Directory L

Labouche Frères, Toulouse, France

  • Phototypie Labouche freres, Toulouse
  • Labouche freres, imp.-edit., Toulouse
  • Labouche fr., imp.-edit., Toulouse

Labouche frères, publishing house created in Toulouse in 1848, produced collections of postcards from 1900 to 1960. Hector-François Labouche started the business as a printer and was succeeded by his sons, Eugène (1867 to 1938) and Lucien (1864 to 1959) who operated the business from 1900 to 1960. From 1900 the company evolved from printing illustrated documents such as posters towards stationery products and postcards. Their shop in Capitol Square was one of the largest and most modern in Toulouse with printing and storage warehouses behind, in rue Gambetta. In the mezzanine, a room furnished with drawer cabinets housed the stock of postcards. The first postcards date from before 1900, and one of the first series was entitled Sites and Monuments of the Southwest. After that, their undivided backs each had the name of a department of Midi-Pyrenees (Haute-Garonne, Ariège, Hautes-Pyrenees, Gers, Tarn, Tarn-et-Garonne, Lot and Aveyron) or nearby (Pyrénées-Orientales, Aude, Pyrénées-Atlantiques, Lozère)1 as well as a more exact location. The house employed many local artists, the engraver lithographer Mercadier and the photographers Henri Jansou and Amédée Trantoul who are often credited as well as Lucien Labouche himself. Between 1905 and 1939 they produced several tens of thousands of postcards. In the 1930s, Maison Labouche printed tens of thousands of banknote-like vouchers for a group of traders in Nice called Au Confort Moderne – Economic Union of the Coast. In the 1960s, the house reissued facsimiles of some cards. In 1993, after the final closure of the business, the General Council of Haute-Garonne bought the archive, comprising between fifty and sixty thousand documents: postcards, photographs, photographs and documents relating to the company2.

Emile Lacour, Marseilles, France

  • E Lacour, 19, rue Thubaneau
  • E Lacour, 19, rue Thabaneau
  • Phot Lacour
Same number and title but a different photograph

Victor Emile Rosales, known as Emile Lacour (1848 to 1913), phototypist and photographer3. Established in 1873 at 56 rue de Rome, Marseille and then, around 1900, at No. 19 rue Thubaneau, from where he published his postcards. Lacour published divided backs from 19044. In 1910 Lacour sold his photographic collection to publisher-librarian Paul Ruat who re-edited several of his postcards under his own name. Lacour published numbered view cards of Marseille and the Aubagne both as undivided- and divided-back, the former often on blue paper.

Same reverse on both

Lacy, Warwick, England


In the Leamington Spa Courier of 19 December 1896 Henry H Lacy at 8, High Street, Warwick (Telephone No. 16) advertised as Bookseller, Commercial And Fancy Stationer, Account Book Manufacturer, Artistic And General Printer; Books, Music, and Magazines Bound in any Style. He also described the business as (LATE LACY AND SONS) who had published Lacy’s threepenny guide to Warwick and neighbourhood illustrated with numerous engravings: including the Castle, churches and town of Warwick together with Guy’s Cliffe, Gaveston’s monument and every place of interest 32 pages + plates5. In 1912 Lacy published A list of Members of Parliament for Warwick, and for Warwick and Leamington from 18856. The Warwick and Warwickshire Advertiser of 12 November 1938 advertised: H.H.LACY (Prop.: Parker Herbert Son) SAMPLE BOOKS OF PRIVATE CHRISTMAS CARDS NOW READY PLEASE ORDER EARLY AND SAVE LAST MINUTE ANXIETY 8, HIGH STREET Tel. 16

My black-and-white photo card of St Mary’s Church, Warwick was postally used on 10 July 1902.

Paul Lafaye

  • Paul Lafaye

Paul Lafaye, born in Mirande a commune in the Gers department in southwestern France on 15 July 1856, where he was a photographer and where his parents had a bookshop, arrived in Nemours to marry Marie Rosalie Corrieu, a native of that city on 28 August 1882. Some of his pictures are published in postcards by Eyries brothers (qv), publishers in Nemours.


  • Lafayette

Lafayette was founded in Dublin in 1880 by James Stack Lauder, who used the professional name of James Lafayette. The business expanded rapidly and studios were established in Glasgow (1890), Manchester (1892), London (1897), and Belfast (1900).
According to the Lafayette website the majority of negatives from the Dublin studio were destroyed in 1951 – allegedly sold for re-use as glass panelling for green-houses7. His 1899 portrait of Dame Clara Ellen Butt DBE, the world famous English contralto, circulated as postcards both acknowledging his work and not.

E. Landor

  • Raphael Tuck & Sons’ “ART” Series 865 “CAT STUDIES BY CHARLES REID” ART PUBLISHERS TO THEIR MAJESTIES THE KING AND QUEEN Phototyped in Austria Landor’s Cat Studies
This image dates from 1903 and was repeatedly issued as a divided-back. Photographer Charles Reid also produced images of cats for Tucks (notably Series 866) but it is not clear what input he had to the use of this image of Landor’s.

E. Landor was a specialist pet photographer in Ealing, London at the turn of the century. His cat and dog photographs featured in books and on postcards. He produced a quality magazine featuring his work, printed on shiny art paper and with high definition photos.

With effect from 28 October, 1904 Walter Ferris Biggs and Reginald Wellbye (E. Landor), carrying on business in partnership as Photographic Artists, at Nos. 61 and 63, Knightsbridge, London, S.W., under the style or firm of ” E. LANDOR,” had been dissolved by mutual consent. Reginald Wellbye took liability for the partnership debts.

Author and adventurer Arnold Henry Savage Landor was pictured with kittens Kerman and Zeris, with whom he travelled in Across Coveted Lands  a Journey overland from Flushing (Holland) to Calcutta

This image dates from 1903 and was repeatedly issued as a divided-back. Photographer Charles Reid also produced images of cats for Tucks (notably Series 866) but it is not clear what input he had to the use of this image of Landor’s.

Langfier Limited, London

  • Langfier

Louis Langfier joined his nephew Louis Saul Langfier Langfier & Company, 158 Sauchiehall Street, Glasgow in around 1896 and they were named in The Edinburgh Gazette of 14 October 1898, as co-owners of Langfier and the firm in Glasgow. Langfier senior left Scotland in 1899 to set up a London firm, leaving Louis Saul to look after the Glasgow studio. Langfier Ltd was founded on Old Bond Street, London. The firm opened a second branch on Finchley Road, and by the early 1920s, it had about fifty employees. After WWI the studio at 345 Finchley Road and the Hampstead Art Club next door were both run by Albert Elsy a successful portrait photographer. Langfier Ltd went into liquidation during the Second World War8. Langfier’s photograph of Miss Decima Moore featured in many cards including Tuck’s Stage Favourites series.

