Directory N

H. Nacken & Company

Anvers/Antwerp, Belgium

  • H.N. à A.

H. Nacken & Company, Havana House, 4 Rue de l’Aqueduc, Anvers. This was opposite the cathedral and, as well as postcards, sold souvenirs, leather goods, cigars and cigarettes. As this information comes from a drinks mat1, it may be inferred that, though the focus, initially at least, was presumably cigars, he also acted as a bar/cafe.

Nadkarni & Company, Mumbai

  • Nadkarni & Co., Bombay

Nadkarni & Company, Jambulwadi in the Dhobi Talao area of Bombay 2 were photographic and sports equipment dealers. Dadasaheb Phalke, the Father of Indian cinema bought a book, ABC Guide to Cinema, for a shilling in their photography shop. Although it did not contain much useful information, it had advertisements about the equipment. In January 1912, Dadasaheb told Yashwantrao Nadkarni, proprietor of the business his idea of producing Indian films. Nadkarni respected Dadasaheb’s imagination and skill in photography and loaned him ten thousand rupees2. In 1918, Nadkarni and Company were the Indian sales agents for the British Journal of Photography. In 1930 MG Nadkarni was a member of Bombay Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society.

Naniwaya & Company

Kanda, Tokyo

  • NANIWAYA & CO, Kanda Tokio

Japanese postcard publishers in Kanda, a city district of Tokyo, published view and costume cards into the divided-back era.

National Art Company, New York

  • NATIONAL ART COMPANY in a belt making a circle round an angel

National Art Company, 235 West 23rd Street, New York, published the work of artist Esther Hunt (qv). In the divided-back era they published a series of headshots of Native Americans. In 1920 they patented paper for box and bed coverings. From 1915 until his death in 1921 artist Samuel Schmucker patented 130 designs for the company, some at least for postcards3. The company closed in 1929.

National Art Views Company

New York

  • National Art Views Co. N.Y. City

National Art Views Company was based in New York City and was one of the earliest publishers of quality cards. They published nearly 3,000 titles starting, it is said, in 19034 though the name Executive Mansion that they use for a picture of the White House in Washington DC was superseded in 1901. In 1904 they were taken over by the Rotograph Co (qv) which was started that year, to gain quick access to their American views many of which they republished under the Rotograph name5.

Carlo Nava, Siena, Italy

  • EDIT. CARTOLERIA6 C. NAVA – SIENA
  • Editore: Cartoleria Carlo Nava, Siena
  • Editore C. Nava-Siena

The 19th century records of the Contrada della Lupa7 of Siena have the Carlo Nava lithographic printing house at 10 via del Vapor8. They were certainly publishing books between 1883 and 1911 some at least with an anchor logo. Their local view-cards were high quality photographs.

Nels, Brussels

  • Nels, Bruxelles
  • Ed. Nels, Bruxelles.
  • Photographie artistique Ed. Nels
The interesting vehicle in the foreground is an open-sided tram headed for thte Stock Exchange (Bourse) and the Uccle district of Brussels.

In 1898 Edward Nels founded a postcard publishing firm in Brussels that went on to cover Belgium and its colonies. Four years later, his brother Paul opened a branch in Metz9.

https://cartes-postales-nels.com/ is a site devoted to this publisher and lists the series they published.

Nenke & Ostermaier

Dresden, Germany

  • Aufnahme und Photochromie10 N & O
  • Original Aufnahme und Photochromie von Nenke und Ostermaier, Dresden
  • Nenke & Ostermaier Kunstanstalt DRESDEN rubber stamp on card published for the Russian

In 1894 The British Lithographer reported that recently-established Nenke & Rolle were working with two presses. Nenke & Ostermaier registered an early patent for a photochrom process11 and did the photography and reproduction for floral cards published by others including Gebruder Metz of Basel (qv). They published a large number of view-cards of the Netherlands12. An anonymous tinted photocard marked for the Russian market has been hand-stamped with the N&O name. They published a World War 1 series showing different pictures by German-Austrian naval and landscape painter and illustrator Alexander Kircher13. They later used a logo of an N inside an O inside a D.

