topographical photo-cards from at least 1900 into the divided-back era.
Luigi Sandron, Palermo, Sicily, Italy
- L. Sandron, Palermo
Musician and music publisher, Luigi Sandron of Palermo, was one of a constellation of outstanding personalities in Sicily between 1897 and 19258. He published a series of postcards depicting trades and characteristic city figures. He also published images of the port and means of transport. His image of the festively-decked cable car, loaded with passengers on the occasion of its inauguration on 11 February 1900, immortalized the Rock-Monreale funicular9.
This card: The Foro Italico is a lawn along the seafront of Palermo, Sicily, Italy. In 1582 Vice-King Marco Antonio Colonna commissioned a walking path in this part of the coast, that became a favourite destination for the leisure of the upper classes of the city in the 17th and 18th centuries. It is entirely pedestrian, is approximately 40,000 m2 in size, with Mediterranean flora of various kinds, benches, trees, ceramic sculptures, a bike path, night lighting and a wide scenic walk along the coast. The breakwaters (antemurale) are also shown. Source: wikipedia
Alessandro Santoni, Ancona, Italy
Alessandro Santoni, bookshop owner and publisher. In 1884 Santoni published New guide of Ancona and its surroundings: with the description of the main Buildings and Monuments. Santoni was an opposition city councillor in 189110. Santoni bought a factory manufacturing printing paper after the business there collapsed in 190211. He installed a mechanical workshop and foundry with lathes powered by hydraulic energy. He published local topographicals and multi-card panoramas.
Tomas Sanz, Seville, Spain.
- Coleccion Tomas Sanz. Sevilla.
Tomas Sanz, photographer, Seville. Sanz published numbered fine topographicals and ethnographicals produced by Purger of Munich who labelled them Photochromiekarte and also gave them their own numbers. This was one of a number of relationships Purger had with Spanish postcard publishers. Sanz’s 1903 photographs of the Nazarenes of Hohenleiter are an important record of the tunics of Holy Week in Seville at that time12.
Paul Satragno, Algiers, Algeria
- Collection Idéale, P.S.
Paul Satragno, photographer and publisher, Algiers. With E. Le Deley (qv) Satragno published Collection Idéale P.S., postcards of Algeria and other African countries from 1902 until 1920s. Satragno and Le Deley also published the photographs of other photographers including, around 1925, the photographs of Mademoiselle Bacot, in Saida. In 1917 Satragno was advertising a large choice of Bromide and Fantasy cards in all genres from 9, Boulevard Baudin – Algiers13.
- J. Stauffer
Hubert Sattler (21 January 1817 to 3 April 1904) was an Austrian landscape painter who worked under the pseudonyms Louis Ritschard, E. Grossen, Gottfried Stähly-Rychen and, in this instance, J. Stauffer.
Sattler was born in Salzburg. He first learnt drawing and painting from his father who was also a landscape painter and created the Sattler Panorama of Salzburg in 1825–29. Sattler painted landscapes in many European countries and also the Near East and Latin America, including views of both natural vistas and cities. His views were unusually accurate and up to date; he went on painting expeditions and then worked at home from his own detailed studies and from photographs. On her 1842 journey to the Near East, Ida Pfeiffer of Vienna met him and recorded how he was stoned by local people while sketching in Damascus.
Nearer home, Franz Speiser of Prien (below) published cards of a number of paintings of Chiemsee by Sattler signed Schauffer. Hubert-Sattler-Gasse in the Neustadt area of Salzburg was named in his honour.
Aschaffenburg, Bavaria, Germany
- Emil Sauerwein Aschaffenburg
Emil Sauerwein, photographer, in business in Aschaffenburg from 1889. He had Stengel make postcards of his photographs of the Aschaffenburg area, in northwest Bavaria. He also published Gruss Aus cards. In 1939, the successors to his business celebrated fifty years of his photographs.
- Photo Lyddell Sawyer
Edward Lyddell Sawyer (1856 to 1927) was a British photographer. Sawyer’s father was a portrait painter and designer as well as a photographer. By the age of sixteen Sawyer had already had experience in operating branches of the family’s business and was responsible for the work of a busy and important photography studio in Newcastle. In 1885 he set up his own business in Newcastle and was joined by his two brothers. Ten years later he opened a portrait studio on Regent Street, London. His greatest interest was always in the art of photography rather than its commercial aspects14. Lyd, as he was later known, was a founder member of The Linked Ring, and although he showed getting almost 100 prints at what was later to become the Royal Photographic Society, only a handful of his images are well known. Sawyer’s early life in Tyneside had a lasting effect on his work, his Geordie roots shaping many of his photographs. Works like The Apple Stealers Dividing the Spoils, Nutting Time, Come Along Grandad etc.. give evidence that his life was not one of affluence like so many of his southern contemporary photographers. And although he lived in an age of sentimental romanticism, his images never become the cloying mawkish work of photographers such as H. P. Robinson15. Giesen Brothers (qv) of London, Tucks (qv) and the Rotary Photographic Co (qv) all published celebrity photographs by Sawyer as postcards.
Egisto Sborgi, Florence, Italy
- E. SBORGI EDITORE – FIRENZE
- Proprietà Artistica16 E. SBORGI – Firenze
Egisto Sborgi, publisher of religious artwork, Florence. Sborgi published fine cards, embossed and decorated in the Florentine style, some of them by the noted local artist Prosdocimi (qv). Reflecting the theme of his cards, Sborgi published Nativity in Art, a booklet of chromotyped artistic reproductions. In the divided-back era he published three books of 12 postcards with Old Testament scenes of A. del Senno’s watercolours. In the Tuscan regional administrative, commercial and professional guide for 193017 Sborgi is listed at 4 Piazza dell’Olio.
This card: La Flora is an oil painting on canvas (79 x 63 cm) by Titian from about 1515 and preserved in the Uffizi Gallery in Florence.
In 1793 it was one of a number of works exchanged between the Imperial Museum in Vienna and the Uffizi, making use of the kinship links between the Austrian and Tuscan Grand Ducal houses. After transfer to the Uffizi, the work enjoyed extraordinary popularity: in 1824 the then director of the museum was forced to lay down the rule that no more than four copyists could stand in front of it at a time, with waiting shifts that were extended by months. Source: wikipedia
Oreste Scarlatti, Pisa, Italy
- O. Scarlatti Editore Pisa
Oreste Scarlatti published a large range of numbered postcards featuring Pisa and other Tuscan views18. He placed a notice in the Ponte di Pisa19 for Sunday 17 December 1905 announcing the opening of his food shop on the 23 December at Piazza San Frediano, Pisa20. A further notice on 12 August 1906 announced that his co-operative food shop in the Via Majorca of Marina Pisa, a seaside resort of Tuscany, had been open since the start of July21. In the same journal, on 14 July 1912, he advertised his series of local photograph postcards at 10 cents each (50 cents for a series of 6). An Oreste Scarlatti appears to have owned La Scala, Milan for a year in 188222.
J. H. Schaefer, Amsterdam
- J.H.Schaefer, Amsterdam
- J.H.Schaefer,Kunst-Edition, Amsterdam
- Schaefers Kunst-Chromo, Amsterdam
- Schaefers Kunst Chromo Amsterdam,
Amsterdam postcard publisher. There are almost innumerable cards to be found from JH Schaefer and it is a whole puzzle to discover any line in his postcard oeuvre. The leading site has identified the following series23:(a) 1897/1898 series lithographs; (b) 1898/1899 series phototype; (c) 1900 series with part series per place; (d) 1901 local series. The Kunst-Chromo series followed thereafter, still with undivided-backs. ‘JH Schaefer’ was not Jan Herman Schäfer but Hermann Joseph Schaefer. He was born on 6 December 1853 in Euskirchen (near Bonn) a son of Josephus Schaefer and Catharina Huboy and died on 9 May 1949 in Soest. It is not clear why Hermann Joseph did business under the name JH instead of HJ Schaefer24.
This card: J.C. van der Rest, shipchandler & butcher, Dordrecht. In 1901 van der Rest applied for a permit to slaughter cattle at 67 Prinsenstraat, a 17th century street with a recently applied Art Nouveau facade including a stone arch with a keystone with the monogram J v d R and the word Vleeschhouwerij (old Dutch for Butchery) in golden letters. This, and the fact that Butcher has been written in by hand to the rubber stamp suggests that he was diversifying into that business about this time.
With effect from Saturday 18 May 1935, van der Rest transferred his coal business at 27 Knolhaven to W. Langerak who changed its address. On 30 November 1935 the business of hardware, household items, stoves, etc at 142-144 Voorstraat changed hands with the granting of a power of attorney granted to Mr. HJ van der Rest Junior.
Jaap van der Rest is still a sailing-ship charterer at 213 Wijnstraat.
Source: Prinsenstraat 67, Dordrecht by Olga Harmsen;
- P.S. & Co., Box 1205, Cape Town
- Schaefer & Traill, Box 1205, Cape Town S&T CT in a logo of overlapping triangles
- Stewart & Schaefer, Cape Town, P O Box 1205
Paul Schaefer, 20 Darling Street, Box 1205, Cape Town published picture postcards and picture books of Southern Africa in the early 1900’s including many of photographs by TD Ravenscroft (qv). Schaefer and his partners published topographicals of Cape Town and Transvaal into the divided-back era. Schaefer & Traill and Stewart & Schaefer shared the same address25. In Wright and Round’s Brass Band News of 1 August 1904, Schaefer. & Traill were advertised as retailers of Hodgson’s Brass Band Uniforms. Notice was given in the London Gazette of 21 March 1916 of the winding-up of certain firms and companies of Enemy Nationality. Trading with the Enemy Amendment Act 1916. Orders were made by the Board of Trade requiring the undermentioned businesses to be wound up: —
SCHAEFER & TRAILL, BOX 1205, CAPE TOWN
STEWART & SCHAEFER, P O BOX 1205, CAPE TOWN
Schaar & Dathe, Trier, Germany.
- Schaar & Dathe Trier
Schaar & Dathe, art and publishing house, Trier was one of the bigger German postcard printers during the boom years. The business was set up by the partners Aloys Schaar and Hermann Dathe in August 1895. Schaar must have left at an early stage perhaps in 1904. Dathe was a constant feature. They used the three major printing processes for postcard printing: letterpress, litho- and collotype process, or a combination of them. Although many cards identify them as publishers, often a 5-digit card/job number is the only clue. Their topographic undivided-backs extended as far as Spain and the US. A 1903 publisher directory lists a branch in Milan and a 1900 card mentions an agent in Naples. In 1904 the company was converted into a limited partnership26 with shares which The Postcard Album describes as a bit unusual. By 1923 the firm was turned into a stock company on shares. S&D had 15 presses in pre WW1 years27. One of their early cards features in a study of anti-semitic postcards28. In 1905 and 07 they copyrighted religious works of Jakob Ecker, a local Trier Roman Catholic priest, theologian and publicist.
Martin Schlesinger, Berlin
- M.S.i.B. logo of a sailing boat with large E on sail
This mark is widely attributed to Martin Schlesinger, Berlin. Schlesinger’sche Buch – und Musikalienhandlung was a book and music shop and a firm of music publishers founded in Berlin in April 1810 by Adolph Martin Schlesinger (1769 to 1838). After he retired, the company was run by his third son Heinrich (1810 to 1879) while the eldest son Maurice (1798 to 1871) established his own firm in Paris. Heinrich Schlesinger soon established relationships with composers Spontini, Loewe, and Weber – who signed a contract for exclusive publication in 1814. By 1836 the Berlin firm’s catalogue consisted of over 2,000 titles. In 1864 employee Robert Emil Lienau (1838 to 1920) bought the business and renamed it Robert Lienau. He continued to use the Schlesinger business name and plate numbering system well into the 20th century. His son Robert Heinrich Lienau (1866 to 1949) took over the firm in the late 19th century and managed to add Sibelius to the catalogue in the 1890s. The Schlesinger imprint was always used for Sibelius’ works. It would thus have been Robert Heinrich Lienau who undertook the publication of postcards. These were typically greetings cards for religious and calendar events.