In 1905 the estates of Louis Saul were sequestrated9.

S. Langsdorf & Company, New York.

  • S.Langsdorf & Co., New York. – Germany

S. Langsdorf & Company, printers and publishers, New York were founded by two German émigré brothers, Samuel and Sigmund Morris Langsdorf. They are listed at 15 Crosby Street and 151 Grand Street according to Trow’s Directories of the Borough of Manhattan and Bronx, City of New York in 1907 and 1908. Samuel’s residence is listed as 1125 Madison Avenue10. Sigmund is recorded as founder and owner of the business in Distinguished Jews of America11 in 1917 where the business was said to be ivory goods and novelties at 72 Spring Street. Sigmund was then more than seventy years old but still at work every day. In 1914 Sigmund is recorded in the list of payments made to the Hebrew Free Loan Society at 108 Second Avenue, New York in 191412. The founders were the father and uncle of Edwin B. Langsdorf, who worked as as designer designer with the Pyramid Company, a division of the company following diversification in the 1920s and incorporation in 192213.

Louis Larger, Paris.

  • Larger, phot

Louis Larger, photographer Paris. François Louis Larger was born in Colmar in 1849. In 1876, he was domiciled 21 Place Saint-Michel in Dijon, address of the photography workshop of Mrs. Emery-Dufour, whose daughter Blanche he married on 15 May 1877. He worked a few years with his mother-in-law in Dijon where he was still living in 1881. He continued his career in Paris in October 1882 by buying the premises of photographer Jean Theodore Jamin at 13 Rue Chapon (3rd arr). In 1884 Larger bought the workshop in Rue St Martin of Jean Théodore Jamin14. In April 1892, Larger, still in Rue Chapon, described himself as a printer as well as photographer15. Larger produced heliotypes of the International Universal Exhibition of 190016. In 1905 produced a number of postcards of Sudan and Volta. More prosaicly, my card CAPRICE No 3501 is a studio photograph of children with a stuffed donkey.

Laroche-Joubert & Company

Angouleme, Nouvelle-Aquitaine, France

  • L-J & Cie Angoulême

The Laroche-Joubert company was founded by Jean-Edmond Laroche-Joubert in 1840. 28 years later he transformed it into a cooperative. The Papeterie coopérative d’Angoulême then included several manufacturing plants, including those of the Escalier (until 1921) and Girac at La Couronne, and two workshops opened in 1843 in Angoulême, avenue de Cognac and rue Leonard-Jarraud. In 1888, a new papermaking unit was added by the purchase of the annex of the Papeterie du Martinet belonging to Laroche frères, located in Basseau, in the commune of Saint-Michel. Cards featured the work of Rubellin père & fils (qv), Smyrne which they seem to have published from Angoulême and Paris.

Latapi y Bert, Mexico

  • Latapi y Bert, Mexico
9 November 1904 SS ???field
Our Noble King’s birthday. May no true Son of Neptune shrink from his guns

In 1899 Latapi & Bert were a household goods business called El Globo (the balloon) selling haberdashery, glassware, bonnets and toys from shops in Mexico City at 8 Calle del Refugio, 25 Coliseo Viejo and 21 Coliseo Viejo. The partners were Fernando Latapi Rangel (1862 to 1929) and film-maker* Enrique Bert. They went into the business of publishing and selling cards and produced about two thousand different cards between about 1903 and 1930. They were both topographical and ethnographical. Some of them were photographs by Carl Wilheim Kahlo (1871 to 1941). They also produced stereoscopic views with a logo of a hot-air balloon including their name and Apartado 922, the Post Office box address from which they issued their cards.

Latapi’s father was the French photographer Eugenio Latapí, His .son Fernando (11 October 1902 to 28 October 1989) became a leading dermatologist.

At Easter in 1926, pioneer Mexican cartoonist Nahui Olin and photographer Antonio Garduño made a study trip to Nautla, Veracruz in a car belonging to Bert, a four-cylinder Templard, so luxurious and expensive that there were only three in Mexico City.

*Bert is also described as especialista de cine – stunt man?

Mme Laurent,

Moulins, Allier, France

  • Mme Laurent, Editeur

Mme Laurent, postcard publisher, Moulins, a commune in central France. Madame Laurent published photo-cards of Bourbonnais, a historic province in the centre of France that corresponds in part to the modern département of Allier.

Lautz & Balzar,

Darmstadt, Hesse, Germany

  • Kunstanstalt Lautz & Isenbeck Darmstadt
  • Kunstanstalt Lautz & Jsenbeck, Darmstadt

Photographer Heinrich Lautz had a number of partners; Lautz & Balzar, Darmstadt published topographical photo-cards of Germany and Netherlands into the divided-back era. They also published the official cards for the XI Jura Feast of Singing on 21 June 1903 in Tavannes in Switzerland and books of photographs for tourists. Firms called Lautz & Isenbeck and Metz & Lautz also published undivided-back cards from Darmstadt. Lautz published a series of volumes of 12 photographs of German towns. At the turn of the century he also published topographical photographs in the carte de cabinet format.

Photography by Lang and Isenbeck was published by Franz Joseph Bronner in 1898. Lautz & Isenbeck published Gruss Aus cards including a lithograph honouring the members of the Club Vosgien which was created on 31 October 1872 in Saverne under the initiative of Richard Stieve, judge at the Court of Saverne in France.

A. M. Laverty & Company,

Bradford, England

  • Laverty & Son, Bradford

A. M. Laverty & Company Limited are wholesale suppliers of religious articles in Otley, West Yorkshire who trace their business back to 1859 when James Laverty established his business in Bradford. The business is now carried on into the fifth generation and no doubt the publication of postcards has been one of many changes and diversifications17. My card features Pope Pius X who was head of the Catholic Church from August 1903 which is late for an undivided back card in the UK.

William Lawrence, Dublin

  • Lawrence, Publisher, Dublin.