Neue Photographische Gesellschaft AG

  • N.P.G.
  • The Rotograph Co N.Y. City (Germany)
  • Rotary Photo Co. Ltd, E.C.
  • NPG in a monogram where an elaborate middle letter give it the impression of a tree over 1902
  • NPG in a monogram in a circle where an elaborate middle letter give it the impression of a tree surmounted by MUSTERSCHUTZ
  • NPG in a monogram where an elaborate middle letter give it the impression of a tree in an equilateral triangle surmounted by GESETZLICH GESCHUTZT within a circle

The New Photographic Society (1894 to 1948) Berlin. NPG was the first, and for years the world’s biggest factory for real photographic bromide printing by the kilometre. The founder and driving force was Arthur Schwarz (1862 to 1944). He travelled to various countries and spent much time in the USA as well. Rotograph was registered under number 38,146. NPG was a member organization of photographers founded in Berlin-Schoeneberg by Schwarz. In 1894 their 35 members turned the group into a Limited Corporation. Schwarz travelled to various countries and spent much time in the USA. Their members published many real photo postcards and stereo-views, and they manufactured photo paper. They also printed real photo cards for other companies such as Rotograph and became the largest manufacturer of bromide postcards in the world. As demand for postcards grew they started publishing artist-signed cards as tinted halftones15. Thanks to the various NPG patents registered between 1895 and 97 for many countries, Schwarz was in a position to minimise competition. NPG, with branches or associated partner companies in London, New York, Paris, Vienna, Brussels, and Milan and a total of about 1,500 employees, played a leading role not only as photographic printers but also as publishers of thousands of postcards, stereo cards etc.

The US business for photo paper, chemicals and other supplies for the automatic printing of photographs became the Rotograph Company in New York (qv). The backbone of the NPG success were machines used for photographic paper and printing constructed after US patents but improved and built to last16.

Some NPG machines installed at the British daughter company Rotary Photographic Co. Ltd were in use for over 60 years.

Carl Neumann

Vejle, Denmark

  • C. Neumann’s Boghandel, Vejle

Carl Frederik Neumann, (7 August 1857 to 11 March 1937) bookseller, 22 Nørregade, Vejle, Denmark. Born in Assens, son of saddler master Adam Henrik Neumann, Neumann learned book-binding in Odense, then went to Vejle in 1880 where, as a 27-year-old, he took over Theodor Jørgensen’s bookstore in 1884. This included an information agency and the sale of postcards17. Neumann cultivated music, art and literature and, in a long, working life built up one of the province’s most important businesses18. Neumann sat on the board of the Vejle Tourist Bureau from its establishment in 1893.

Neurdein Brothers, Paris

  • ND phot
  • Collections ND phot
  • Etablissements Photograpiques de NEURDEIN Freres, Paris and Collections ND phot

Neurdein Brothers, 28 Boulevard de Sebastopol, (1869 to 1889) 52, avenue de Breteuil, (1889 to 1918). The firm was directed by Etienne Neurdein (1832 to 1918) and Louis-Antonin Neurdein (1846 to 1914), photographers, publishers and printers. The Neurdein Studio was founded in 1864. Antonin managed the studio by himself for a number of years but after 1887 the brothers ran the company together. They used the mark ND from 1885 and from 1887 brands Neurdein Freres and “X phot.”. In 1915, the name became “Neurdein”, then, from 1916 to 1918, “Neurdein & Cie”19. The brothers’ father was the French pioneer in photography Jean César Adolphe Neurdein (1806 to 1867), known as Charlet20. They produced large quantities of stereo-views and lantern slides depicting scenes in Europe and French North Africa as it became more tourist oriented in the 1870’s. Many of these images would later be printed in heliographed albums. They went on to publish many continuous tone, monochromatic postcards of urban French views, nudes, panoramas, military themes, and many scenes from various French colonies and Quebec, Canada. They also provided photographs of paintings for many art cards21. Etienne died of pneumonia in February 1918, the year in which ND merged with LL22.