So, for MSiB to be this firm we need to overlook the departure from publishing contemporary classical composers to greetings cards and the choice of the initials of the founder of the firm who died more than sixty years earlier. On the other hand, the bookshop continued under the Schlesinger name and a lot of bookshops did publish postcards and the greetings-type associated with this publisher is probably at the higher end of the market. The ship logo is unexplained. In the normal event I would regard it as relating to the printer with MSiB being the publisher only.
The August Schmelzer Company, Meriden, Connecticut, USA
- The August Schmelzer Co., Meriden, Conn
The August Schmelzer Company, 15 East Main Street, Meriden, published tinted photographic topographicals into the divided back era. They published a comic undivided-back postcard advertising on the address side their store as near the railroad crossing. They claimed to have The Largest Assortment of Souvenir Post Cards in New England as well as a full line of stationery and periodicals. They had more than 50 views of Meriden, one a microscopic card with eight views, views of all prominent domestic and foreign cities, centennial cards plain and tinsel, Birthday, Artistic, Comic and Character cards. NEW ARRIVALS EVERY WEEK. When Schmelzer’s son Oscar O. Schmelzer died at the age of twenty-nine in March 1899, Schmelzer was described in press reports as a prominent German resident and merchant of Meriden.
J. C. Schmidt
Erfurt, Thuringa, Central Germany
- J. C. Schmidt, Erfurt
Gardener Johann Christoph Schmidt (1753 to 1829) founded a subsidiary of a wax goods factory which was taken over by his grandson entrepreneur Christoph Schmidt (2 May 1803 to 2 January 1868). He developed trade in plants and tubers such that the business became known worldwide and Blumenschmidt Erfurt became a sufficient address29. They published a number of postcards to promote their garden business including some with floral scent30.
Edgar Schmidt, Dresden, Germany
- Edgar Schmidt, Dresden – Budapest.
- EDGAR SCHMIDT, DRESDEN
- E.S.D. in lion logo
Edgar Schmidt, Printer and Publisher, 28 Schlossstrasse, Dresden (1898), 12-14 Marschallstrasse, Dresden (1903) with branch in Budapest (5 Térez-koerut). In business from January 189731 to August 1907 as Edgar Schmidt then under the company name Postkarte GmbH at 34 Schandauerstrasse. In 1907 Schmidt had 6 presses (letterpress), 20 presses for monograms and 70 workers (under Bernhard Fell). Schmidt definitely had his own collotype printing during the early years, but it is not clear yet if later card issues were printed by them or were, more likely, supplied by other printers. He published Gruss Aus Correspondens-Kartes as far away as Vienna. E. Schmidt was also an early (pre-1900) representative for NPG (Berlin) photo cards. The business reverted to Edgar Schmidt again at 29 Carlowitzstrasse in 191332.
Gustav A. Schmidt
- Kunstanstalt Gustav A. Schmidt, Hamburg 22
Gustav A. Schmidt, printer, Hamburg 22. In 1953, Gustav A Schmidt GMBH were advertising as book and offset printers from 74 to 76 Bramfelder Strasse and they are still in business.
P. Schmidt, Chicago, Illinois, USA
- P. Schmidt. Publ. Chicago (Ill.)
As well as local topographicals, Schmidt published artist-drawn advertising cards into the divided-back era often featuring aspirational male or female figures. Undivided-backs were also published in the name P. Schmidt & Co. and included artwork of the 1871 Chicago fire. At the end of the first decade of the 20th century, novelty cards appeared in the name Schmidt Bros & Co. At the end of 1911, just in time for the 1912 presidential election, they patented one showing the Republican Party GOP elephant charging the White House from the U.S. Capitol building. WWI saw their publications featuring military content.
Not to be confused with Arthur P Schmidt, the Boston music publisher who died in 1921.
This card: The Reliance Building is a skyscraper located at 1 W. Washington Street in the Loop area of Chicago. The first floor and basement were designed by John Root of the Burnham and Root architectural firm in 1890, with the rest of the building completed by Charles B. Atwood in 1895. It is the first skyscraper to have large plate glass windows make up the majority of its surface area, foreshadowing a design feature that would become dominant in the 20th century.
Commercial real estate in Chicago boomed in the late 1870s. In 1880, William Ellery Hale purchased a small lot in the Loop community area containing the four-story First National Bank Building, one of the few offices in downtown Chicago to survive the 1871 Great Fire. Hale was the founder of the Hale Elevator Company, an early producer of hydraulic elevators necessary in skyscraper design. Hale envisioned a new tower on the site, but first needed to raze the existing structure. However, its tenants did not want to terminate their leases. Instead, Hale lifted the second, third, and fourth floors on jackscrews and demolished the first. A new basement and ground floor, designed by Root, were constructed in 1890.
The addition of the remaining floors in 1894 to 1895 completed the building and marked the first comprehensive achievement of the Chicago construction method. The building’s plate-glass windows are set within the terra-cotta-tiled facade. Its steel-frame superstructure is built atop concrete caissons sunk as much as 125 feet beneath the footing. The Reliance Building has been called proto-Modernist in its lack of the hierarchy found in Classical facades. Its stacks of projecting bay windows and terra-cotta cladding create an effect of extraordinary lightness. Its steel frame construction is physically light as well, being one-third the weight of an equivalent stone structure. It was a direct precursor of the all-glass Friedrichstrasse skyscraper proposed by Mies van der Rohe in 1921.
Source: Reliance Building wikipedia
Rudolf Schmidt (1873 to 1963) Austrian Schmidt was a landscape painter who illustrated many postcards with his watercolours33.
J. B. Schmitt
Belfort, Alsace, France
- J. B. Schmitt, Editeur, Belfort
J. B. Schmitt, bookseller and publisher, Belfort.
Belfort is located in a gap between the mountainous southern Vosges and the Jura Massif, strategically positioned as the gateway between Alsace and central France. At the beginning of the Franco-Prussian War in 1870, the French Army of the Rhine was routed in northern Alsace. The fall of Strasbourg on 28 September 1870 allowed the German army under August von Werder to move south against Belfort. Upon hearing of the approaching German army, Pierre Philippe Denfert-Rochereau, commander of Belfort, began constructing fortifications around the city, expanding those originally built by Vauban. Werder’s forces reached Belfort on 3 November and the Siege of Belfort became a 103-day military assault and blockade of the city. The French garrison held out until the January 1871 armistice between France and the German Empire obliged French forces to abandon the stronghold in February 1871.
In recognition of the French defence of Belfort, under the Treaty of Frankfurt, the city and its surrounding area were not handed over to Germany, unlike the remainder of Alsace.
A Lion of Belfort monument by Bartholdi was erected as a tribute to the defenders of the city. Publisher Schmitt put his name to hollow spelter reproductions as tourist souvenirs and also reproduced images on plates.
He also commemorated the seige in postcards, particularly soldiers on the move. By the divided-back era, his son had joined the business.
Schneider & Lux, Vienna.
- Schneider & Lux, Wien, V.
Schneider & Lux, printers and publishers, Vienna V (Margareten). The business was founded in 1893 by Franz Schneider. In 1894 Oktavian Lux became a partner. As early as 1897 they published chromolithographed Gruss aus and Soldier Greeting cards from Vienna VII (Neubau). They published topographical cards of the Austrian empire and Italy. Many of their undivided backs had a strong nationalist theme, exemplified by one with a Teuton fighting a monster between portraits of Kaiser Wilhelm I and Imperial Chancellor Otto von Bismarck. They published cards commemorating the death of Bismarck in 1898 and he featured in their card Oh Teutons fight to victory!
From 1907 Richard Honetz and Julius Meister were the managing directors and the business was incorporated. They employed around 40 workers at the beginning of WWI.
In 1937 Schneider published General Stift und seine Bande by Fritz Genschow, a screenwriter, director and actor who adapted the fairytale Little Red Riding Hood and the Wolf to the National Socialist ideology. After WWII the 1941 edition was banned both by the Allied and Soviet occupying forces.
In 1966 Franz Schneider Verlag of Munich and Vienna published books by Enid Blyton.
Fritz Schneller & Company, Nuremberg, Bavaria, Germany
- Fritz Schneller & Cie., Nuremberg
Fritz Schneller & Co. Lithographic printers in Nuremberg. They published ethnographic and topographical cards of Egypt and trading cards for Leibig, the originators of Oxo. In 1900 the company was one of the large concerns buying direct from paper mills34. Later they published the work of the artist Louis Oppenheim. During WWI they published materials in support of the German war loan efforts. The company was listed under Lithographic Institutions at 14/2 Friedrichstrasse in Jewish traders, doctors and lawyers in Nuremberg, 1930 by Gerhard Jochem Fritz.
- P. Schnorr
Peter Schnorr (26 April 1862 to 1 June 1912) was a German artist and illustrator of the Art Nouveau period. He was adept at calligraphy and did a variety of commercial work, including business signs and book jackets. He designed at least four different alphabets which bear his name and collaborated with Bruce Rogers on advertising work and title page designs for books. One of their clients was the publishing house, Houghton Mifflin35. He did fine work for Nister of Nurnberg (qv) and Autenrieth of Stuttgart (qv).
Ludwig Schoenecke, Jerusalem.
- Verlag v. L. Schoenecke. Jerusalem.
Ludwig Schoenecke, (26 January 1847 to 28 November 1902) photographer, Jerusalem. Schoenecke was also variously manager at the Johannes Frutiger Bank in Jerusalem36, a merchant and an employee of Pilgrim Mission. In 1897 Schoenecke photographed the German archaeologist Conrad Schick at the Tomb of the Kings, Jerusalem. He had married Schick’s daughter, Frieda in 187837. Born in 1860, his wife was quite a local celebrity in her own right particularly after being widowed only a year after her father’s death. On the southwestern brow of Mt Zion is a small Protestant cemetery with tombs from the 19th and first half of the 20th centuries. In addition to the remains of Jerusalem’s fortifications from the Iron Age to the Ayyubid period, it also contains the tombs of over a dozen early pioneers of SyroPalestinian archaeology. They include those of giants in the field such as Flinders Petrie and Lawrence Stanley Fisher, but also some lesser known names such as James Duncan and Ludwig Schoenecke38.
Postlingberg, Linz, Austria
- Verlag von J. Schöfdoppler, Pöstlingberg
Johann Schöfdoppler was a grocer and postcard publisher. Schöfdoppler was mayor of Pöstlingberg from 1893 to 1919, the last before incorporation into Linz. He had the villa Schöfdoppler-Casagrande (11 Am Pöstlingberg) built in 1901 by the Munich architect Fritz Hessemer.
Schöfdoppler was the founder of the Pöstlingberg fire brigade. The story of the Pöstlingberg volunteer fire brigade began on June 20, 1895 after a fire destroyed a local proprety. Mayor Schöfdoppler led an appeal for funds to buy a fire engine. During this time, the Musikverein Pöstlingberg was also founded. In 1901/02 the elementary school was built and in 1903 the municipal office at 50 Samhaberstraße was built by masterbuilder Johann Weixelbaumer.
Schöfdoppler published Gruss aus cards of Pöstlingberg. The Pöstlingberg is a 539 m high mountain above the left bank of the Danube in the district of the same name in Linz, Austria.
- Kunst und Verlags-Anst. v. S. Schottlaender, Breslau
Salo Schottlaender, (19 Jun 1844 to 2 Apr 1920) publisher, estate owner (castle Benkwitz in Breslau), Greek Consul to Province of Silesia (before 1909 until after 1914). Schottlaender learned the book-publishing trade in Leipzig, Stuttgart and Paris. He participated in the Franco-Prussian War of 1870/71 and my Gruss aus card features the Kaiser and a German cavalry charge. In 1873 he was co-founder of the national-liberal daily Silesian Press, Breslau. In 1876 he took over a publishing house and opened a book-publishing business. In 1889 he transformed the company into an AG under the name Schlesische Buchdruckerei, Kunst-und Verlags-Anstalt by S. Schottlaender & Co. A.-G. In 1906 the company relocated to Berlin. Schottlaender was a supporter of the liberal rabbi Manuel Joel40. Papers from the business are in the National Library of Israel.