On 20 March 1865, at the age of 24, William Mervin Lawrence opened a photographic studio opposite the GPO at Sackville Street, Dublin. Over the years, the studio successfully photographed the length and breadth of Ireland. 40,000 glass plates are now available online as the Lawrence Collection18. They date mainly from the period 1880 to 1914 but some plates go back to 1870. Lawrence was not himself a photographer but an early entrepreneur. He opened his studio in his mother’s toy and fancy-goods shop. At that time there was great interest in studio portraits and he employed a portrait photographer. His brother, John Fortune Lawrence, was taking stereo photographs and William took a keen interest in them and took over the sales. He employed a team of printers and artists (colourists and retouchers). In 1880 when the dry plate process came in, Lawrence employed Robert French as his chief photographer. Lawrence was already publishing view cards by 1900 but his Irish humour cards are most collected19. He is also noted for his motor races series. The similarity of back suggests a link with Wyndham & Company of Acton.

Joseph & Maurice Lazarus,

Maputo, Mozambique

  • J & M. Lazarus, Photographers Box 312, Lourenço Marques 2281-3

The Lazarus Brothers, photographers, 39 Rua Aranjo, arrived in Lourenço Marques in 1899, one of the earliest firms to settle in the Portuguese East African town. The brothers were born in Sunderland, England, in the 1870s. The family left for South Africa sometime in 1880s. Their route to Lourenço Marques might have been influenced by the Transvaal railway line, which had opened in 1895 — the construction of which they had documented — connecting Pretoria with southern Mozambique. In Lourenço Marques, the affluent, international capital of colonial, pre-independence Mozambique, the brothers established one of the first, and most successful, commercial houses of photography. During their time there they concentrated mainly on scenic views, ethnographicals and, later, on fashion photography. By the 1890s, Joseph and Maurice owned a studio in Barberton, a town in the Mpumalanga province. They also operated a studio in Beira, a coastal town in central Mozambique. In 1901 they published an album entitled Souvenir of Lourenço Marques:

Lourenço Marques is unquestionably the most picturesque place in South Africa and one that no traveler to the Cape should fail to visit … The old-time almost romantic aspect of the town, …[its] many palm trees swaying to the will of the wind with dignified condescension… the strange costumes of the cosmopolitan peoples who make up the population and the …buildings…[which are] oriental in architecture. Within the last five years [it] has merged from the chrysalis state of primitiveness into a busy constantly improving town.

The brothers remained for nine years during which time Maurice (otherwise Moses) Lazarus was elected to sit on the inaugural executive committee of the Jewish community20. In 1908 they returned to Lisbon to continue photographic work from a studio in the Rue Ivans21. In 1930 both men received Ordem Militar Sant’Iago da Espada22, an honour given by the President of Portugal for outstanding merit for their work as photographers for the Portuguese Royal household and, later, for the Republic23.

Lourenço Marques was officially renamed Maputo in 1976 and is the capital and most populous city of Mozambique.

Louis Le Bon, Ostende, Belgium

  • Le Bon, edit., Ostende
A Kursaal is a public building at a spa or seaside resort, in which entertainment is provided. It derives from the German for cure and room.

Louis Ferdinand Le Bon, (1856 to 1923), photographer, above the Aquarium, Ostende. Frenchman Le Bon started up in 1877, at first in an annex of the Hôtel de Flandre, later on the corner of Van Iseghemlaan and Louisastraat. In 1893 he had an aquarium built in the vaulted cellars below his studio, one of the first indoor attractions on the coast. He referred to it in advertising the location of the studio, an astute piece of double marketing. In 1899 to 1900 he started a large souvenir shop at 44 Vlaanderenstraat which traded until 1930. In 1888, he opened a branch at 21 Zuidzandstraat in Bruges and he also had a branch in Blankenberge,

Le Bon was primarily a portrait photographer with a large number of sets and props in his studio including a real beach cart, a hot air balloon, flower-decorated wooden fences, a stuffed donkey, the sea, and a beach with real sand. In 1895 he was advertising cartes de visite for 4 and 8 francs. Later, Le Bon offered portraiture both on postcards and postage stamps. Beyond the studio, Le Bon recorded important events and the construction of notable buildings.

Le Bon was a prolific publisher of postcards, the earliest postmarked 1898, many of which were sold from his bazar in the Vlaanderenstraat. Variously-numbered series featured comic and serious bathers, beach, harbour and park views, fishermen and women, net knitters and all the attractions of the resort. His bigger panorama cards were also popular.

All this was not in vain – he retired to a villa in Cannes leaving his son Emile Gaston Le Bon (born 25 November 1883) to continue the business.

Sources: FotoMuseum Provincie Antwerpen: Directory of Belgian Photographers; Ostende de Stad an See

Ernest Le Deley, Paris

  • Héliotypie E. LE DELEY
  • Héliotypie E. LE DELEY, 73, rue Claude-Bernard, Paris
  • Héliotypie E. Le Deley, 73, Rue Claude Bernard, Paris
  • Hélio. E. Le Deley, 73, Paris
  • Breveté déposé24 E.L.D. Paris
  • … Le Deley, Paris

The Parisian printing firm of E. Le Deley, located at 73, rue Claude Bernard, was founded by the photographer Ernest Louis Désiré le Deley (1859 to 1917). The company was a major publisher of heliotype, black-and-white postcards. There are also postcards signed by E. Le D. Paris in 1902, or Elledé, or for the Near East and Turkey, ELD for Le Deley. Coloured postcards were also published as early as 1905 when they were at 127 boulevard Sébastopol and 1 rue Tracy, Paris. Around 1911 Le Deley was publishing real photographs postcards. In the preceding years he made a series of photographs of the archaeological excavations of Carthage (before the festival of 1907) which he also published, in monochrome. He published postcards about the Near East around 1920. Finally, he also published the photographs of Müller, a photographer who also sometimes works for the Neurdein brothers. He finally edited as official-printer some official documents of the Universal Exhibition of Paris in 1900.25. After Le Deley’s death, the firm was run by his sons, but went bankrupt in 1930. Heliotype printing involved exposing a gelatin film under a negative, hardening it with chrome alum, and printing directly from it26. Their undivided-backs included art-work from the Museum of Versailles, the Paris Exposition Universelle in 1900 and a numbered series of tinted images of major London buildings published for the British market.

Lederer & Popper, Prague

  • Lederer & Popper, Prag

Lederer & Popper (Josef Lederer & Rudolf Popper) designed, and probably also produced, black-and-white, coloured, and photomontage picture postcards with stamped embossed lithographic frames. The collection of Prague picture postcards issued by this company is among the most extensive. They are usually marked by L. & P. or L. & P.P. the hand-coloured picture postcards from this renowned company are perhaps executed in the most satisfactory quality of all the picture postcards of old Prague; the hues are usually muted, approaching authenticity27.