The New England News Company, Boston, Massachusetts, USA

  • The New England News Company, Boston Mass, Leipzig, Dresden with three-leaf ANC NY clover logo surmounted by POLYCHROME banner

The New England News Company was a newspaper and journal distribution company. A subsidiary of the American News Company (qv), they published cards in the same format. ANC’s Boston branch was formed by taking over the wholesale periodical business of Boston bookseller Alexander Williams. In 1854, Williams had bought out the business of Fetridge & Co., which operated on the corner of State St. and Washington, a large magazine store known as the Periodical Depot or the Periodical Arcade. Williams worked up an extensive trade as a jobber of newspapers and periodicals to out- of-town dealers all over the East Coast, and by the time ANC was organised, the wholesale side of the business had grown too large for Williams to handle alone. Along with two smaller competing firms, Dyer & Co. and Federhen & Co., the Boston trade was reorganized under the New England name, with Williams as one of the principal shareholders. Initially an officer of the new corporation, Williams was a bookstore proprietor at heart and left soon afterward, in 1869, to take over the famous Old Corner Bookstore23. The Thomson & Thomson/New England News Company Photographic Collection contains approximately 3,000 photographic prints. These images were the proofs from which postcards were manufactured. The emphasis is on the commonplace, what visitors might encounter while walking through one of these locations. The range of subjects encompasses public buildings, town squares, parks, business blocks, playgrounds, factories, amusement parks, beaches, and residential streets. Many towns and cities in Massachusetts and several in New Hampshire are represented.24

New Orleans News Company

New Orleans, Louisiana, USA

  • New Orleans News Company, Berlin and Leipzig

A publisher and distributor of maps, guides, and postcards of Louisiana for the American News Company. Most of their cards depicted scenes of New Orleans. In 1922 they were listed at 214 Decatur St., New Orleans, La. in the Publishers’ Weekly, The American Book Trade Journal.

G.E. Newton

  • G.E. NEWTON

G.E. Newton, artist most notable for his waterside scenes in moody weather, many of which were reproduced by Rafael Tuck (qv) on postcards in their Rough Seas series both as undivided and, later, as divided backs. He also painted their Picturesque Abbeys. He seems to have been G.E. Newton-Jones by 1908.

New Zealand Graphic and Ladies Journal

  • NZ Graphic Series

New Zealand Graphic and Ladies Journal was an illustrated weekly journal published (1890 to 1908) by Henry Brett (1843 to 1927), who also published the New Zealand Farmer and the Auckland Star newspapers25. Brett was born near Hastings in England where he was initiated into publishing by his uncle, T. R. Brett, a newspaper proprietor, stationer and local historian. In 1862 he emigrated to New Zealand aboard the Hanover. When it dropped anchor in Auckland harbour on 17 September the proprietor of the Daily Southern Cross boarded the ship looking for reporters, and hired Brett as a marine reporter. He lived in sight of a signal station. Day or night, once a ship was signalled as being in the Rangitoto channel, he would rush to the waterfront and hire a waterman to row him out to the ship to get the latest overseas news. Brett introduced photo-engraving in New Zealand, bringing out the Graphic in 189026. The Graphic issued postcards and Stereoview Cards to boost sales.

Carlos F Niemeyer, Valparaiso, Chile

  • Carlos F Niemeyer, Valparaiso. 3

Carlos Niemeyer (Born in 1852). The Unversal Bookstore at 13 Calle Esmeralda (then Cape St), Valparaíso, and 17 State, Santiago was a partnership between Eduardo Niemeyer and Inghirami founded in 1851. They had a music store and sold foreign newspapers, musical instruments, note books and papers of all type, educational books, games of chance and French and German literature. The partnership was dissolved in 1878 and the shop passed into the hands of Carlos Niemeyer who made it one of the most important postal publishing houses in Chile27. My card was postally used in 1903. Valparaiso is a major city, seaport, and educational centre in Chile28.