Bordighera, Liguria, Italy
- Edit. R. Scholtz
- Orig. di Fr. Reincke, Dresden 04 Propr. riserv. Richard Scholtz, Bordighera
Richard Scholtz published as postcards photographs of Bordighera and surrounds by Fr. Reincke and Ezio Benigni (qv) and the work of artists including the German Hermann Nestel.
Gustav Schubert, Vienna
- Photogr. v Schuberth, Breitensee
Gustav Schubert, Photographic Studio, 29 Kendlerstrasse, Breitensee, Vienna. He is buried at 133 Friedhof HernalsGruppe41.
Charles Scolik, Vienna
- Fec. Ch. Scolik, Wien, VIII.
- FEC. CH. SCOLIK. WIEN. VIII.
Charles (Karl Jacob) Scolik (16 March 1854 to 1 June 1928) Austrian photographer42. Scolik trained as a photographer from 1867. In 1876 he took over the Viennese studio F. Kohler, which he continued under the name Atelier Amelie. However, he soon gave up this first independent activity to work as an employee of the photographer Carl Kroh. In 1886 he became independent again and operated a Photochemical Experimental Laboratory with Friedrich Mallmann. In the following years he became one of the leading portrait photographers in Vienna. From 1890 Scolik photographed public events and published his photographs in the press. In 1887 he supported the foundation of the Amateur Photographers Club in Vienna and taught there from 1891. In 1892, Scolik was appointed Court photographer. He was editor of the Photographic Review for several years. He was a member of the photographic associations of Vienna, Frankfurt and Berlin. He was honoured with numerous awards for his work. His undivided-backs seem predominantly to have been photographs and artwork of sentimental images of women and girls and his stock of celebrity photographs. In WWI he published cards reflecting the Austrian military effort under the wording Fec. Kais. Rat43. Ch. Scolik, K. u. K.44 Hof-& Kammerphotograf45 Wien, VIII.
Scots Pictorial Publishing Company, Glasgow, Scotland
- S.P.P. Co
Scots Pictorial Publishing Company46 Limited, 180 Hope Street, Glasgow, listed in 1900 as the publishers of the Scots Pictorial, AN ILLUSTRATED MAGAZINE-JOURNAL FOR THE SCOT AT HOME AND THE SCOT ABROAD47. This company published The Wee Macgreegor book series and, when they were successful, products including postcards associated with the books.
Attilo Scrocchi, Milan, Italy
- AS M48 monogram of A and S intertwined, with M below
- Stab Lit A Scrocchi – Milano
Attilo Scrocchi, Milan, a publisher of many view-cards of Italy and Libya and artist-signed postcards of women and views. He produced cards in black & white, sepia, colour photogravure, as real photo postcards and, on occasion, with real hair. Some of these cards have irregular scalloped edges49. His undivided-backs included a series of portraits of Italian Generals of 1848-49. A E Fiecchi Edit – Venezia (qv) is also on cards. Scrocchi also published local guidebooks and souvenir booklets of the photographs of Tomaso Filippi50.
Seddon’s Lake View
Ohinemutu, Rotorua, New Zealand
SEDDON’S LAKE VIEW, OHINEMUTU
THE WONDERLAND OF NEW ZEALAND … Commands from the balcony and lawn the finest view obtainable of Lake Rotorua, Mokolaka Island, The Sunken Pah, and the Boiling Sprints. Private Hot Mineral Baths attached to the House.
Seddon’s Lake View, guest house, Ohinemutu, Rotorua, established in 1882. Ohinemutu became the main centre for the Rotorua region in the early 1870s. Visitors, including royalty, arrived at this bustling settlement before going on to visit the Pink and White terraces at Lake Tarawera, and to experience the healing waters of Rotorua.
The Hot Lakes Chronicle of 20 March 1895 listed 16 guests including two police officers as staying in the house. An advertisement in the Auckland Star of 7 April 1896 described Mrs S A Seddon as the proprietress and cautioned: NOTE – ASK FOR SEDDONS AND SEE YOU ARE LEFT THERE. Mrs Caroline McCammon had the hotel in about 1898 to 1900. In 1902, terms were five shillings a day.
Ohinemutu is now advertised as a living Māori village set on the picturesque shores of Lake Rotorua.
On 1 January 1901, New Zealand introduced one penny universal postage from New Zealand to any country in the world willing to deliver them. Australia, the United States, France and Germany would not accept such letters, fearful of having to reduce their own postal charges to match. This also halved the cost of mailing letters within New Zealand. While concern was expressed that Post Office revenues would fall, mail volumes increased sharply and by 1902 any losses had been recovered.
Meissen, Saxony, Germany.
- Hermann Seibt, Meissen
Verlag Hermann Seibt, Meissen was a postcard publisher in Meissen, active between at least 1898 and 1918. Seibt’s numbered topographical photocards ranged from the Middle East (Lebanon) to Bohemia (Czechoslovakia).
Seibt was also proprietor of printers Kretzschmar & Schatz from 1895 until at least 1910. Here he also specialised in postcards with views done in collotype, chromolitho and various halftone processes, with both machine- and hand-colouring. Their history is typical for many German firms in the picture-postcard business. Established in the 1890’s they entered the booming postcard market. Their major business was picture-postcards, but they also printed albums with views, letterheads, menu cards and distributed postcard vending machines. As well as publishing, the business also distributed genre and artist cards by other publishers. Their major markets were Germany and Austria Hungary, but Hermann Seibt exported also cards to Great Britain, a colour halftone process under the name Saxonia with a minimum order of 2000 cards.
Source: The Postcard Album no 18 page 15
Selfridge & Company Limited London
- SELFRIDGE & Co Ltd. LONDON W & K Series
Chicago businessman Harry Gordon Selfridge opened Selfridges Department Store at the unfashionable end of Oxford Street in 1909. From then until 1941, Selfridge walked through the front doors of his shopper’s emporium every morning to shouts of Good Morning, Mr. Selfridge. Never prompted, it is said, the employees were happy to offer greetings to the man who made it possible for them to work in such pleasant surroundings.
For the average Londoner of the early twentieth century, the store was as much an amusement park as it was a department store. Frequently Mr. Selfridge would invite theatre and cinema stars, politicians, and national heroes to be his guest in the gourmet restaurant on the store’s roof. King Edward VII, the Antarctic explorer Sir Ernest Shackleton, and Frank Winfield Woolworth are just a few who made personal appearances at Selfridge & Co.
Londoners also had the opportunity to see the first plane to fly across the English Channel and the first Milne-Shaw seismograph installed in a public building. They were encouraged to buy ice cream from the first sundae boutique in London. When Londoners went to the roof they could play the first miniature golf-course in Europe, have lunch in a terraced garden, and then the ladies could go to the first all-girl gun club. Selfridge shoppers also witnessed the first demonstration of television in the UK.
Ther was no merchandise Mr. Selfridge would not sell. 6,000 umbrellas were available every day. The men’s department handled seven hundred styles of belts. The ladies’ department offered over a thousand different hats.
Selfridge’s post card counter had thousands of cards. All the leading publishers were available in racks where buyers could purchase single cards or sets.
Source: Good Morning, Mr. Selfridge Ray Hahn
This card: The Royal Artillery Memorial is a First World War memorial located on Hyde Park Corner in London, England. Designed by Charles Sargeant Jagger, with architectural work by Lionel Pearson, and unveiled in 1925, the memorial commemorates the 49,076 soldiers from the Royal Artillery killed in the First World War. The static nature of the conflict, particularly on the Western Front, meant that artillery played a major role in the war, though physical reminders of the fighting were often avoided in the years after the war. The Royal Artillery War Commemoration Fund (RAWCF) was formed in 1918 to preside over the regiment’s commemorations, aware of some dissatisfaction with memorials to previous wars. The RAWCF approached several eminent architects but its insistence on a visual representation of artillery meant that none was able to produce a satisfactory design. Thus they approached Jagger, himself an ex-soldier who had been wounded in the war. Jagger produced a design which was accepted in 1922, though he modified it several times before construction. Source: wikipedia.
W & K is likely to be Wildt & Kray of London who also took real photographs of Wembley Stadium for the British Empire Exhibition, Wembley, 1924 to 25 and published them in a similar style.
Adolf Selige, St Louis, Montana, USA
- ADOLF SELIGE PUB. CO. ST. LOUIS. Sailing boat logo with S on the sail
- Adolf Selige Pub. Co., St. Louis – Leipzig. Sailing boat logo with S on the sail
- ADOLF SELIGE PUB. CO. ST. LOUIS. in the elaborate cartouche on the address side supported by a sketch of a glamorous female form
- A.S.St.L. Leipzig – Halberstadt.
Adolf Selige, St. Louis, a publisher of predominantly mid-Western view-cards, humour, and images of Western themes. He also produced a variety of scenes for other publishers under the trade name Seliochrom51. Selige published cards from St Louis before adding Leipzig-Halberstadt to his designation. The St. Louis Post-Dispatch of 17 February 1901 reported St. Louis as the headquarters of the International Souvenir Card Exchange, and Adolf Selige of St. Louis as its secretary. When a local branch of the organisation was formed a couple of years later, The Republic of 5 January 1903 reported that it had more than 100 members in St Louis and 6,000 worldwide. Selige was a director and his wife secretary of the local branch. Halberstadt is a town in the German state of Saxony-Anhalt, the capital of Harz district, about 140 km from Leipzig.
Henry Charles Seppings Wright
- Seppings Wright
H C Seppings Wright (1850 to 1937). English war and marine artist born in Cornwall. Wright turned to art after a short naval career. In the 1870s he was taken on as an artist-correspondent by the Illustrated London News. He covered events and then the war in South Africa followed by various conflicts up to and including WWI54. In 1913 Wright published Two Years Under the Crescent, his account of the time he spent in Turkey and the surrounding countries. Wright contributed cartoons to Vanity Fair under the pseudonym Stuff. All the postcards of his work I’ve seen are marine pictures published by Hildesheimer (qv).
Farmington, Hartford County, Connecticut USA
- Shady Grove Cabins
Gerald W. Hemphill Senior (1925 to 2014) was the owner-manager of the Shady Grove Tourist Court and Wee-One Restaurant at Scott Swamp Road and New Britain Avenue in Farmington, where he rented cottages to tenants. He lived in Farmington for 58 years and Unionville, the northwestern section of Farmington, for 9 years after retiring. Hemphill was employed for 32 years by the Southern New England Telephone Company (commonly referred to as SNETCo) which was the founder of the first telephone exchange, as well as the world’s first telephone book. Since its inception, SNETCo has held a monopoly on most of the telephone services in the state of Connecticut. In June 1994 Hemphill was living at 132 Scott Swamp Road at Shady Grove Tourist Court. On one occasion he was trapped for about 15 minutes under a bus he was working on before his wife and another man helped get him out.
J. Shapoorjee & Company
Allahabad & Nainital, India
- J. Shapoorjee & Co., Allahabad & Naini Tal
J. Shapoorjee & Company, Allahabad & Naini Tal, published topographic and ethnographic photocards into the divided-back era.
Allahabad is a city in the state of Uttar Pradesh. Nainital is a popular hill station in the state of Uttarakhand about 500 kilometers from Allahabad. In 1862, Nainital became the summer seat of the North Western Provinces.
For many years Mr and Mrs Jamshedji and Dhunmai Shapoorjee leased and ran the Metropole Hotel in Nainital which now lies in ruins. It was very popular and patronised by a prestigious clientele. J Shapoorjee & Company, wine and general merchants, had a shop at Dina Lodge there. In the Administration Report on the 1931 Census Operations of the United Provinces Of Agra and Oudh, the Provincial Superintendent advised his successor:
Nainital has temperate summers, maximum temperature 27 °C (81 °F); minimum temperature 7 °C (45 °F), during which its population increases more than fivefold with an annual influx of tourists predominantly from the plains of northern India.