Ledermann, Vienna

  • K. Ledermann, Wien I
  • C. Ledermann, Wien I

Karl Ledermann, 12 Fleischmarkt, Vienna 1, was one of several of the Ledermann clan publishing cards in Vienna. C. Ledermann published undivided-backs from the same address. Photographer Paul Ledermann also later published from number 20 of the same street. Karl Ledermann published photocards of East Africa with the mark Lichtdruck K. Ledermann, Wien I28.

Bernhard Lehrburger

Nuremberg, Germany

  • B. Lehrburger, Nurnberg

Bernhard Lehrburger, (died 13 May 1946 aged 76) photographer and postcard publisher, Nuremberg. Lehrburger started business in 1894.

In the 1920s Lehrburger was located in Hochstraße in the Kleinweidenmühle district of tenement houses in the Nuremberg style, classicism and art nouveau. He passed the business to his daughter Renate and her husband Alfred Mainzer. However, in 1936 Lehrburger and his wife, daughter and son in law emigrated to the US, leaving behind their property behind.

Two years after arrival in New York, Alfred Mainzer set up as a card publisher from a rented desk on Fifth Avenue. Their first big break was at the 1939 World’s Fair where they obtained exclusive license for photo cards.
The Fair was overshadowed by the outbreak of WWII but the proceeds allowed them to establish new line of greeting cards,

Lehrburger died in New York leaving behind the next generation of his family importing cards in the languages of German and other refugees from European troubles.

Sources: Pracht über der Pegnitz: Mietspaläste an der Hochstraße

Lili Wronker Family Collection 1842-2002

Frank H. Leib,

Salt Lake City, Utah, USA

The Great Salt Lake, located in the northern part of the U.S. state of Utah, is the largest salt water lake in the Western Hemisphere, and the eighth-largest terminal lake in the world.

Frank H. Leib (1868 to 1943) 247 South Second West, Salt Lake City. He published a numbered series of tinted photo-cards of Utah including one with photos of Brigham Young and 21 wives. In 1903 he presented a complementary Guide to Salt Lake City and Articles of Faith of the Mormon Church which also advertised his Curio Shop at 21 E. Third South Street. In the Salt Lake Tribune of 19 December 1905 Leib advertised Everything NEW – large line toys and Juvenile books in paper and linen in his NEW Store at 336 Main Street, perhaps prompted by the member of staff who had set up on her own and was advertising her own shop in the same journal. Leib appears in the business section of R. L. Polk & Co’s Salt Lake City Directory 1908 with the entry Lieb F. H (post cards), 203 Brooks Arcade29.

The Hugh C Leighton Company, Portland, Maine, USA

  • H.C. Leighton Co., Portland, Me. Manufacturers of Postal Cards.

The Hugh C. Leighton Company, Portland, a printer and major publisher of national view-cards, especially scenes of New England. They printed most of their cards in four distinct styles usually employing tinted halftones. Most of their cards had a subdued but recognizable pallet. While some cards were printed at their plant in the US, most were manufactured in Frankfurt, Germany. Almost all their cards were numbered. They merged with Valentine & Sons in 190930.

Gabriel Lékégian, Cairo

  • Comptoir Philatelique d’Egypte – Alexandrie. – cl31. Lékégian & C.

Gabriel Lekegian (1860 to 1920) was an Armenian photographer who had a studio in Cairo during the latter part of the 19th century32. Active in Egypt and the Middle-East from 1870 to 1890, he left an important body of work, with thousands of images documenting Arab life in Egypt and other North African countries. Some of the best 19th century images of Egypt were produced by Lekegian. Around 1880, Lekegian was based in Constantinople. He moved to Egypt soon after the British established a protectorate there and learned his trade in one of the Armenian or Greek photographic studios Cairo. After establishing his studio in 1887 opposite Shepheard’s Hotel at the heart of Cairo’s European district, Lekegian positioned himself as an artistic photographer, presenting himself and his work as aesthetically superior to his competitors33. Armenians dominated the early photographic industry in Egypt. Lekegian rapidly acquired a reputation for the quality of his work. He won the Gold Medal at the International Photography Exhibition in Paris in 1892, and the Grand Prize at the International Exhibition in Chicago in 1893. As his reputation grew, he turned the area between Qasr al-Nil Street and Opera Square into a golden triangle of Cairo photography. Lekegian became a favoured photographer for Egyptian royalty, many of whom, such as Princess Nazli, had their portraits taken by him. After he was employed as the official photographer of Egypt’s British Army, Lekegian’s business truly prospered. This led to numerous commissions to illustrate books and, uniquely, provide reportage shots on the massive government building operations in the region34. In the early 1920s, Lekegian’s studio mainly concentrated on portraits and producing postcard compilations from his old negatives. It is likely that he shut down the business and retired soon after.

Henri Ferdinand Le Maillot,

Saint-Malo, France

  • Collection H.L.M.

Henri Ferdinand Le Maillot (1866 to 1953) publisher, Saint-Malo35. Archival documents describe Le Maillot as a medium-sized, skinny man with a bilious complexion. He resigned as a teacher after a few months declaring in his letter of resignation that the life was detrimental to his health and that if he did not change his profession he would be continually ill. He enrolled as a member of the Malouine and Servannese Photographic Society in 1900, and became treasurer in 1901. He really began to photograph and publish postcards in 1902. Some of his first shots were published by the editions Germain Fils Ainé (qv). For his own postcards, Le Maillot first used the words Collection HLM, followed by a plumed armour helmet above the initials HLM. He set up his sales store in the courtyard of 8 rue Sainte-Anne with his mother, Victoire Le Maillot in charge. In November 1910, an investigation by the magistrate of the district of Saint-Malo into indecent assaults and pornography ended his career36.

Not to be confused with H. Lecoq et Mathorel of Alençon who used the logo L & M37.

Léon & Lévy, Paris

  • LL.38
  • L.L. Brux
  • L.L.B.

Moyse Léon and Isaac (known as Georges) Levy began as assistants in the Parisian photographic studio Ferrier-Soulier under the Second Empire. They founded their own studio in 1864 and sold prints on albumen paper, mainly stereoscopic prints, signed Léon and Lévy LL. The Léon & Lévy firm took part in the 1867 Universal Exhibition where they won the Emperor’s Gold Medal. In 1874, the Léon and Lévy studio became J. Lévy et Cie, Isaac Georges Levy then being the only company director. On the arrival of Georges Lévy’s two sons in 1895, Ernest and Lucien, the company grew. They had an intense period of activity, editing individually sold prints, compiling tours albums (Spain, Portugal, Morocco, America) as well as postcards, all between 1864 and 1917, when the business came to an end40 with a merger with the Neurdein Brothers (qv) in 191841. Picture Postcard Annual 2020 records a card postmarked 17 May 1905 but this is clearly not near the start. They then publish a large number of postcards known as stereo-cards with the mark “LL” which are bought in series of 12 or 24 views in paper envelopes.