Max Nierth, Leipzig, Germany

  • Verlag von Max Nierth, Leipzig 1898

Max Nierth, 775 Kramerhaus, Leipzig. Nierth’s cards are an important record of the lost buildings of Leipzig. Between 1897 and 1907 Nierth’s publishing house issued more than 450 historic postcards of Leipzig and its suburbs in a numbered series Old Leipzig. However, he also published many more contemporary cards of the area, many of them photographs from the 1890s.

Further reading: Max Nierths altes Leipzig (2011) Matthias Voigt & Thomas Nabert

Mlle. L. Niggli

Serrières, Switzerland

  • Mlle. L Niggli, edit.

The Misses Niggli ran a grocery store in the village of Serrières, on the western side of the town of Neuchâtel.

On 2 October 1917 the police at Neuchatel published a notice bringing butter rationing into force. Voucher for 50 grams were to be sold at a maximum price of 62 cents for 100 grams. Retailers were required to sell the butter to any buyer without distinction on presentation of the voucher and forbidden to require the purchase of any other commodity for the sale of butter. L Niggli of Serrieres was one of the authorised retailers.

In 1921 Miss Niggli was retailing PerPlex, a first-rate product fjor the elimination of stains in the laundry. The family were succeeded in the shop by the Dubois family. This photograph was taken by E. Ch of Neuchatel who also supplied photographs for other local publishers’ cards.

La Cité-Suchard is a district of houses on the edge of Lake Neuchâtel, clearly visible in the lower part of Serrieres. The first houses in Cité-Suchard were built in 1887, on the initiative of Suchard, the world-famous chocolate factory, to house some of its workers. In 1984, Suchard decided not to renovate the district and to sell the houses to their occupants in the form of co-ownership.

Ernest Nister

Nuremberg, Germany and London

  • E. NISTER, NUREMBERG
  • E. NISTER NUREMBERG LITH29.
  • Ernest Nister, London
  • E.NISTER, NURNBERG UTH.
fine artwork but signature illegible

Ernest Nister was one of the most outstanding printers and publishers of quality postcards. The business he built up at one point employed 700 people in its Nuremberg factories. Nister was born in 1842 at Oberklingen and brought up in Darmstadt. He travelled widely through Europe and America until, in 1877, he took over a small lithographic business in Nuremburg. In 1900 Nister was the largest publisher of Christmas cards, calendars, picture books and transfer pictures in southern Germany. He bought his paper directly from the mills and his consumption of paper, mainly of German make, amounted to about $125,000 per year30. He issued many cards of fine paintings of fruit by German artist Marie Billing. My lovely card’s painting of the Champs Elysees bears the wording SCHMIDT-HTG which might be a reference to Rudolf Schmidt (qv). Nister also printed cards of the work of the much admired artists Manuel Wielandt (qv) and Heinrich Kley (qv) that were published by J Velten of Karlsruhe (qv) and artist Peter Schnorr that were published by CF Autenrieth of Stuttgart (qv). In 1888 Ernest Nister established a branch of his fine art printing firm at 24 St Bride’s Street, London EC. Some cards from this business also bear the name E.P.Dutton & Co. New York. After Nister died in 1909, his partner Theodore Loefitz took over the business. The London business was disposed of under instructions of the Board of Trade and, when it re-opened after WW1, it didn’t deal in postcards31.

Nobrega’s English Bazar

Tenerife, Spain

  • English Bazar
  • Bazar ingles
  • Nobrega’s English Bazar

Nobrega’s English Bazar, Tenerife seems likely to have been Francisco Nóbrega Sá (Born Portugal 1879 – died Santa Cruz de Tenerife 1920). They published tinted topographical and ethnographic photo-cards of Tenerife.