Having selected your staff you will need sufficient room to accommodate them … If the Naini exodus is still going at next census you will proceed almost at once to Naini Tal. The General Administration Department had kindly engaged accommodation for my office in part of Dina Lodge (Messrs. J. Shapoorjee’s shop building) at Rs. 800 for the season including taxes.
On 12 April 1906 the Syndicate engaged in the establishment of a Faculty of Law at the University of Allahabad recorded the purchase of lamps for £60 from Messrs J. Shapoorjee & Co. On 21 November, they bought twine and methylated spirits for £9 12s.
- H. Siegert signature in picture
H. Siegert, German 20th century artist. My card is of Sorau, a town in western Poland now called Żary.
Darwin D. Silberer & Brothers
- Darwin D. Silberer & Bros. P.O. STA. D. N.Y. City Name Ser.
Darwin D. Silberer & Bros. P.O. Station D55, N.Y. City was one of the sons of Lorenz Silberer (1836 to 1922) and Elizabeth Braun Silberer (1843 to 1924). Scout and Scoutmaster Darwin D. Silberer were honoured with the Second Liberty Loan medals56. The brothers’ postcards featured theatrical and sporting themes and glittery cards of girls’ names that were made in Hungary. In the New York Daily News of Saturday 21 October 1933 Darwin D. Silberer was described as a grayish gentleman of 60, who has been supplying show business with throwaway novelties for thirty-eight years. He got into the game by printing postcard photographs of the matinee idols and actresses of the 90’s. His first group of postcards included Julia Marlowe, Mary Mannering, Maxine Elliott, Viola Allen, William Gillette, John Drew, Nat Goodwin, De Wolf Hopper and Lillian Russell. He sold more than 3,000,000 of these cards before he took on pictures of more celebrities. The late Florenz Ziegfeld, then about to present his first “Follies,” turned Silberer to the gadget business in 1907, ordering $750 worth of cardboard masks. With the profit on this deal Silberer went to Europe in search of more novelties. He brought back his biggest success, a postcard picture of a dog with a wagging wire spring for a tall. This dog has advertised everything from shows to whisky.
Jacob Silberstein, Munich, Germany
- Kunstverlag J. Silberstein, München
Jacob Silberstein & Company, Munich. The Postcard Album has57 a logo not found on my topographical photocard which was postally used in August 1901.
Bernard Sirven, Toulouse, France
- B. SIRVEN IMPR.-EDIT., TOULOUSE-PARIS
B. Sirven, printer and publisher, Toulouse-Paris is a company founded by Bernard Sirven in 1834 with a factory in 76 rue de la Colombette in Toulouse. The business specialised in lithography, bookbinding, stitching, office and school supplies. Sirven also had a cardboard factory.
During the Franco-German War of 1870, workers at the Sirven printing press, under the direction of the founder’s sons Joseph and Francois, published war dispatches to give news from the front to soldiers’ wives. This gave birth to La Dépêche du Midi. (informally La Dépêche) to this day a regional daily newspaper published in Toulouse in southwestern France with 17 editions for different areas of the Midi-Pyrénées region.
Sirvens was awarded gold medals at the Universal Exhibition in Paris in 1878, and the Universal Exhibition in Antwerp in 1885. Joseph Sirven (1835 to 1905) was mayor of Toulouse from 1884 to 1888. In 1889 the company operated a mutual benefit and a girls’ school.
The company produced a number of advertising posters including Belle Epoque advertisements illustrated by Mucha.
The Sirvens embarked on the manufacture of metal boxes, some of which they filled with the famous cachou Lajaunie which is still sold, a black sweet, raw, with a strong taste and a stimulating effect. It is recommended for digestion, irritated throats but especially for the happiness of lovers and lovers of liquorice sweets . In 1904 Léon Lajaunie ceded the exploitation rights to the Sirven brothers.
Clara von Siversal
- C. v. Sivers
Clara von Sivers, German artist58, (29 October 1854 to 12 March 1924) was a German flower painter. She studied at the Art Academies in Copenhagen, Paris, Stuttgart and Dresden. A leading artist of the Schleswig-Holstein State in the Imperial era59, after separating from her husband in 1888, she moved to Berlin where she enterprisingly gave art lessons for women and published a monthly illustrated magazine about decorative arts for the home, Kunstgewerbe für’s as well as selling her own work to publishers.
Vernon & Kamloops, B.C., Canada
- SMITH BROS, Book Store, Vernon & Kamloops, B.C.
S L Smith, listed at Smith Brothers, bookseller and stationer, Barnard Ave in the 1909 directory for Vernon60. Saul Layton Smith (1871 to 1963) arrived in Vernon in November 1891 from Saint John, New Brunswick. With his younger brother Frank, he operated Smith Brothers, stationery and book store in Vernon for more than twenty years. Many of the notebooks Alice Barrett Parkeused for her diaries have a Smith Bros stamp in them61. Their premises in Vernon and Kamloops feature in their advertisement of office diaries in the Prospector newspaper of 9 February 190562. The bookstore they built in 1907 is still in 30 Avenue, Vernon63. Vernon was incorporated as a city in 1893, with a mayor (WF Cameron, Esq) and five aldermen. It is virtually at the end of the S & O branch of the CP Ry, if we except the short extension to Okanagan Landing.
Smith & Company
Carson City, Nevada, USA
- Smith & Co. – – Carson City, Nev
Smith & Company, photographers, Carson City published a number of photocards of Native Americans.
Harper B. Smith
Atlantic City, New Jersey, USA
- Photo by H.B. Smith.
Harper B. Smith (January 1873 to 3 August 1917) was the official photographer for Atlantic City, and a photographer for Underwood & Underwood. He was born in York, Pennsylvania. Around 1892 he moved to Atlantic City. He continued to publish photographs until the year of his death. My card of one of his photographs was published by I & M Ottenheimer Limited (qv).
W H Smith, Leamington, England
- W H Smith, Leamington
W H Smith, Leamington. In 1899 Smith produced a guide book for Leamington Spa which the journal British Printer described as nicely produced throughout.
W H Smith & Son
The first William Henry Smith was born in 1792 just two weeks before the sudden death of his father Henry Walton Smith, who only a few months earlier had established a small newswalk or newspaper round in Berkeley Square, London. The young Smith remained in the news trade, opening a reading room in the Strand in 1821. First with the news was his proud boast, as he created a country-wide newspaper distribution network based on the mail-coach system.
His son, William Henry II (1825 to 91), who became a partner in the family business in 1846 at the peak of railway mania, saw the potential of the new technology more quickly than his father. Railways offered a faster and more reliable way of sending newspapers to the farthest corners of the country, and by building up good relationships with each of the competing regional companies, Smith soon created a genuinely national business. He even demanded (unsuccessfully) that trains be held up to await late deliveries of The Times.
From the early 1840s, many stations had vendors (often superannuated or disabled railway employees) selling disreputable publications or soiled newspapers. Smith, though, who realised that reading was far less difficult on a train than on a swaying stage-coach, was convinced that the opportunity existed for a more professional business selling papers and cheap books to the thronging passengers (who made 60 million journeys between them in 1850, each visiting at least two stations). Euston, the London terminus for the London North-Western Railway, was his first chosen site, and in the summer of 1848 he began negotiations. The vendor in situ, an ex-LNWR messenger called Gibbs, was unceremoniously moved aside and the first WH Smith railway bookstall opened on November 1st.
By 1860 Smith’s bookstalls were to be seen on all main lines and many secondary ones. It was a cultural revolution, as well as a commercial one: The Times reported a wholesome change in railway bookstalls… at the North Western terminus we diligently searched for that which required but little looking for in other places, but we poked in vain for the trash. In place of the trash Smith provided yellowbooks – cheap reprints of out-of-copyright volumes – while Longman’s brought out a traveller’s library specifically for the new market, to supplement the newspapers.
Smith, a Dissenter dubbed Old Morality by Punch (he had had to be dissuaded from a career in the church), insisted on vetting the quality of the books he sold and the content of the advertisements he displayed. His tastes, though, clearly were in accord with Victorian Britain, and the Smith’s bookstalls epitomised railway travel up to the Second World War and still flourish today.
In 1905, when the rental contracts for the 2,000 Great Western and London and North Western Railways stations were up for renewal, the business was faced with steep rent increases. The company responded by opening 150 new shops in the streets leading to the stations instead, each one fitted out in the recognisable company style. The decision meant that, when some sixty years later the railway network was slashed back by Dr Beeching, WH Smith & Son was secure. In 1966 WH Smith staff created a nine-digit code that would later become the International Standard Book Number catalogue system. In 2021 their 1960s purpose-built concrete headquarters in Swindon was the subject of an application for demolition.
Smiths published a huge variety of picture postcards. This card is one of the blanks they sold long into the divided-back era. The WHS lozenge was designed by R P Gossop: Robert Percy Gossop (1876 to 1951) was apprenticed in 1892 as a wallpaper and fabric designer in London. Whilst undertaking his apprenticeship he attended art classes at colleges including Birkbeck College and Hammersmith School of Art. From 1896 to 1902 he worked as a designer and freelance illustrator. From 1902 until 1904 he worked as studio manager for the printers Eyre and Spottiswood and from 1904 in the same capacity for W. H. Smith. At W. H. Smith he worked with a number of significant artists, including Henry Ospovat, and designed Smith’s famous lozenge shaped logo. As it forms part of the logo here, we can date this card well after the undivided-back era. Similarly, during WWI, Smith’s issued patriotic undivided-back postcards with the identifying initials W.H.S.& S., L.
Sources: The First WH Smith Railway Bookstall Richard Cavendish History Today Volume 48 Issue 11 November 1998; R. P. Gossop, commercial artist and agent Victoria and Albert Museum: Archive of Art and Design
A. Soati, Ferrara, Italy
- Edit. A. Soati Tip. Taddei, Ferrara H.e.S. D.
Società Editrice Cartoline64
- SOCIETÀ EDITRICE CARTOLINE – TORINO.
As well as topographical photocards, the Societa’s undivided-backs included fine art nouveau cards of the 1902 Turin Exposition of Modern Decorative Arts, colour lithographs with metallic pigment65. Their 1912 catalogue offered to provide thousands of postcards in a matter of days including cards of the Italo-Turkish war. In 1923 the Società were listed at 2 Corso Regina Margherita.
Société Industrielle de Photographie66
Société Industrielle de Photographie67, Rueil, France produced photographs for stereoscopes68 as well as many postcards featuring actresses. One of mine is looking pensively through a hole in a 1901 poster for the Theatre National de L’Opera-Comique. SIP served as exclusive representative in France for the German photographer Émile Reutlinger and won a gold medal in the 1904 St Louis International Exposition70. They also produced cards for Paris photographer Paul Boyer.
Société de Reproduction Photographique Industrielle, Paris
- RPI P.L.
Société de Reproduction Photographique Industrielle, printers, Paris produced gelatin silver bromide prints.
Georgius Josephus Franciscus Augustus de Bedts appears to have spent most of his adult life outside his native Belgium. He departed Antwerp for the USA in January 1880 and worked initially as a pharmacist and then as a commercial traveller in Cleveland, Ohio until at least October 1885. By early 1890 he was travelling round Europe as a representative of the Eastman Photographic Materials Company of Rochester, New York. By 1891 he was a director of their Paris branch and promoting Kodak cameras: he displayed a series of views that he had taken in America and Egypt with a Kodak at a meeting of the Photo-Club de Paris on 11 November 1891. De Bedts left Eastman and established the Anglo-American Photo Import Office at 368 Rue Saint-Honoré, Paris, in 1894. His subsequent career included a stint as a pioneering manufacturer and distributor of chrono- and cinematographic equipment, initially in collaboration with Léon Gaumont and Georges Demenÿ in 1895 and then as G. De Bedts & Cie, a firm registered on 22 January 1896. He subsequently founded the RPI in Paris with studios in Asnières, on 9 May 1899. Asnieres is a suburb of Paris and the scene of famous paintings by Georges Seurat. RPI produced large-scale advertising matter in artistic and industrial photography cheaply on glossy and matte platino-bromide paper. The firm declared bankruptcy on 8 August 1905.
PL and the JTR logo also found in the corner of photographs may identify the photographers responsible for the images.