Their postcards were sold at the Arc de Triomphe and topical subjects included the visit of the King and Queen of Italy to Paris on 14 to 18 October 1903 and the arrival at Le Havre of the Glasgow-built steamship Aquitaine on a trans-Atlantic crossing.

E. Lerch, Vienna

  • Phot. u Verlag E. Lerch, Wien

E. Lerch, photographer and publisher, Vienna published photocards of royalty and the region.


Luxeuil-les-Bains, Haute-Saône, France

  • Lessertois-Colas, edit, Luxeuil-les-Bains

Lessertois-Colas, cutlers, Luxeuil-les-Bains dealt in cutlery, swordsticks and novelty metalware, boasting of the their medal-winning. They published excellent photographs of the locality as undivided-backs.

T. F. Leuthall,

Claremont, Cape Town, South Africa

  • T. F. Leuthall, Bookseller & Stationer, Claremont

T. F. Leuthall, Bookseller & Stationer, Claremont. Leuthall’s topographical photo-cards included the widely famous garden of Mr H B (or H M) Arderne, one of the best-known citizens of Capetown. Arderne Gardens is a public park and arboretum established in 1845 by Ralph Henry Arderne, a timber merchant originally from Cheshire, England.

Thomas Lewis

  • Lewis Photo

Thomas Lewis (1844 to 1913) lived in Moor Street, Birmingham, next door to Pickering and Stern, photographic artists. As a schoolboy he must have been fascinated by what he saw. The draped studio relied on a large window, good weather, and clients being punctual to catch the best light. On a stand was the camera, made of wood and possibly of the sliding type, for bellows had achieved little popularity in England by the 1860s. A hand-painted landscape rolled down behind a low, mock garden-wall, and the props of the time stood around: a small Doric column, chairs with headrests to prevent sitters’ heads moving during the long exposure times, and a few tasteful house plants completing the clutter. No doubt Thomas would also peer into the coloured gloom of the darkroom and would catch a smell of candles burning in the safelights. The distinctive pungency of collodion being carefully run across glass plates added a magical touch to the new alchemy. In comparison the prospect of perpetuating his father’s tailoring business seemed just a little dull.

At the age of twenty-five, Lewis opened his first studio, in Moor Street in 1871. A year later he moved to better premises in up-town Paradise Street. This foundered with the increasing overheads the expensive site demanded. Then, for five years, Lewis was a photographer for the famous view-card firm of Frith and Sons(qv). He travelled the whole of Great Britain, and acquired a feeling for views which was to remain with him all through his life. He learned what to include in the scene and what to leave out. In 1879 he set up in business on his own again and this time he succeeded. Lewis photographed many of Birmingham’s expanding industries and became one of the country’s first commercial and architectural photographers along with Bedford le Mare of London and Stewart Bale of Liverpool. In 1894 he moved to 200 Stratford Road, Sparkbrook42.

Charles L’Hôpital & Co, Paris

  • C.L.C.
  • C.L.C. and complex anchor logo with intertwined initials J. D. and a superimposed C on the anchor.

Charles L’Hôpital & Co, was a postcard publishing house founded by Charles L’Hôpital (1873 to 1934) in Paris. The company used the initials C.L.C. and the logo of an anchor. Postcards with these initials are said to have been published between 1905 and 1909 though this is a late start for undivided backs in France and one of mine was postally used in 1904. Their anchor logo was of the associated company J. Duval & Cie. It is possible that one company published photographs of the other company. In 1905, these two companies were assumed by the postcard publishing company E.L.D., founded by Le Deley (qv) which initially retained the anchor as a logo. The firm later moved to 73 rue Claude Bernard43. My cards are all photographs of Paris – monochrome images with two or three digit numbers and hand-coloured images with three-digit numbers. Number 370 was postally used on 8 August 1904, suggesting that the business had by then been producing cards for some time.

A. L’Hoste, Paris

  • L’H., Paris

Nationwide publisher of postcards – at 139 rue Lafayette when publishing divided-backs. L’Hoste was the first secretary44 of the French Union of Illustrated Postcard Publishers45.

The relationship of this publisher to the firm of L’Hoste et Cassegrain who also published undivided-backs in Paris is not clear.

Lichtenstern & Harari, Cairo

  • Lichtenstern & Harari, Commission-Agents, Cairo.
  • Lichtenstern & Harari.
  • L &. H., Cairo.

Lichtenstern & Harari, importers and postcard publishers, Cairo, Egypt. Joseph Max Lichtenstern (born in Vienna on 19 March 1876) moved to Egypt from Vienna in 1893 and took up permanent residence there in 1897. In 1899 he began publishing postcards under the name, Cairo Postcard Trust, but also issued black & white postcards under his own name. Two years later he teamed up with David Harari to form an importing business. They also published postcards. Between 1904 and 1908 they seem to have taken on another partner, changing their name to Lichtenstern, Harari & Co., but they continued to use their original name, Lichtenstern & Harari on postcards. From at least 1911 they published cards with the name L. & H. – The Cairo Postcard Trust, Cairo46. After Harari left in 1912 the firm was sold to Romanian Max H. Rudmann (qv), who had been a publisher from at least 1905. Lichtenstern continued to have some business dealings with Rudmann but, after he returned to Vienna in 1914 for a visit, he ended up serving in the Austrian Army for the duration of World War One47.

Louis Liebenfeld, Stockholm

  • L. Liebenfeld, Stockholm

Louis Liebenfeld, photographer, was born in Germany in 1846. He moved to Stockholm where he published photo-cards of southern Sweden and ships serving it. His output of undivided-backs included images bursting through the pages of a newspaper, in his case the Stockholms Dagblad and Dagens Nyheter. He also published cards of thousand krone notes bursting into view through paper frames. Liebenfeld died of diabetes mellitus in St Erik’s Hospital on 10 September 1924. He was 78.

Karl Liebhardt & Company

Esslingen am Neckar, Baden-Württemberg, Germany

  • Druck u. Verlag von K. Liebhardt & Co., Esslingen,
  • K. Liebhardt, Esslingen a. N.