Johannes Nöhring

Lübeck, Germany

  • Lichtdruck von J. Nöhring, Lubeck

Johannes Heinrich Franz Nöhring (2 May 1834 to 2 August 1913) was a German architecture and art photographer. Nöhring wanted to be an artist, but in 1856 failed to get the necessary scholarship for art school. He became a restorer and worked on the restoration of the Elisabeth Church in Marburg during his travels. In 1861 he became self-employed as a photographer. In addition to the then very modern portraits, his topographical photographs featured Lübeck’s increasingly threatened secular architecture. Nöhring recorded many Gothic and Renaissance buildings in other cities in northern Germany. Until 1871 the photographs were distributed via the Hamburg bookseller Hermann Grüning. After that, Nöhring marketed his work independently as a publisher and he received a medal at the 1873 Vienna World Exhibition. In 1874 he opened a light printing house, not a success and only short-lived. Nöhring had to sell his publishing house in Lübeck to the local book dealer Carl Bolhoevener who, in 1877, moved the business activities to Munich where Nöhring briefly followed. He returned to Lübeck in 1879 and, again, founded a light printing business. This second attempt was more successful and, with increased interest in German history and art history, his systematic recording of all Lübeck cultural assets was now in demand. Nöhrings Verlag published Elisabeth Reuter’s large painting Blick auf Lübeck as a postcard under the title Lübeck Port. In 1904 he retired as a photographer, handing the publishing house to his son, the art dealer and publisher Bernhard Nöhring (1866 to 1938)32.

Normanns Kunstforlag, Norway

  • N.K.

Normanns Kunstforlag was founded in 1906 by Carl Normann (22 October, 1886 to 8 January 1960), Norway’s most famous postcard photographer and his company was by far the largest. Normann’s family emigrated to America from Trondheim when he was 16 years old but he didn’t go. Instead, he began to photograph and thought he could make a living of making postcards which until then had been dominated by foreign companies. Normann used a bike to photograph around Trondheim and then went out again to sell the cards to local businesses. His business expanded when he got a motorcycle and again, in 1920, when he got a car. In 1935 the publisher lost his entire archive in the great fire of Hamar. The company was owned by his family until 198633. The company Pictura Normann AS is Norway’s largest card publisher34.

North Star, Darlington, England

  • North Star The Popular Halfpenny Morning Paper of the North
The occasion for the publication of this card is not clear. As the Wright brothers only made the first manned, powered, controlled flight in 1903, it cannot be from the undivided back era.

North Star, Crown Street, Darlington was one of a number of provincial halfpenny morning papers that pioneered the way for Fleet Street in the closing days of the 19th century.

William Alexander Wooler of Sadberge Hall was one of eight sons of Joseph Wooler of Whitfield Hall, Wolsingham. Willliam was many things: a solicitor, a property-dabbler (Wooler Street in Northgate is named after one of his developments) and a friend of Charles Darwin. Above all, he was a Conservative. He formed the Darlington Conservative Association in 1879 and then the North Star newspaper in 1883 to act as a counterbalanace to the Liberalism of the longer-established Northern Echo 100 yards away.

North Star ceased publication in 1924.

North Star & Farmers’ Chronicle was first published on 6 April 1893 in Dingwall, Ross and Cromarty, Scotland and continued to 1913. It could be this paper rather than the Darlington one but its banner doesn’t match my card.

The postage for postcards remained at a halfpenny until 1918

Emile Nourry, Dijon, France

  • E. Nourry, Edit.
  • E.N. Edit.

Emile Nourry (1870 to 1935), bookseller at Dijon, then at Paris. Nourry had a marked predilection for the oldest books: incunabula, Gothic and books of the sixteenth century; and for some specialties that particularly interested him such as travel, ancient medicine, history of religions, occult sciences, hunting and fishing. Nourry was also an author under the pseudonym of P. Saintyves35. He self-published his writings on folk studies in France. He was president of the Society of French and Colonial Folklore. Nourry had his photocards of Dijon printed by Breger brothers of Paris.