RPI’s ample supply of romantic images landed them in trouble when the manufacturer of an automatic device called the Marriage Agency, used it to distribute trait cards at the bottom of which appeared the suggestive words: “The one that likes you”. Among the portraits intended to spread this joy was that of a respectable young woman, recently deceased. Her father and husband, outraged at this, sued. By decision of 20 January 1906 the first chamber of the civil court of the Seine awarded them 300 francs damages each and reserved the defender’s rights against the RPI which had sold him the incriminated photographs. The court reiterated the important principle that the family of a deceased person always has the right to object to the portrait of that person being the subject of any publicity without prior authorization; such a right could not be ignored without offending the most intimate and respectable feelings.
Erik Söderström, Porvoo, Finland
- Erik Söderström, Borgå – Porvoo
Erik Robert Söderström (25 October 1866 to 6 September 1955) took over his father’s bookstore in Porvoo71 on 1 August 1896. The following year he announced in the local newspapers that he sold postcards of Borgå. Söderström was one of the first to issue cards of Borgå and undoubtedly produced the most. Söderström’s bookstore moved to the corner of Nikolaigatan (Mannerheimgatan) and Nya Kyrkogatan (Runebergsgatan) at the end of 1897. This was a wooden building he erected on a site destroyed by fire in 1894 now occupied by Suomentalo. He was there until he sold it to Holger Schildt in 1914. About a month before he sold his bookstore, he changed the name of it to Söderström’s bookstore72.
Porvoo City Hall was designed by architect Carl Rupert Rosenberg who died a year before it was completed in 1893. The building was modern in many ways and its location away from the old town reflected the strong growth of the city. It was built for government as a whole and housed the Court of Cassation, the Magistrates, the Monetary Commission, the Customs Chamber, the City Prison and the Police. On the Piispankatu side, at the west end, were the fire brigade and there were large rooms downstairs where the hoses could be dried. There was also room for public auctions were held. However Rosenberg’s design for a pile foundation for the building wasn’t followed and the house started to sink almost immediately. Over the years the various offices moved out, the fire brigade in 1962 and the police not until the beginning of the 1990s. Source: Uusimaa
- VERLAG S. SOLDAN’SCHE HOCHBUCHH. NURNBERG
Sigmund Julius Gustav Soldan (21 May 1833 to 17 March 1894), Court Bookseller and publisher, 1 Konigstrasse, Nuremberg. Soldan’s premises were in the local museum and he sold and rented music from them. As well as publishing artistic views of Nuremberg in books, Soldan also published books about art and artists including one about Durer that prompted a review alleging plagiarism. Soldan’s 1867 Commercial Address Book of Nuremberg was reprinted in 2017 and 2018. The British Museum bought twenty 1869 prints of etchings of Nuremberg scenes from Soldan.
Soldan’s shop published artist-drawn cards of the locality into the divided back era. Photocards issued in the divided back era attribute the business to August Zemsch who had been involved since 1891 and Soldan’s dates confirm that the business had passed from its founder by the time it published postcards.
Francisco Soler, Tunis, Algeria
- F. Soler phot. Edit., Tunis
- F. SOLER, PHOT. TUNIS.
Francisco Soler, photographer and postcard editor, Tunis. In 1890 Soler transferred his studio Soler, Universal Photography from Oran, Algeria to Avenue de France, Tunis. Portraitist and principal competitor of Photo-Garrigues (qv), he succeeded the latter as official photographer of the Bey of Tunis73. In 1897 Soler and Albert Samama Chikly74, a Jewish Tunisian film pioneer organised the first screenings of Lumière films in Soler’s Tunis shop. Its ethno-geographical production is widely distributed in postcards supplemented by very traditional native types made in the studio. Magazines and newspapers published his photographs of reportage and the administrations entrusted to him the photographs of the mining exploitations. In 1900 Soler was joined by his nephew Désiré Pavia and soon also by Pavia’s brother Adrien. Faced with the competition of Lehnert and Landrock75 on the other side of the street, Pavia introduced an artistic touch into his production, as well as some oriental nudes. In 1914, the studio was described in Almanach Hachette as a powerful agent of colonization by making Tunisia known to the whole world. Until the 1930s, it remained the main French iconographic source for Tunisia. The eight hundred plates found in 1991 are still awaiting the study that was then announced76.
Solomon Brothers, London
- THE S.B. SERIES – 12 CHAPEL STREET, LONDON E.C. PRINTED AT THE FINE ART WORKS IN BAVARIA with logo of a circle containing intertwined S & B above SERIES
Solomon Brothers were large publishers of halftone lithographic postcards. In their SB series, Solomon published photographs posed by models both as divided and undivided-backs, the latter suggesting they were in business earlier than generally supposed. Greeting cards and artist signed cards were also produced, and during the First World War patriotic cards became their staple as they switched the printing to their works in London77. In 1914, the company were successfully sued by a rival card company for infringing registered trade mark in the word “Classic”78.
Fritz Sommer, Berlin
- Verlag von Fritz Sommer, Berlin S. W. Friedrichstrasse 210. Judenreiner Aufenthalt
Fritz Sommer, publican, 210 Friedrichstrasse, Berlin S. W. Sommer published a series of anti-Semitic cartoons as postcards, some in a series labeled Jew-free stay. He used this slogan in an advertisement for his German Inn in the Official catalog and guide for the German Army, Navy and Colonial Exhibition Berlin 1907 which he presented as a Meeting place for all anti-Semites. Other advertising promised All anti-Semitic magazines are available. In about 1905 he compiled Heil Deutschland! : German-national anti-Semitic song book: Collection of German-national folk, student and anti-Semitic songs together with amusing and serious anti-Semitic speeches.
Such overt anti-Jewish prejudice was not unusual in Germany at the time; James Hawes in The Shortest History of Germany traces a brand new kind of anti-semitism to Bismarck’s abandonment of the anti-Catholic Kulturkampf in 1879. Baths anti-Semitism is a term for the widespread exclusion and discrimination of Jewish guests in German health resorts and bathing resorts , especially for the period before National Socialism .
The German Inn was rebuilt in 1888 with a modern ballroom and an attractive stage. 210 Friedrichstrasse is at present a branch of Starbucks near to Checkpoint Charlie.
Munich, Bavaria, Germany
- Splitgerber, jr79 within the painting and monogram of HSM on the reverse above “Winternachte80” 4 Dess.
Hermann Sonntag was a large Bavarian printing house noted for its chromolithograph and colour lithography on posters, postcards, box labels, magazines, and advertising. They published embossed chromolithograph postcards of coins, with each card showing a different country’s coinage, embossed and coloured in the correct metallic tint for bronze, silver, and gold, with the nation’s flag in colour in the centre, as well as a currency exchange table. They issued a sample catalogue of forty cards for salesmen promoting this very popular postcard series81.
Souvenir Post Card Company
- SOUVENIR POST CARD CO N.Y.
- Souvenir Post Card Co.,N.Y.
- Souvenir Post Card Co., New York.
- Souvenir Post Card Co., New York and Berlin
- Souvenir Post Card Co., New York and Leipzig.
- SOUVENIR POST CARD Co., NEW YORK AND BERLIN
- SOUVENIR POST CARD CO., NEW YORK
- U.S. Souvenir Post Card Co., N.Y. City (Germany)
Souvenir Post Card Company, 268 Canal Street, New York, NY.
A major publisher of a variety of postcard types including the photographs of August Loeffler (qv). They used three different printers (including Carl Garte of Leipzig) over the course of their business, which changed the look of their cards. The company was purchased by Valentine and Sons. and they produced cards in America under the name Valentine-Souvenir Co82.
Metro Postcard classify their output:
Colour cards 1-3099 and 12000-15000 – with Post Card printed in green in an elaborate art nouveau style;
Green & white 3100-5999 and 15000-up. Many of these cards were reprints of colour issues (often with glitter to enhance their dull look);
Black & white 6000-11999 in halftone lithography83.
None of these fit with the style or name U.S. Souvenir Post Card Co., N.Y. City (Germany)
Franz Speiser, Prien am Chiemsee, Bavaria, Germany
- Verlag von F. Speiser, Prien
Franz Speiser, art and clothing store, Prien am Chiemsee, Bavaria.
Prien am Chiemsee is a municipality in the Upper Bavarian district of Rosenheim in Germany. The town is a certified air and Kneipp spa on the western shore of the lake of Chiemsee, 16 km (9.3 miles) east of Rosenheim. Sebastian Kneipp (17 May 1821 to 17 June 1897) was a Bavarian priest and one of the forefathers of the naturopathic medicine movement. He is most commonly associated with the Kneipp Cure form of hydrotherapy, the application of water through various methods, temperatures and pressures which he claimed to have therapeutic or healing effects often called Kneipp therapy or Kneippism.
In about 1890 Speiser produced albums of chromolithographed images of Prien am Chiemsee and of Herrenchiemsee, a replica of Louis XIV of France’s Palace of Versailles, located on the Herren Island in the middle of the Chiemsee Lake. Although not completed, the building was meant to outdo its predecessor in scale and opulence by including the Ambassadors’ Staircase no longer in existence in France and a Hall of Mirrors slightly longer than the original. Herrenchiemsee is shown in this card which is one of a number of paintings of Chiemsee by Hubert Sattler (above) .
In the first decade of the 20th century, Speiser co-operated with Ottmar Zieher of Munich to publish postcards of King Ludwig II of Bavaria (25 August 1845 to 13 June 1886) who was responsible for Herrenchiemsee. In the same period Speiser published several tourist and historical guides by Hans Steinberger.
H. Speiser, Basel, Switzerland
- LICHTDRUCK VON H. SPEISER BASEL
H. Speiser, printer, Basel published local topographical collotypes into the divided-back era.
- Erw. Spindler
Erwin Spindler,(1860 to 1926) German artist. Spindler became deaf at the age of five from an episode of scarlet fever. In 1889 he married the – also deaf – Elisabeth Crome. In 1891 the young family moved from Munich to Leipzig. The couple had a total of five children. Spindler was actively involved in the deaf community: He founded the sports club Lipsia, participated in the Deaf Theater, led the Malschule Spindler, was a member of the board in the Saxon Deaf Society and, towards the end of his life, was chairman of the Leipzig Deaf Society. A preliminary catalogue raisonné published in 1998 contained about 400 drawings, watercolours and oil paintings and more than 300 postcards, created between 1899 and 1906. Most of the cards are signed84. My card of an atmospheric painting of Lake Garda in Italy was published by Winkler & Voigt of Leipzig (qv) and used for Christmas greetings in 1902.
Fritz Splitgerber, Germany
- Splitgerber, jr within the painting and monogram of HSM85 on the reverse above “Winternachte86” 4 Dess.
Fritz Splitgerber (1876 to 1914) was a German landscape painter who followed in the footsteps of his father August Karl Martin Splitgerber (1844 to 1918). He attended the School of Applied Arts in Munich. As a landscape painter, he mainly produced watercolours. His and his father’s landscape paintings appeared in the form of picture postcards. He painted romanticised Winter scenes for Tucks87. He died after suffering severe frostbite in a mountain accident and was buried in the Munich North Cemetery88.
John Stafford, Brighton, England
- Stafford’s Copyright Series.
John Edward Stafford (1841 to 31 December 1907) was a prominent Brighton businessman in the 1890s and early 1900s, with a fancy goods and stationery shop called “The Bazaar” at 166 Western Road and a toy, games and oriental store two doors away at Number 168. He also had a counting house and warehouse in Crown Street, as well as a store in Tunbridge Wells. He was mayor of Brighton from 1899 to 1901 during which time he drove the town’s first tram on 25 November 1901.
Stafford was born at Melton Mowbray in Leicestershire. In his late teens he walked to London in search of employment with his elder brother. During the 1870s Stafford moved with his family to Brighton.