Karl Liebhardt (22 September 1846 to 11 September 1916) royal court photographer and postcard publisher, Esslingen. Liebhardt founded a photo studio in Stuttgart in 1873 and moved it to Esslingen in 1880. In 1893 he made a five-month trip to the United States to document the Chicago World’s Fair. He brought back over 400 pictures from this trip, which were exhibited in Esslingen and Stuttgart the following year. In 1894 he was appointed royal Württemberg court photographer by King Wilhelm II. Liebhardt also produced catalogues and posters for industry, which is why he added a department for light printing to his business. In 1897 he gave up his studios and devoted himself entirely to printing. The production of postcards by private publishers had been approved in Germany since 1885 and Liebhardt’s business flourished. He started publishing postcards and sold a wide variety, mostly topographicals but also greetings cards and cards for the forces48. In 1909 local architect Albert Benz built a villa on Berkheimer Strasse for Liebhardt49. Earliest recorded use of postcard 6 August 1900.

Gustav Liersch & Company, Berlin

  • GL Co monogram

Gustav Liersch (1865 to 1945) postcard publisher, 16 Friedrichstrasse, Berlin S.W.48. Undivided backs included many photos of glamorous ladies. He published portraits of German royalty and establishment figures into WWI when the firm published a poster of Photographs of paintings and prints depicting the Kaiser and his family, to be sold as Christmas presents.

G Lips, Montreux, Switzerland

  • G Lips edit Montreux GLM
  • G.L.M.

G. Lips, Montreux, Switzerland from at least 1903, a publisher of monochrome and black & white collotype view-cards, some with hand colouring50.

W M Lisle,

Hexham, Northumberland, England

  • Lisle’s New Series

W. M. Lisle, Fore Street, Hexham published local topographical photocards. His New Series were produced by ETW Dennis (qv). In the divided-back era Tuck Glosso cards of Hexham were specially published for Lisle.

Charles Livadas, Cairo.

  • Sold at Mr. Ch Livadas – Cairo.

Charles Livadas, bookseller, Cairo. In 1869 Livadas opened his bookshop The Tourist on Sharia Kamel Pasha de L’Opera in central Cairo, across the street from Shepheard’s Hotel and Cook’s office, a prime spot from which to attract foreign tourists. In the Autumn of 1893, publisher John Murray’s agent in Cairo reported to him that Livadas was promoting Baedecker’s Guides in preference to Murray’s and failing to replace his stock of Murray’s publication. Livadas was still in business during WWI51. Although The Tourist is listed as the business of B. Livadas & Kutsikos in the 1904 edition of Baedecker’s Egypt and the Sudân; handbook for travellers52, a 1915 photograph of his shop shows Chas Livadas as a bookseller, stationer and fine art dealer who also undertook developing and printing Kodak film53. Livadas’ cards were numbered black and white ethnographicals with the photograph taking the whole side of the card and a caption in a sans-serif font that looks rather modern.

Arthur Livingston, New York

  • Arthur Livingston, Publisher, New York. Logo of woman surrounded by eagle, US flag in colour and banner with GREETINGS FROM PICTURESQUE AMERICA

Arthur Livingston of New York was one of the early pioneer postcard publishers in the US, his earliest cards dating from 1897. He produced a wonderful set of cards of Spanish American War naval ships and many views and sets of comic postcards. Livingston’s cards were all numbered in sequence, many issued as Private Mailing Cards. Livingston produced cards until about 190754. The figures in their cards lampooning the St Patrick’s Day Parade are said to have a distinct suggestion of monkey features and the book Making the Irish American: history and heritage of the Irish in the United States specifically discusses Livingston penny postcards in the context of 19th century prejudice against the Irish in America55.

Robert Livingston

Englewood, N.J., USA

  • R. Livingston, Englewood, N.J.

Robert Livingston, (died 19 February 1948 aged 79) stationer, Englewood. He conducted a prosperous stationery business for many years from a shop on the corner of Dean Street and Palisade Avenue, Englewood which he purchased in 1916. Livingston retired from active participation in the stationery business in 1926 and left its management to his son, Robert, Jr.  (or “Bus” as he was called). When the old wooden structure on this site was destroyed by fire in 1936, he erected a modern store and office building, known as the “Livingston Building,” to replace it.

In the spring of 1937, the stationery business known as Robert Livingston, Inc., managed by Robert, Jr., encountered financial difficulty and went into voluntary bankruptcy in June-July. Livingston arranged an advantageous settlement with the creditors and saved the business. Later that year, he made a will in favour of his second wife which was unsuccessfully challenged by his daughter in an ill-advised court action.

August Loeffler, New York

  • C’pyr’t A. Loeffler
  • Copyright, A. Loeffler, N.Y.

August Loeffler (May 1865 to 1946) 90 St. Pauls Avenue56, Tompkinsville, Richmond County, photographer. Loeffler published real photo postcards of his own work and contributed images to cards depicting the Catskills and New York City that were printed by other publishers including Langsdorf (qv), J Koehler (qv), and the Illustrated Post Card Co and Souvenir Post Card Co (qv). He also produced many stereoview cards of the Catskill Mountains. Loeffler’s father was emigre photographer John Loeffler, a leading photographer who had established a studio on Bay Street in Tompkinsville around 1860. His speciality was portrait photography, although he also made hundreds of stereophotographs of the Catskills in the 1870s and early 1880s while he served as the official photographer for the Mohonk Mountain Lodge. August succeeded his father in the family firm. He became a noted photographer of cityscapes, buildings, and maritime views, whose work was published in books, newspapers, magazines, and postcards in the late 1890s and early 1900s57. On 2 December l884 Loeffler filed a patent application a new and useful improvement in instantaneous shutters for photograph-lenses.

Christian Lohmann,

Kronberg in Taunus, Hesse, Germany

  • Verlag Christian Lohmann, Buch-u.Papierhandlung, Cronberg

Christian Lohmann, bookbinding, book and paper shop, Cronberg. Lohmann founded his shop in 1895. They also sold hats, caps, cravats, umbrellas and sticks, fashion accessories for men, women and children, leather goods, cigars, cigarettes, tobacco, declaring Only first quality brands58. Most relevantly, they traded as postcard publishers and in souvenirs of Cronberg.

Luigi Loir,

  • LUIGI LOIR signature in the painting, the surname above the first name with the first initials intertwined.