Nouvelles Galeries, France

  • Edition Speciale des Nouvelles Galeries

The New Galleries were a chain of department stores present in the largest cities of France created in 1867 by Charles Démogé36. They were acquired by the Galeries Lafayette Group in 1991.

The Novelty Import Company

San Francisco, California, USA

  • The Novelty Import Co, San Francisco, Cal. Leipzig, Germany

Novelty Import Co are listed in the San Francisco telephone directory of August 190737 as BOOKSELLERS & STATIONERS at 128-4th Ave and in relation to Postal Cards with Theo A Kruse as their Manager. By the 1915 edition of Style, they were listed extensively as makers and suppliers of ladies’ fashion accessories including Venise allovers and by 12 January 1927 in San Francisco Business as importers of hearing devices38 and linked with the name William Rosenthal at 717 Market to 593 Market.

‘Novitas’, Berlin

  • Logo of N in six pointed star Berlin S. 42
  • Made by Novitas Berlin S. 42

Neuheiten-Vertrieb39 Novitas, Berlin40 news distribution publishing house was set up by Oscar Heiermann in 1902 at 29 Prinzessinenstrasse, Berlin S42 as postcard publishers and wholesalers. Heiermann’s partners were Otto Kellner and his wife. They also dealt in de luxe paper products, albums, paper decorations, menu cards and even wooden frames41. Otto Kellner was later in Hamburg42. Novitas made my card published by the Basel Mission Book Depot Accra W.-Africa (qv).

Armand Noyer, Paris

  • Anthony’s Photo A. N. Paris.

Armand Noyer (1864 to 1954) publisher, Paris. From the early years of the 19th century until after the Second World War, Armand Noyer was the proprietor of a large French photo studio and postcard publisher, at 22 Rue Ravignan, Paris.

In 1907, when he was at 37 Boulevard de Strasbourg, Noyer offered artistic and children scenes, women and glossy cards.

Output included art and illustrations, glamour cards and cards of children, first world war pictures, sports and film stars – around 1300 Les Vedettes de Cinema cards. postcards. During WW1 Noyer produced patriotic cards under the marque Patriotic. Other Noyer marques are Zed (Bromure glacé et ordinaire) in the 1922 directory, YSA in the 1925 directory and EVA. Noyer was the most prolific publisher of cards of the 1924 Olympic Games.

Noyer’s cards used a AN logo extensively and some of the later ones, Fantaisies, bromure grand luxe, an A NOYER roundel.

It seems possible that Anthony’s photo was produced by E. & H. T. Anthony & Company of 591 Broadway in New York who did have some engagement in the French capital.

Joseph Nuss, Amsterdam

  • Kunstinrichtung Jos. Nuss, A’dam
  • uitg. Jos. Nuss & Co. Haarlem tulip trade mark in a diamond lozenge

Josephus Maria Hubertus Nuss, (born 20 Mar 1879), printer. Nuss (known as Joop) set up in business in Amsterdam in 1899, trading from 1903 Kunstinrichting, publisher of postcards. After 1905 Jos. Nuss & Co was in Haarlem with the tulip trademark. Joop’s partners were the five managing partners of the Emrik & Binger printing company in Haarlem. The company came to an end in mid-1908, after which Joop continued under the same name until the limited company was established in October of that year. NV Haarlemsche Photo and Lithographic Establishment “De Tulip” continued the business – Joop had one share in addition to his job. But a director was appointed above him, he was dismissed from the NV in 1909 and a few months later he went bankrupt. After the Second World War, he set up in Eemnes issuing cards under the name Jos. MH Nuss43.

Nusserwanjee & Company, Karachi

  • Nusserwanjee & Co., Karachi

Nusserwanjee & Company, Nusserwanjee City Stores on Dundas Street, Karachi seem to have been in every form of business from an early stage. By 1879 their head office on Elphinstone Street was grand indeed as was their bonded warehouse. The Karachi Steam Roller Flour Mills and Nusserwanjee Tiles were both part of this empire and in 1918 Jamshed Nusserwanjee Mehta paid for the establishment of The Mama Parsi girls High School. Mr Mehta Merchant of Nusserwanjee & Co was a member of the first Governing Council of the Indian Institute of Bankers on its establishment in 192844. Meanwhile, on 17th Nov.1928 the company were in correspondence with suppliers of equipment for the manufacture of soft drinks in Bahrain.