Postmark evidence shows that Stafford began publishing postcards of Brighton before the end of 1899. When divided backs were authorised, and postcard sales began to boom, he quickly introduced a variety of pleasing collotype and halftone cards. Stafford was one of the few British publishers to issue double width or panoramic postcards. These novelties could be sent through the post for a halfpenny provided they carried only a signature. If a message was included, a penny stamp was required. Stafford’s cards are good quality collotypes showing Brighton and Hove sea front. They are marked on the back Stafford’s Brighton and Tunbridge Wells and claim to have been printed at our works in Germany. Much more numerous are some standard-sized black and white collotype postcards of Brighton published in some cases under the name Stafford’s Copyright Series. They too were printed in Germany, and were on sale in Brighton by 1905, if not earlier. In addition, Stafford published some coloured halftones, printed in Bavaria, for example a view of the Dome at Brighton. These are labelled Published & sold by Stafford’s, Brighton on the reverse. Stafford also issued coloured halftones and collotypes that were printed in Treves and labelled Stafford’s, Brighton or Stafford’s ‘The Bazaar’, Brighton, for example views of the Victoria Gardens and The Terrace, East Brighton. T.W.S. Wiles later reprinted some of the Stafford cards under his own name.
Stafford issued only a few real photographic cards of Brighton. The best known have oval black and white photographs tinged in sepia that are raised above white surrounds edged with a facsimile black frame. A 1909 postmark has been reported.
At Tunbridge Wells, Stafford’s published good quality real photographic cards with sepia photographs and narrow white borders. The printed captions are positioned centrally in the border under the photographs, and the cards are marked on the back Staffords’ Tunbridge Wells. Harold Camburn of Tunbridge Wells printed some real photographic cards for Stafford, and after the latter’s death went on to publish them under his own name.
Edouard Stebbing, Paris
- Stebbing Paris 5-point star
Edouard Stebbing (died 1914) photographer, 2 rue d’Amsterdam, Paris, was active in Paris between 1890 and 1910. Stebbing taught at a University in Paris, invented the Stebbing Roll-Film Camera, and was known for his work with emulsions. It is reported that he was friends with the artist Monet. Stebbing was a prolific photographer during the Belle Epoque Paris89. He appears to have been an expatriate from England and published many articles in British photographic journals. Stebbing photographed many theatrical stars. A frequent publisher of these postcards was G. Piprot (qv). In 1883 The Photographic Times and American Photographer cited Stebbing as one of the bright lights of the French Photographic Society90.
Honolulu. Hawaii, USA
- Published by the Island Curio Co., Jas. Steiner, Honolulu.
Born in Mirschikau, then part of the Austrian empire, James Steiner (24 July 1860 to 1939) received business training in Frankfurt-on-Main and moved to the United States in 1881. His son Ernest later recalled that he first worked as a bell hop or a waiter in St. Louis, Missouri where a fellow German speaker suggested that he go out to Hawai‘i …and find a place for himself. That’s how he got here. Arriving in 1882 he worked for Hart’s Restaurant on Hotel Street, first as a waiter and later on he was taken in by Mr. Lionel Hart as a partner. Hart & Steiner’s partnership was formed in February 1887 trading as Elite Ice Cream Parlors in Honolulu. They manufactured ice cream, cakes, candles, curios and other incidentals. Steiner was the first to sell ice cream commercially and became known all over the islands as the Ice Cream and Candy King. Steiner named one of his sons Lionel after Hart. Steiner gave up the restaurant business to establish the Island Curio Company.
The Island Curio Company was a major producer of postcards. Local topographical and ethnographical images were pressed in to service. They sold more than postcards …
Next to the Bishop Museum, the greatest and best Polynesian collection, is that of the Island Curio Company with its headquarters on Hotel Street, Honolulu … (and) for nearly half a century has been stacking up these native curios from almost every part of the island.Mid-Pacific Magazine
Steiner pioneered the purchase and improvement of beach lots at a time when Waikiki was considered too far from the centre of Honolulu and only served as a week-end, outing and bathing resort. He and his wife, also from Bohemia, moved to Waikiki in about 1899.” Steiner retired from business in 1914 as one of Honolulu’s shrewdest business men, to devote his time to the management and development of extensive property holdings in Honolulu and Waikiki.
Source: Images of Old Hawaii Peter T Young
This card: The Battle of Nuʻuanu, fought in May 1795 on the southern part of the island of Oʻahu, was a key battle in the final days of King Kamehameha I’s wars to unify the Hawaiian Islands. It is known in the Hawaiian language as Kalelekaʻanae, which means “the leaping mullet”, and refers to a number of Oʻahu warriors driven off the cliff in the final phase of the battle. Source: wikipedia
Carl Stenders, Denmark
- C.St Eneret91
Carl Stenders Kunstforlag A/S was a Danish publishing house, which today is part of a larger Swedish company. The company was founded in 1888 by Carl Stender (1862 to 1902) as trade wholesaler in pictures and maps. On incorporation in 1899 the business was extended to printing and bookbinding. From 1917 they were at 23 Bernstorffsgade, Copenhagen92. Stenders were Denmark’s largest publisher93. They published divided back cards featuring the Danish Royal family94. Their cards of the British Royals described themselves as in Copenhagen and Stockholm95. Topographical photocards of Stockholm with the maker St. & C. could be this company.
- St. & Co a D
- St & Co D in logo of crossed triangles making up a star
- Stengel & Co., Dresden
- Stengel & Co., Dresden – Berlin
- Stengel & Co., London, E.C. 39 Redcross Street
Stengel & Co., Dresden (1885 to 1945). This firm, originally Stengel & Markert, was founded by Emil Stengel and Heinrich Markert after buying out the collotype printer, Scherer & Engler. After Markert left to start his own printshop around 1889, the firm assumed the name Stengel & Company.
Stengel & Markert have had an establishmentThe British Lithographer February/March 1895
for collotype and heliogravure since 1885, working both on their own account and to order, and doing a good export trade. A speciality is made of colour collotype. The publications include reproductions from the Industrial Art Museum and the Ethnographical Museum at Dresden, and souvenir albums, of which the catalogue mentions more than eighty.
They began producing postcards about this time though they had printed some collotype souvenir cards under their old name at least as far back as 1885. An office was opened in Berlin in 1899 and another factory for collotype and halftone printing followed two years later. Now working as printer, publisher and distributor, they became the largest producer of postcards in the world. Having expanded into chromolithography, they became a major publisher and printer of fine art cards in their World’s Galleries series. Their chromolithographs employed fourteen to twenty-two litho-stones to achieve subtle coloration. They are possibly the finest quality postcards ever produced. Stengel’s cards were first distributed by O. Flammger, then Misch & Company (qv) in Great Britain, and by the Rotograph Company (qv) in the United States from whom they took over their production of art cards96. Stengel opened a London office in 1901. The earliest postmark on one of their cards, a view of Folkestone, is dated 23 July 190097.
Watertown, Jefferson County, New York, USA
- John Sterling, Watertown, N.Y.
John Sterling, (1851 to 1946) bookseller and stationer, Watertown, Jefferson County, N.Y.
In 1848 John Calhoun Sterling (1820 to May 1903) opened a hook store on Court street, which the fire of 1849 temporarily put out of business. A little later, however, he had a new and finer store in the then new Paddock building. For forty years he occupied this as a book, stationery and picture frame store. In 1862 H. B. Mosher joined with him and they traded as Sterling and Mosher. In 1890 Sterling moved across the street in the Washington Hall block (the YMCA Building) and there the business was continued by his son John Sterling after his father retired in 1891.
In 1903 Sterling published The park picturesque, Watertown, New York, a book consisting mostly of photographs of Watertown’s park. He also sold Esterbrook’s Little Gem pen nibs.
As a bookseller, Sterling was one of a small number of educated men who set the standards of the town. He sold books by knowing his clientelle and identifying publications suitable for each customer. This paternalistic business model declined by WWI and he sold out to more modern-minded traders in 1920.
Source: Smith, Chard Powers. “John Sterling: Bookseller.” The Massachusetts Review, vol. 9, no. 3, 1968, pp. 612–620. JSTOR, http://www.jstor.org/stable/25087761. Accessed 7 Sept. 2020.
This card was printed for Sterling by Paul C. Koeber Company of New York
Giorgio Sternfeld, Venice, Italy
- Giorgio Sternfeld, Venezia – Edit. F. Pineider, Firenze
Giorgio Sternfeld, printer, Venice. In 1899 Sternfeld was advertising chromolithography and heliography. Sternfeld produced topographical undivided-backs for Italian retailers including Pineider of Florence.
Naples photographer Achille Mauri copyrighted his photographs of the San Carlo theatre. The Bulletin of the Italian Photographic Society waxed lyrical over his skilful depiction of the performers and audience. However, Mauri found his work reproduced by others in postcards and brought legal actions against Sternfeld and Oscar Huesch who was Richter’s representative in Naples. On 18 May 1900 the second section of the Court of Venice found against Sternfeld for violation of Mauri’s intellectual property rights. However, 18 January 1901 the twelfth section of the Court of Naples, declined to find photographs were works of art but purely mechanical and therefore not protected by copyright law.
George Stewart and Company, Edinburgh
- ‘Castle’ Series Post Cards
- ‘Castle’ Series Post Cards and three turreted castle in scalloped shield
- ‘Castle’ Series Post Cards and three turreted castle in scalloped shield Edinburgh
The Scots were important pioneers in the picture postcard industry. The first in Britain to produce postcards with views was George Stewart and Company of Edinburgh in 1894. These were collotype views of Edinburgh on court-size cards98. The earliest postmark on one of their cards is dated 17 January 189599. Dundonian George Stewart (1834 to 1901) worked in the Castle Street bookshop of James Chalmers, the pioneer of adhesive postage stamps. In 1879 Stewart set up on his own as a manufacturing stationer and sealing wax maker at 92 George Street. The production of illustrated headings naturally led to to the idea of pictures on postcards so that, when the regulations were relaxed in September 1894, a set of views of Edinburgh printed by process blocks was quickly released100. Stewarts of Edinburgh called in the administrators just weeks before Christmas 2011 making 54 workers redundant. The company had run into difficulties because of a huge hole in its pension fund101.
Originally a simple tower house residence, Craigmillar Castle grew into a complex of structures and spaces as each owner improved its comfort and facilities. The original tower house of the late 1300s is at the core. Craigmillar was among the first of this type of castle to be built in Scotland. Owner Sir Simon Preston was a loyal supporter of Mary Queen of Scots, who had appointed him Provost of Edinburgh. Ironically, he would become her jailer for her first night as a prisoner after her capture in 1567. Mary was taken from his townhouse in the High Street the next day. Source: Historic Environment Scotland
James K Stewart
Cincinnati, Ohio, USA
- James K. Stewart, Pub
James K Stewart (born 23 December 1865) postcard shop proprietor, born in Canada. A photograph preserved at the Library of Congress shows a long and narrow shop, the walls filled from knee-high to head-height with postcards. On 3 January 1900 he opened a stationery store in Cincinnati at Shop 14 in the Emery Arcade and sold writing paper and rubber stamps. He opened the postcard shop opened at 17 Arcade in 1907. In addition to the stationery and postcard shops, Stewart ran something called the Cincinnati School of Physical Culture which instructed students of all ages in how to exercise, eat, sleep, bathe and breathe – even how to dress for maximum vigour. Stewart’s school trained female athletes from a grandmother of 70 – but still a girl – to a baby of 5 years in running and jumping skills including sprints, dashes, high jumps, broad jumps and so on. The school presented an exhibition by his female students at Music Hall in 1906. Nonetheless, Stewart himself died young, at age 51, of a heart attack102. Local topographical cards identifying him as publisher were produced by Adolph Selig (qv) and credited Young and Carl for the photograph.
Stewart & Woolf, London, E.C.
- Stewart & Woolf, London, E.C. Logo of Bear holding a crown
- Published by Stewart & Woolf, London, E.C.
- Published by Stewart & Woolf, London, W.C.