Luigi Aloys-François-Joseph Loir, (1845 to 9 February 1916) was a French painter, illustrator and lithographer. His parents were the valet and housekeeper of the French royal family in exile in Austria59. Loir moved with his family and the Bourbons to the Duchy of Parma in 1847. In 1860 his family returned to Paris following the expulsion of the Bourbons from Parma, but Loir remained in the city, having had enrolled, at the age of eight, at the Accademia de Belle Arti. He eventually rejoined his family in Paris in 1863. There he studied with the decorative painter and set designer Jean Pastelot, making his Salon debut in 1865. He painted mainly views of Paris, in all seasons and at different times of the day or night. Loir’s interest in the urban cityscape remained a constant of his career and it was as a painter of the modern urban Paris of the latter half of the 19th century that Loir was best known. In fact, it was said that he created Parisianism as a genre. Loir also worked as a commercial graphic artist and illustrator, theatrical and poster designer, book illustrator and lithographer. He continued to exhibit at the Salons until 1914, also winning a gold medal at the Exposition Universelle of 1889, and was commissioned to design the cover of the official catalogue of the Exposition Universelle of 1900. A member of both the Société des Aquarellistes and the Société de Peintres-Lithographes, as well as a jury member of the Société des Artistes Français and the Société des Arts Décoratifs, Loir rose to a position of some prominence in the Parisian art world. Paintings by Loir are today in the Musée d’Orsay among others60. My undivided-backs of major Paris sights were issued by P.G. Huardel & Co of London (qv).

Gustave Loireau

Beaune, Cote-d’Or, France

  • G. Loireau, libraire a Beaune
The Hospices de Beaune or Hôtel-Dieu de Beaune is a former charitable almshouse in Beaune, France. It was founded in 1443 by Nicolas Rolin, chancellor of Burgundy, as a hospital for the poor. The original hospital building, the Hôtel-Dieu, one of the finest examples of fifteenth-century Burgundian architecture, is now a museum. Services for patients are now provided in modern hospital buildings.

Gustave Loireau, bookseller and publisher, 4 rue Maufoux, Beaune published non-fiction books between at least 1896 and 1910. Loireau’s output included four editions of Alfred Contour’s Le Cuisinier Bourguignon: Nouveau Livre de Cuisine Pratique, a book of regional recipes. He published L’Abbe J. Maitre’s study of the prophecies of St. Malachy during and after the papacy of Alexander VII (1901) and other similar works. His postcard output was local photocards.

Paolo Lombardi, Siena, Italy

  • Foto Lomardi – Siena.

Paolo Lombardi (1827 to 1890 ) photographer, Siena. Siena-born Lombardi started work as a professional photographer in 1849 and by 1860 had his own studio at Costarella from which he produced portraits, local artwork and landscapes of Siena and its surroundings. His work gave rise to a collection of over 3000 negatives.
He took part in the Sienese provincial exhibition of 1862, the Paris exhibition of 1867, the Vienna exhibition of 1873 and in 1887 the first photographic exhibition in Florence organized by Giacomo Brogi. In Florence he exhibited a reproduction of the floor of the Siena Cathedral in platinotypical plates, a hugely impressive and expensive exercise.
One of the most famous images of Giuseppe Garibaldi was made by Lombardi in August 1867. Garibaldi was taken to his studio in Costarella, a stone’s throw from Piazza del Campo, to take the photo. The studio was located on the top floor of an ancient building, with steep stairs to get there. Garibaldi, suffering from the painful arthritis that had afflicted him for some time, was unable to climb the 110 steps and so his followers invented a sort of sedan chair to carry him up the stairs by applying poles to an armchair.
His son Galileo continued his father’s business, followed by his nephews. In 1914 the photographer Ghino Cesarini (1884 to 1959) took over from the Lombardis until 1935, when the Istituto Luce bought the Lombardi archive of 3745 plates.

Source: UNICOOPFIRENZE Discovering Siena

The London Stereoscopic Company


The London Stereoscope Company was established in 1854, at 313 Oxford Street, with George Swan Nottage as Managing Partner. Their business was selling stereo views and viewers to the public, and they were leaders in a boom which swept England, Europe, and eventually the United States too, of stereo photographs of every conceivable subject, which, viewed by means of a stereoscope, presented scenes in life-like three dimensions. In February 1856, the London Stereoscopic Company (LSC) advertised in the Photographic Journal the largest collection in Europe, upwards of 10,000 stereo views. When the stereo card craze faded in the late 1860s, the company appears to have continued to do a healthy business, catering for the newer fashion for cartes de visite, but this too was fading by 1870. The company subsequently diversified into many areas with a global network of offices and staff photographers, selling and licensing images, cameras, equipment, papers and plates. This clearly included postcards. The company was finally dissolved in 1922 but has been revived in the hope of publishing stereo cards again61. My photocard of Trafalgar Square also credits J. J. Keliher & Co (qv) for the typogravure.

Löwenstein & Formstecher, Berlin

  • O.P.F. Berlin
  • OPF in a trefoil

Löwenstein & Formstecher were the business behind the Osnabrück Paper Factory which they used in marketing their postcards. Lea Formstecher of 2 Lankwitzstrasse SW (born Löwenstein 5 October 1833) married Jules Auguste Formstecher on 14 July 1858 in Munster Stadt, Westfalen, Germany and may have had something to do with this business though her dates are rather early for the postcard development.

Lowman & Hanford Stationery & Printing Company, Seattle

  • Lowman & Hanford S & P Co., Seattle

The Lowman & Hanford Stationery and Printing Company, later the Lowman & Hanford Company, was a printing company and retail stationery business operating in the Pioneer Square area of Seattle beginning around 1885. James Lowman and Clarence Hanford were business and civic leaders in early Seattle, each with ties to Seattle’s pioneer settlers. James D. Lowman (1856 to 1947) was born in Maryland and arrived in Seattle in 1877 at the invitation of his uncle, founding Seattle settler and sawmill owner Henry Yesler. Lowman worked as assistant wharf master on Yesler’s wharf for four years, using his savings to purchase a half interest in the book store owned by W.H. Pumphrey in 1881, and buying out his partner two years later. Clarence Hanford (1857 to 1920) was a Seattle native, the youngest son of Washington Territory pioneers. When Hanford was 13, he began learning the printing trade at the office of the Seattle Post-Intelligencer, which was published by his older brother, Thaddeus Hanford, eventually becoming foreman of the printing department. Hanford later bought out the job-printing department and established a job-printing office with a partner, J.H. McClair, in 1879, buying out McClair’s interest in 1881. Around 1885, J.D. Lowman and Clarence Hanford consolidated their stationery and printing businesses into the Lowman & Hanford Stationery and Printing Company, with Lowman as President and principal stockholder, and Hanford as vice-president and manager of the printing and bookmaking department. The firm advertised as booksellers, stationers, printers and binders but also sold typewriters, sewing machines, pianos and organs. The new company added large presses and printed all the city’s newspapers until their establishment was destroyed in the Great Fire of June 1889. The company returned to the burnt district after the fire, probably in temporary quarters at first, then building both the Lowman & Hanford Printing and Binding building (now the Washington Park Building) on Washington Street, along Railroad Avenue (now Alaskan Way), which they moved into in 1890, and the Lowman & Hanford building at 616 First Avenue, designed by Emil De Neuf. Within months of the fire, they had erected and operated in the first two floors of the latter building, continuing operations during construction of the upper floors. The four-storey building was completed in 1892, with three more upper floors added around 1902. Immediately next door, the 10-storey Lowman Building at 107 Cherry Street was completed in 1906. These two buildings, along with the Howard Building and the Pioneer Building, form the eastern edge of the area’s original public square. Judging by entries in city directories, the retail store appears to have gone out of business in the 1960s, with the printing company ceasing operations some years earlier62.