1 http://cartophilie.be/modules.php?name=Newgallery&pa=view&scrid=3&lang=En&dispq=6&viewid=100037442

2http://wiki.phalkefactory.net/images/c/c8/Ordeal_Of_Producing_Indigenous_Movies.pdf

3 Samuel L. Schmucker: The Discovery of His Lost Art Jack Davis, Dorothy Ryan, 2001, Olde America Antiques

4http://1900px.com/

5http://www.metropostcard.com/publishersr2.html

6 stationery shop

7 She-Wolf district

8http://www.ecomuseosiena.org/mappa/patrimonio-culturale-materiale/i-libri-contabili-dellarchivio-della-contrada-della-lupa

9https://cartes-postales-nels.com/

10Photograph and photochromy

11http://www.tpa-project.info/html/body_postcard_history.html

12http://www.prentbriefkaarten.info/nenke–ostermaier.html

13https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alexander_Kircher

14 The New Photographic Society

15http://www.metropostcard.com/publishersn.html

16http://www.tpa-project.info/html/body_real_photo_ppc_s.html

17http://www.vejlewiki.dk/index.php?title=Vejle_Turistforening

18http://www.boghandlereidanmark.dk/index.php?id=967&medarbejdernummer=1452&p_mode=medarbejder&cHash=6810777753e5e58788d2b5721b622032

19http://data.bnf.fr/13736447/neurdein_freres_photographes/

20https://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neurdein

21http://www.metropostcard.com/publishersn.html

22 Léon Lévy (qv)http://neurdein.over-blog.com/2013/11/neurdein-une-histoire-familiale-3.html

23 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/American_News_Company

24 https://www.historicnewengland.org/explore/collections-access/gusn/171305/

25http://heritageetal.blogspot.com/2018/01/a-year-in-life-of-new-zealand-graphic.html

26https://teara.govt.nz/en/biographies/2b39/brett-henry

27http://arpa.ucv.cl/postales/cap06.pdf For an alternative version of how he came to have these book shops: Alice & Eiffel: A New History of Early Cinema and the Love Story Kept Secret for a Century Janelle Dietrick BookBaby,14 Feb 2016 especially footnote 173

28https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Valpara%C3%ADso

29Abbreviation for lithograph – printer.

30Paper in Foreign Countries. Vol. XIX. Reports from Consuls of the United States, in answer to instructions from the Department of State 1900

31Picture Postcards and their Publishers Anthony Byatt 1978 Golden Age Postcard Books page 192

32https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Johannes_N%C3%B6hring

33https://nbl.snl.no/Carl_Normann

34https://forleggerforeningen.no/wp-content/uploads/2016/09/Informasjonsbrosjyre.pdf

35 http://le-bibliomane.blogspot.com/2011/12/les-devantures-de-librairies-anciennes_10.html

36https://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nouvelles_Galeries

37https://archive.org/stream/sanfranciscotel1907paci_0/sanfranciscotel1907paci_0_djvu.txt

38https://archive.org/stream/sanfranciscobusi1427sanf/sanfranciscobusi1427sanf_djvu.txt

39Novelty sales?

40http://www.tpa-project.info/html/body_logo_gallery.html

41http://www.tpa-project.info/TPA_21_6.pdf

42http://archiv.sachsen.de/archiv/bestand.jsp?guid=fd7fcc6d-ff0d-4477-aca6-7a1f13d5f8b8

43https://www.brabantsdorpsleven.nl/uitgevers/nuss-co-jos

44http://www.iibf.org.in/documents/Cover_Inside_Pages-Low.pdf