Around the turn of the century R Stewart and JH Woolf took over the showcard manufacturing business of Jonas, Wolf & Co Ltd. By 1902 they were at 8 & 9 Charles Street, Hatton Garden, London, E.C. They produced a wide range of post cards, including some view cards from around the UK. In 1904 a unique series was introduced featuring town views printed in black silhouette, with windows, lights and sky picked out in silver or gold, giving the appearance of sunset. They also published the work of floral artist Catherina Klein (qv). One of their undivided back series featured embossed drawings Printed at the Fine Art Works in Prussia. After 1902 they overprinted their undivided-backs which were Printed in Bavaria.
W. Stocker, Cannes, France
- W. Stocker, Cannes
W. Stocker published local topographical photo-cards of the Cannes area. Before 1907 his name was linked on cards with Michaud who could have been photographer Alfred Michaud (1828 to 1890) whose images of the Isère from 1880 are still admired. Alternatively, it could be an indication of a change of marital status.
Stockholm Tourist Association
- W. Z.-G. Turisttrafikförbundet Stockholm
Stockholm Tourist Association provides literature for those who wish to explore Stockholm and its surroundings. Their 1907 book, “Picturesque Sweden,” is reprinted on demand.
This card: Gustavsberg was the cradle of Swedish porcelain. The Gustavsberg porcelain factory was founded in 1825 and is still in business, now Sweden’s only porcelain factory. The anchor logo is well-known and probably found in almost every Swedish home. The question mark shows an uncharacteristic lack of confidence.
Smichov, Prague, Czech Republic
- Verlag v. Karl Stöhr in Smichow
Karl Stöhr, Smichow, Prague, published local topographical photocards.
This card: Rudolf Steiner (27 (or 25) February 1861 to 30 March 1925) Austrian philosopher, social reformer, architect, esotericist, and claimed clairvoyant was often a guest at 56 Kinsky Street, when it was the home of Professor Hauffen’s wife, Klothilde. The street is now Stefanikova.
Stoppani Brothers, Milan, Italy
- Stoppani Fratelli, Milano
Stoppani Brothers’ Philatelic Emporium in Milan published enough illustrated postcards to justify a catalogue. Their output didn’t stray much beyond the staples of Milanese tourism.
Not to be confused with Antonio Stoppani Italian geologist, paleontologist and patriot (15 August 1824 to 2 January 1891) or the Stoppani brothers who owned Peck Delicatessen in the 20th century or Luigi Stoppani who made pharmaceutical products.
Emil Storch, Vienna
- E. S. W.
Emil Storch, (6 Jan 1863 to 7 October 1924) 7 Mariahilferstrasse, Vienna. Warenhaus103 Emil Storch. In 1904 Philipp & Emil Storch lodged ORIGINAL PATENT APPLICATION NUMBER 4,612 FOR IMPROVEMENTS IN, AND RELATING TO, TOYS104. Storch may also have produced cards in conjunction with Kosmos, a Budapest publisher in the 1890’s105. Storch published cards showing the work of photographer H Ephron and illustrator Raphael Kirchner.
Eisleben, Saxony-Anhalt, Germany
- Verlag von Franz Stoye
Franz Stoye, master bookbinder, 47 Markt, Eisleben. Eisleben is famous as the hometown, birth- and death-place of Martin Luther – its official name is Lutherstadt Eisleben.
On 9 September 1875 Stoye was elected 2nd platoon leader of the newly- established volunteer fire brigade of the city of Eisleben at a general assembly held in the Kaiserhalle.
Stoye’s composer son Paul regarded him as the inventor of picture post cards and Stoye’s cards certainly date from the 19th century and include the early Gruss aus style. He published cards of photographs of the area into the divided back era when Karl Raeschke took over this business. Martin Luther was a regular theme. He also published moonshine cards and a series of futuristic postcards – local scenes augmented by photo montage of aircraft above the houses and steamships in the lakes.
You are gone said Giesemann, and with you the belt is gone too.
- Wäck biste – saht Giesemann – met sammst’n Gärtel
- Weg bist Du – sagte Giesemann – mit dem Gürtel“
The caption on this card is an idiomatic expression in the Mansfeld dialect, that seems to invoke the concept of throwing good money after bad. It’s a reference to a story told by Carl Friedrich August Giebelhausen in his book Nothing but … and …, completely muddled up: a memorial stone, erected in honour of the old Mansfeld vernacular (Nischt wie lauter Hack un Mack, alles Dorchenannerdorch: ein Denkstein, der alten Mansfelder Mundart). Giebelhausen (1800 to 1877) was born in Frankenhausen went to the Eisleben Gymnasium. Julius Hüttig published his work in instalments in 1865.
The story is about a miner called Giesemann, who, on the way to his work in the mine, encounters a hare, which feeds on the cabbage he’s growing on a small parcel of land. After the third encounter he decides to get hold of the hare in order to have a nice dinner and for that purpose unfastens his belt to catch the hare with it. When he throws the belt on the hare, the hare jumps in such a way that Giesemann is startled and loses the belt – the hare runs off with it leaving Giesemann angry, saying that he has now neither hare nor belt and, from the anticipated feast, only an sour aftertaste.
Thanks to Joachim of Bibliothekspostkarten website for the research and translation work on this card.
- Claude Strachan
Arthur Claude Strachan (1865 to 1935) Edinburgh-born Strachan was a fine landscape watercolourist now best known for his beautiful and sentimental pictures of flower-wreathed cottages and village scenes. He studied fine art in Liverpool, and then moved throughout Great Britain in order to paint the country life which he loved to portray. During this time he lived in Warwick, Evesham, New Brighton, Glasgow, Edinburgh, London, North Wales and Minehead. He exhibited in London and elsewhere in the UK between 1885 and 1929 and he also showed four works at the Royal Academy, two of which were landscapes of North Wales. His paintings were exhibited in Liverpool (1885-1896), Warwick (1895), Evesham (1893), New Brighton (1914) and Glasgow (1929). Strachan also exhibited at the Royal Birmingham Society of Artists, the Walker Art Gallery and the Royal Institute of Painters in Water-colour106. His undivided-back cards are monochrome which certainly doesn’t present them to full effect. Museum-quality hand-painted reproductions of his work are still for sale.
- STAB CHROMO LIT V. STRANSCHI – EDIT – TRIESTE
Stranschi publisher, typographer and lithographer, Trieste was in business by 1860.
In 1886 Stranschi published educational books including Essay of a mnemonic manual consisting of 29 synoptic tables and a preface / compiled on authoritative texts by Giuseppina Martinuzzi (14 February 1844 to 25 November 1925) an Italian pedagogue, journalist, socialist, and feminist.
Stranschi published cards for the 1900 Industrial and Artistic Exhibition in Gorizia, a town and commune in northeastern Italy.
Arthur Strauss, Inc, New York
- Arthur Strauss, Inc, Publishers, New York
Arthur Strauss Inc. was incorporated in 1900, a New York-based publisher though Strauss himself published cards before that. Most of their cards feature American locales in a number of different series. When they extended their coverage to Canadian cards, a series published in Toronto featured a patriotic British Red Ensign flag entwined with maple leaves and bore the the inscription Arthur Strauss Inc., Publishers, Toronto, Canada107. As a fledgling publisher/printer, Strauss quickly got a few illustrated half-tone black/whites of the Galveston’s great hurricane of September 8, 1900 into the distribution of his postcard stocks. These cards have fairly low serial numbers, indicating that Strauss had not been publishing long. His cards feature elaborate florid red-ink Private Mailing Card backs108.
- Hermann Striemann, Typographia, Cottbus (Allemagne) monogram: art nouveau style H.St. in C
A printer and publisher of regional view-cards in continuous photo-chromolithography into the divided-back era by which time they were described as an Art Publishing House. Many of their view-cards incorporate rural scenes. Many of their cards had scenes of Palestine some of which bear the name of Vester & Co. Jerusalem as publisher.
Enrique Strobach, Uruguay
- Fotog. Strobach
Enrique Strobach (8 December 1857 to 20 February 1936), photographer. Born in Bohemia in the Austro-Hungarian Empire. A man with a long moustache who arrived from Germany by boat and who walked through the streets of Montevideo with a camera, something not often seen at that time, was photographing and meeting people in the gypsy camps of the Capurro district. His landscape photography made the most beautiful collection of views of Montevideo. With the photographs he took he made postcards109.
- Nürnberg: Theo. Stroefer’s Kunstverlag – Aquarell-Postkarte110 Serie 45 No.9
- Nürnberg: Theo. Stroefer’s Kunstverlag. – Kunstler-Postkarte. Serie VIII, Nr. 5640.
- Nürnberg: Theo. Stroefer’s Kunstverlag – Renaissance Postkarte 8
- Nürnberg Theo Stroefer – Gravur111 Serie 167 No.11.
Theodor Stroefer112(27 March 1843 to 9 July 1927) was a German publisher113. Stroefer learned the publishing trade with Friedrich Bruckmann in Munich. In 1866 he was sent by Bruckmann to New York City to build a commercial agency on Broadway. He exported and imported pictures, illustrated books, albums, engravings and photographs. In 1871 he merged with Georg Kirchner, who had migrated to New York from Frankfurt an der Oder, and they traded as Stroefer & Kirchner. In 1876, Stroefer returned to Germany and opened a branch of Stroefer & Kirchner at 34 Schwanthalerstraße in Munich. From the following year Stroefer’s Kunstverlag was solely responsible for the European business while his partner traded as Kirchner & Co. in North America. In 1893, Stroefer moved the art publishing house to Nuremberg and intensified his collaboration with the Art Studio for graphic reproductions of Ernst Nister (qv). Stroefer is buried at the Nuremberg Johannisfriedhof in burial place I/1230.
- Otto Strützel
Leopold Otto Strützel (2 September 1855 to 25 December 1930) Dessau-born Strutzel was one of the most famous painters of the Munich School. He studied at the Leipzig Art School and at the Düsseldorf Academy under Irmer and Dücker. Impressionist oils of alpine landscapes were typical of his work. Eckstein & Stähle of Stuttgart published cards of his work
Stuttaford & Company Limited, Cape Town
- Stuttaford & Co. Ltd., Stationers, Cape Town
- Stuttaford & Co. Ltd., Stationers, Cape Town St &Co B in a logo of overlapping triangles
Stuttaford & Company Limited, stationers, Cape Town. Commemorating the first Centenary of Stuttaford & Company Limited CAPE TOWN – JOHANNESBURG – DURBAN – LONDON 1957114 tells the story of Stuttafords from its earliest days until 2015. It starts with Samson Rickard Stuttaford, his journey from Cornwall to Cape Town, his early ventures in the city, his eventual retirement to London, and his imprisonment there. Other chapters deal with the expansion of the business to Kimberley and various deals in diamonds, then the discovery of gold and expansion to Johannesburg. We read about the corsets, millinery and other goods stocked by the Victorian department stores, and the important mail order business. A new Company was floated in 1898, followed by the Anglo-Boer War. The dawn of the 20th century leads to further innovation and property deals. We hear of the formation of the Union of South Africa, the ordeal of World War I and its effects on the Company. The next chapter deals with the Stuttaford family and their contribution to Garden Cities in South Africa. This is followed by inter-war developments: unrest, the new Durban branch, the Company’s contribution to the development of radio in South Africa. We learn of Rihard Stuttaford’s political career, then World War II and its aftermath. There is a chapter on Stuttaford Van Lines, another on the Company’s employment ethos, the drift to suburbia (with the new Claremont branch, and the transfer of business from central Johannesburg to Sandton). In 1978 the business falls into the hands of Graham Beck, asset-stripper extraordinaire, which leads to the sale of all its properties. We read of the twilight years of the Cape Town store, and the Company’s subsequent owners, the current focus on brands, and a return to relative stability115.
The Star of David logo is the same pattern as Paul Schaefer used but with different letters. Both cards are very similar to those produced by Stengel of Dresden in Germany.
Suchánek & Gröger, Prague
- Kunstverlag “Suchánek & Gröger” Prag
Suchánek & Gröger, publishers, Prague published cards of striking silhouette images as greetings postcards as well as Heliographie “Collection Bauer” reproductions of monochrome paintings inspired by the months. More conventional topographicals of Prague were produced by Louis Glaser of Leipzig under his AUTO CHROM branding.