Josef Löwy, Vienna

  • Heliogr. V. J. Löwy, Wien

Josef Löwy (16 August 1834 to 24 March 1902) was a painter, publisher, manufacturer and court photographer. Bratislava-born Löwy moved to Vienna in 1848, where he learned to lithograph. He then studied in the painting class at the Vienna Academy. A camera received as a gift in 1855 led him to photography63. In 1861 he joined the Photographic Society in Vienna and, in 1864, he participated in the First Photographic Exhibition in Vienna. From 1872 he was engaged in the light printing process and he founded a studio for industrial photography in the Landstraße district of Vienna. In 1873 Löwy became a member of the Viennese Photographers Association, which was founded on the occasion of that year’s Vienna World Fair. This had the concession for the production of pictures in the exhibition for which Lowy was appointed court photographer. The main topics of his photography were portraits, Viennese architecture, art and nude photography. His company was continued by his widow Mathilde Löwy and taken over in 1908 by his nephew Gustav Löwy under the name Kunstanstalt J. Löwy64.

Hermann Ludewig, Leipzig

  • Kunstanstalt Hermann Ludewig, Leipzig-R

Otto Robert Hermann, printer, 29 Thalstrasse, Leipzig. Ludewig published postcards from the early Gruss aus style. Ludewig was in business before 1900 and used both processes, letterpress and lithography, he appears to have avoided the typical, popular then chromolitho “Greetings from…” cards. The business moved 50 Schoenbachstrasse on 29 October 1906 where from May 1907 the postcard publisher Trinks & Co. also was. Ludewig specialised almost entirely on picture postcard printing. Some of his undivided-backs boasted Autocolor. He is said to have employed up to 100 people during the boom years but by late 1910 it had dropped to 60 to 70. In 1924 the business was taken over by well known local printing company Guenther, Kirstein and Wendler. Both firms were now fat 50 Schoenbachstrasse and the business continued under the name Hermann Ludewig. Besides picture postcards, the company concentrated on catalogue and colour printing in general.


Ludwigsohn Freres, Istanbul

  • Ludwigsohn Freres, Place Karakeuy 21, Constantinople

Ludwigsohn Freres, postcard publishers, 21 Place Karakeuy, Constantinople, published topographical photo-cards into the divided-back era. Jacques and A Ludwigsohn also published postcards from the same address in their own names. Jacques Ludwigsohn published an album of 36 photos of Constantinople with captions in three languages. Many of their cards were produced by Mehner and Maas of Leipzig (qv)65. About 1909, the company was one of the postcard manufacturers that joined the price cartel Neue Bromsilber Convention (NBC) with the aim to have guaranteed minimum prices and fixed terms and conditions to avoid ruinous competition. The cartel continued until the early 1930s and its president was Heinrich Ross from Rotograph Bromsilberdruck GmbH, Berlin66.

P & D Lyle

Dalkeith, Midlothian, Scotland


P & D Lyle, publishers, stationers and printers, Dalkeith produced family pictures on postcards for use as Christmas cards. Professional Dalkeith photographer, Thomas Wallace is known to have supplied photographs for use on postcards67. Between 1887 and 1894, Lyles printed and published Dalkeith District Directory and Household Almanac. In 1912 they published Around Dalkeith: And Camp Meg by John Charles Carrick.

William Lyon, Glasgow, Scotland

  • TRADE MARK above quartered shield: L.G
  • TRADE MARK above quartered shield: L.G THE “PREMIER” SERIES
  • quartered shield: L.G

Founded by William Lyon68. when he was only 23 years old, the company prospered and, by 1885, there was the shop at 385 Sauchiehall Street, a printing works at number 474 Sauchiehall Street and a retail branch in the Argyll Arcade69. In 1898 a telephone was in use at the factory. He published Popular Songs Illustrated and Popular Novels Illustrated, the latter including Hound of the Baskervilles by Sir Arthur Conan Doyle in 1903.

The summer of 1901 saw the second of the great International Exhibitions at Kelvingrove. The catalogue for this exhibition lists Lyon as a guarantor to the organisers for the sum of £100 and he published many cards of the event. His business was then described as Manufacturers of Christmas, Menu, Visiting, Wedding and Invitation Cards, Ball Programmes, Pictorial Postcards, Fancy Stationery etc.(Wholesale & Export)70. Lyon’s British Patriotic series featured Kaiser Wilhelm I71. Byatt says his undivided backs (1900 to 1902) were his finest work72. Picture Postcard Annual 2020 records a card, a view of Dumbarton, postmarked 6 September 1898. Lyon published comic cards by the artist G.F.Christie and a Christmas card by Glasgow artist Broadfoot Carter.











11A Collection of Biographical Sketches of Jews who Have Made Their Mark in Business, the Professions, Politics, Science, Etc,








19Picture Postcards and their Publishers Anthony Byatt 1978 Golden Age Postcard Books page 151



22 Order of St. James of the Sword


24Patent filed







31Cliché – photo





36 Chmura Sophie, “The reverse of postcards, editions of the HLM helmet”, postcards from Rennes or elsewhere, 5 September 2014



39 New Photographic Printing






45 La Chambre Syndicale des Éditeurs Français de la Carte Postale Illustrée (“CPI”) created in 1904, becoming, in 1906 the Union Chamber of Postcard and Photoengraving

46The Postcard Album no 14 page 5





51 Archaeologists in Print: Publishing for the People Amara Thornton UCL Press, 25 Jun 2018 page 131







58Hans Schmidt Collection 1897-1998














72Picture Postcards and their Publishers Anthony Byatt 1978 Golden Age Postcard Books page 159