Paul Suess AG
see in Directory P
Albert Sugg, Ghent, Belgium
- Editeur Albert Sugg à Gand
- Editeur Albert Sugg à Gand EXCELSIOR
Albert Sugg, trader in postcards and stamps for collectors, born in Ghent 4 March 1869 of German parents. Sugg left Ghent on 1 July 1907 to settle in Knokke, a Belgian seaside resort, although he retained a small branch in Ghent for a while. He died on 7 November 1936 in Stuttgart120.
The Suhling & Koehn Company, Chicago, IL, USA
- S & K monogram with ART SERIES below; “Elite” No. 228 The Suhling & Koehn Co., Pub., Chicago (Germany)
The Suhling & Koehn Company, 70 Washington Street, Chicago published local topographical and sports-themed postcards in Chicago into the divided-back era. In 1908 Suhling Company, an offshoot or affiliate, issued series of photographs of Cubs and White Sox baseball players121. On Friday 13 September 1907, Chicago Tribune reported that 14 sets of indecent postcards in the window of S&K’s shop had been condemned by the police. Under the headings FLAUNT VILENESS IN FACE OF POLICE Dealers in Picture Postcards Serenely Defy Repeated Warnings NO PROSECUTIONS ATTEMPTED. Boys and Girls Beseige Windows; Young Women behind counters the paper reported:
Keepers of certain shops in the heart of the loop district have seemingly come to believe they may violate the law regarding the sale of indecent picture post cards as openly and as flagrantly as they desire.
S&K, one of a number of publishers featured were said to be selling various pictures of bathers and posers in abbreviated attire.
This card: This card is addressed to Mr J Wyatt, Commercial Traveller, Cheadle Hulme near Stockport.
Wiesbaden, Hesse, Germany
- Verlag von Wilh. Sulzer, Wiesbaden
In 1876 Wilhelm Sulzer was a bookbinder, case and portfolio manufacturer and stationery supplier at 34 Marktstrasse, Wiesbaden, in succession to H. Koch’s son. Sulzer published local topographicals into the divided-back era. At one stage, the business was owned by Fr. Schuck. This card was published for Sulzer by Ph M.
Olaf Svanøe, Bergen, Norway
- O. Svanoe, Bergen. 4.
Olaf Andreas Svanøe, (26 February 1856 to 24 May 1944) photographer, Bergen 4. Bergen-born Svanøe was one of 10 children. Early in life he went to sea, returning at the age of 22 to take over the family farm.
In 1888 Svanøe started to work with photographer Theodor Larsen in Tønsberg on the other side of the country. Larsen was very ill with cancer and died in February 1889. Svanøe returned to Bergen the next year. By 1895 he had his own studio at 31 Torgallmenningen. He moved to other places over the years but between 1915 and 1928 he had his studio at 1 Richard Nordraaks Gate 1 where he lived from 1909.
There were several talented portrait photographers in Bergen at this time. Svanøe found his niche in postcards, interiors and exteriors and family events. The newspaper Revyen reviewed his postcard series in the newspaper in 1896 and 1897. They wrote:
The motifs are chosen with Taste and Discretion, and the Execution is extremely commendable. We feel convinced that these beautiful Christmas cards, which individually cost just thirty øre, will be spread a lot all over the country to anyone who gives Bergen and the people of Bergen a loving thought.
On January 15, 1916, a fire broke out in Bergen destroying the city centre and the studios of the photographers there. Svanøe lived in Kong Oscars Gate, outwith the burnt area, and he was one of the photographers who documented Bergen in the days after the fire. His photos of the fire ruins were published as postcards .
Source: Photographer Olaf Andreas Svanøe BY MORTEN HEISELBERG
PICTURE COLLECTION – UNIVERSITY LIBRARY IN BERGEN
Frans Svanström, Stockholm
- F.S. & C.
Frans Jonas Peter Svanström (1832 to 1909) founded Sweden’s first office department store, Svanströms in Stockholm. At the age of twelve, Svanström left the Masonic Orphanage and started working in a bookstore in Norrbro in Stockholm owned by Lars Gustaf Rylander whose household he also joined. In 1855 he was able to open his first bookstore at Södermalmstorg.
By the middle of the 19th century, industrialisation and a better postal service increased demand for paper articles of all kinds. In 1857 Svanström opened the first speciality stationery store in Sweden, at 1 Myntgatan in Stockholm’s centre of the day. In 1864 he left the bookstore to his brother-in-law CM Hjortsberg to concentrate and expand the stationery business; by 1900 the company owned six properties in the Old Town. In 1890, Svanström’s son Nils joined the company and two years later it was a limited company. There were then 82 employees – at Svanström’s death, 180 people worked in the company.
As well as Swedish and foreign paper, Svanström sold swan, goose, steel and gold pens and pencil handles as well as inks in a variety of colours. The 1855 Commercial Code required all traders to keep an inventory book, diary and letter copy book. Svanström stocked them all and the other requirements of the business world. The company also did bookbinding and printing. the development of various machines, staplers, binders of various kinds and forms. Svanströms also participated in the 1897 Stockholm Exhibition.
As photographs became more common in the 1850s, Svanström marketed photo albums and portraits of famous personalities such as royalty and others. In the 1880s came the postcards – Swedish topographicals – and a little later, the greeting and Christmas cards featuring the work of Swedish painter and illustrator Jenny Nyström (June 1854 to 17 January 1946). In 1861 he also started his own book publishing business and in 1866 to 88 was almost the sole publisher of hymn books and catechisms in Stockholm. Svanström’s textbooks for primary school included The art of writing correctly and beautifully. Svanström was a great commercial innovator; by 1868, when Christmas trees had become more common in Swedish homes he sold National flags for the decoration of the Christmas tree.
Svanström took care of his employees and many stayed in the company for a long time. All assistants received bequests from his estate determined by their length of service. In 1880, he was elected to the board of directors of the Masonic Orphanage, where he had grown up. He was also a high Freemason, sat for a few years in the city council and was a deputy in the poor care committee. He was also a member of the board of Stockholm’s folk kitchen, an institution that distributed food to the needy at a very low price. For a long time, the custom of distributing bread every Friday, for nominal sums, to beggars and the poor, was maintained at the shops on Söder and Myntgatan.
His company was acquired by SLT (Esselte) in 1917 and acquired by Office Depot in 2011.
Source: Frans Jonas Peter Svanström Swedish Biographical Dictionary
Marstrand, Kungälv, Sweden
- Imp. Otto Svensson, Marstrand
Otto Svensson (4 February 1865 to January 1926) shopkeeper, Marstrand. Svensson’s shop sold cloth, vases and decorative items, hats and clothing including children’s sailor suits. Svensson became a councillor in Marstrand. From 1902 he paid for a Christmas party every year for the elementary school students in the local gym. The Christmas trees used at the party were then used to decorate the church during Christmas. He instituted a fund that donated money for a Christmas party every year and this continues. The Councillor Otto Svensson Foundation for the preparation of increased fresh water resources in Marstrand also bears his name.
Swain & Co, Sydney, Australia
- SWAIN & CO, SYDNEY.
In 1895 Henry Charles Maitland Swain established the H.C. Swain & Company bookstore that was primarily a family business. Initially located in Moore Street, and then Pitt Street, Sydney, they incorporated an art gallery and rare books division. The name was later changed to Swain & Company Pty. Limited122.
- F. Szesztokat, Koln a/Rhein
- Fr. Szesztokat, Koln a. Rh.
Friedrich Szesztokat, retailer of fashion accessories and leather goods from 80 Heumarkt, Cologne, published view photographs in brown photolithography as early as 1893127. In 1897 he published a sentimental card in celebration of the 100th birthday of Emperor Wilhelm I. He published undivided-backs just into the 20th century.
2Gruss aus Berlin: Ein Bummel durch Berlin um 1900 auf 120 Postkarten mit Onkel Theo und seiner Nichte Lottchen Frecot, Janos, L Saalfeld und Monika Schlösser-Fischer
4Picture Postcard Annual 2020
5Litocromia – chromolithography
10 Ancona 1870-1900.Narrative history of the city. From the City of Paris to the end of the century crisis Ercole Sori, Bookstones, 9 Jun 2017
13 L’Echo d’Alger: journal républicain du matin 26 November 1917
16 Artistic property
17 Annuario toscano guida amministrativa, commerciale e professionale della regione
19 The Bridge of Pisa Political Administrative Newspaper for the City and the Province
26 K.-G. a. A.
28 Hatemail: Anti-Semitism on Picture Postcards Salo Aizenberg, University of Nebraska Press, 2013
30 postkarte mit blütenduft
31 I have a card postmarked in Edinburgh on 10 January 97
34 Paper in Foreign Countries. Vol. XIX. Reports from Consuls of the United States, in answer to instructions from the Department of State 1900
37Johannes Frutiger (1836-1899): ein Schweizer Bankier in Jerusalem Böhlau Verlag Köln Weimar, 2008 Hans Hermann Frutiger & Jakob Eisler
39 At that time Breslau, the sixth-largest city in the German Empire.
44 kaiserlich und königliche- royal
45Court and studio photographer
46 Kailyard and Scottish Literature Andrew Nash (2007 Rodopi) page 219
52 Current between 1893 and 1901 but Wright’s cards bear later dates
54 Historical Dictionary of War Journalism Roth & Olson (1997 Greenwood Publishing Group) page 353
55 At No. 12 Bible House.
56 THE BRONX SCOUT April 1918
59 Kieler Künstler Bd.2 Kunstleben in der Kaiserzeit 1871-1918 Schulte-Wülwer (2016 Gesellschaft für Kieler Stadtgeschichte)
61 Hobnobbing with a Countess and Other Okanagan Adventures: The Diaries of Alice Barrett Parke, 1891-1900 edited by Jo Fraser Jones 1 May 2002 UBC Press
64Company Publishing Postcards
67 Industrial Photography Company
71 Swedish: Borgå
73The Beys of Tunis were the monarchs of Tunisia from 1705, when the Husainid dynasty acceded to the throne, until 1957, when monarchy was abolished. http://www.ebay.fr/itm/TIRAGE-ALBUMINE-SON-ALTESSE-PRINCE-MOHAMMED-BEY-TUNIS-SOLER-PHOTOGRAPHE/191971975756
77Picture Postcards and their Publishers Anthony Byatt 1978 Golden Age Postcard Books page 252
78 W. N. Sharpe Limited v Solomon Brothers Limited (137 L.T. Journal 288)
79 Fritz Splitgerber (qv)
80 Winter nights
85 Hermann Sonntag, Munich, Bavaria (qv)
86 Winter nights
89 a nostalgic term for the city between the years 1871 and 1914
97Picture Postcard Annual 2020
98http://www.nls.uk/collections/rare-books/collections/postcards Pictures in the Post Richard Carline (1959 Gordon Fraser) pages 20 & 29
99Picture Postcard Annual 2020
100Picture Postcards and their Publishers Anthony Byatt (1978 Golden Age Postcard Books) page 273
109 ENRIQUE STROBACH – The glass with which you look Valentina Cardellino and Fernando Foglino November 2018
110 Art Publisher – watercolour postcard
112 also Ströfer
114 Edited and produced by Fraser Gill, Cape Town, South Africa Printed by Cape Times Limited, Cape Town.
116 or Süss
123The design shows an allegory of postal affairs in an upright rectangular frame double the size of the ordinary stamps. A female figure, three-quarters the size of the stamp, with waving hair and wings of Mercury attached, grasps with the upwardly stretched left hand a telegraph pole, to which the Federal Arms are fastened by a band. The right hand directed downwards scatters letters. The background is formed of a partially visible globe. A curved white band at the top of the stamp bears the inscription jubile de 1/union postale universelle and another, half rolled up, at the foot, the dates 1875-1900. Near the lower left corner is a white shield with the figure of value.
124 THE PHILATELIC RECORD Edited by L. W. FULCHER, B.Sc. VOLUME XXXI January to December 1909 HANDBOOK OF THE POSTAGE STAMPS OF SWITZERLAND By ERNST ZUMSTEIN
125 Gesellschaft Schweizer Maler Bildhauer(GSMB)